Research Papers on History U.S.

Click on any of the research paper to read a brief synopsis of the paper. The essay synopsis includes the number of pages and sources cited in the paper.

 

Research Papers on History U.S.

Click on any of the term papers to read a brief synopsis of the research paper. The essay synopsis includes the number of pages and sources cited in the paper.

  • History and Traps

    (3 pp) Author, James Baldwin claims that, 'James Joyce is right about history being a nightmare—but it may be the history from which no one can awaken. People are trapped in history and history is trapped in them.' Malcolm X and Elie Wiesel are used as examples as well as the writer's personal history. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • The Importance of Women's History

    A 5 page research paper that examines why women's history should be studied; how history is gendered in traditional historical approaches; and why women's history is important to feminists, and also some interesting facts about women's history. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • 'The History Book' and School Textbooks on History

    This 4 page paper considers how “The History Book” may present a different picture of history compared to the history which is usually found in school history books. The approach is then applied to modern events such as the Iraq war. The bibliography cites 4 sources.

  • A History of Special Education in the US

    An 8 page research paper that relates the history of special education. The structure of this history of special education first looks at the field earliest beginnings, which addresses how early special education innovators developed this field. However, the reality of history is also that there was resistance to the very idea of special education for severely mentally handicapped children and this is also addressed before moving on to the recent history of special education in the US and conclusions. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • 'Fur Trade History as an Aspect of Native History' by Arthur J. Ray Summarized and Critiqued

    This is a 3 page paper discussing Arthur J. Ray’s article “Fur Trade History as an Aspect of Native History”. Arthur J. Ray’s article “Fur Trade History as an Aspect of Native History”, presents the reader with an alternative perspective in regards to the fur trade and the relationship between the Natives and the Europeans in early Canadian history. While Ray does not deny the Europeans exploited the Natives throughout history, he nevertheless presents an argument which suggests the possibility that the Natives were not “unintelligent” in their trading methods and indeed controlled a great deal of the competition and the quality of the merchandise traded through the Hudson’s Bay Company. Ray presents good examples and documentation from the 18th century which provides good evidence for his argument, however economically it is clear that despite the important roles the Natives played in the onset of the process, the Europeans nevertheless overcome the influence of the Natives negating most of the argument proposed by Ray. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • Connection Between Biography and History

    This 5 page paper provides an overview of the correlation between history and biography, as demonstrated in a comparison between aggregate and individuals perspectives. This paper considers elements like cultural relativism as it applies to an understanding of collective history, experiential history and biography. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie's HIstory Writing

    A 3 page paper that begins by commenting on the changes in writing history, specifically, the change to the Annales school and Braudel's total history schema. The essay then discusses Ladurie's Montaillou: The Promised Land of Error. The writer discusses how Ladurie uses the total history approach as well as the scientific approach supported by von Ranke. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • Historical Theories of Auguste Comte and Karl Marx

    A 5 page research paper that contrasts and compares the theories that Marx and Comte developed regarding history. The writer argues that these theories were radically different because each looked at a different aspect of human development across history. Marx's theories concerning history dealt with the economic connection between society and the means of production. Comte's theories, on the other hand, dealt more with the way in which a society perceives reality. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • The Heritage Crusade And The Spoils Of History by David Lowenthal

    5 pages in length. David Lowenthal's primary objective in "The Heritage Crusade and the Spoils of History" is to illustrate the inherent separation, as well as the inextricable cohesion, of heritage, history and contemporary society. The author strives to enlighten his readers to the inadequacies of conventional thought pertaining to heritage, noting that while heritage is, indeed, interwoven with history, it is also reinvented throughout modern-day society by way of new icons, such as Disney World and other pertinent symbols of the twentieth century. No additional sources cited.

  • Graphic Arts and its History

    This 28 page report discusses graphic art in terms of its development, its history, and where it will go in the future. In considering the future of graphic arts, it can be remarkably instructive to look at its history and how it has governed its developed. Both the history and potential future of graphic art are looked at in the report. Bibliography lists 20 sources.

  • Viewing US History Differently

    A 5 page summary and analyzes of a history text by Dinnerstein, Nichols, and Reimers, Natives and Strangers (1979) which is probably one of the first efforts at inclusion and acknowledgment of diversity in regards to US history. The writer argues that to a large degree, the authors achieved their goal, as this text offers a survey of American history that stresses the contributions of minorities and also the perspective of minorities toward the events that led to the founding of the United States. No additional sources cited.

  • History of Chinese Art

    10 pages in length. Chinese art history is both vast and comprehensive, spanning centuries and encompassing myriad formats. When one examines Chinese culture as it relates to art history, one can readily surmise that artistic endeavor is not merely superficial filler, but rather an integral component to the overall existence of Asian heritage. The writer discusses calligraphy and feng shui as they relate to Chinese art history. Bibliography lists 11 sources.

  • History's Origin According to Ernst Breisach

    This 2 page paper provides an overview of the central perspectives of Ernst Breisach in his Historiography: Ancient, Medieval & Modern as they relate to the origins of history. This paper demonstrates the link between the perspectives of the earliest known historians, Herodotus and Thucydides, also known as the father and grandfather of history, and the modern views of the process through which history is conveyed. No additional sources cited.

  • The History of Pilates

    A 3 page paper on the history and creation of Pilates. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Jazz Music and its History

    A 4 page paper which examines the history of Jazz music. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • History of Latin Literature

    A 5 page paper which examines the history of Latin literature. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • United Kingdom and Developments in its Mass Media History

    A 5 page paper which examines the history of significant developments in mass media within the UK. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Japan and U.S. Second World War Occupation

    (6 pp) This discussion is prompted by class questions concerning early Japanese religion and history to the United States Occupation Period of World War II.

  • Second World War and Its Chronological History

    An 8 page paper which examines the chronological history of WWII. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Eye on the Future Business People in Calgary and the Bow Valley, 1870-1900 by Henry C. Klassen

    A 6 page review of Eye on the Future: Business People in Calgary and the Bow Valley, 1870-1900 by Henry C. Klassen (University of Calgary Press, 2002). This text consists of a detailed, comprehensive and highly accurate account of the business history of the Alberta region of Canada, with particular emphasis on the development of the town of Calgary. Klassen's history covers the early stages of industrialization through the beginnings of consumerism from a business history perspective. The scholarship behind Klassen's book is so extensive that, as this examination demonstrates, it can be viewed as coming close to being an anthropological study of the varied factors that come together to create a city and shape the course of history for a region. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • History Plays of William Shakespeare

    An 8 page research paper that discusses Shakespeare's ten history plays constitute a substantial portion of his canon. The main body of these plays cover the years 1398 to 1485, with two additional plays, King John and Henry VIII, forming, respectively, a prologue and an epilogue to this period (Sen Gupta 55). These eight plays offer a survey of English history that begins in the last years of the reign of Richard II and end with the death of Richard III. The following survey of Shakespeare's history plays looks at where they fit in the Shakespeare's conception of English history and their historical accuracy. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • An Overview Perspective of Quebec

    A 4 page overview of Quebec's natural resources, her history, her people, and the current move towards independence for Quebec. The author asserts that Quebec has managed to maintain her cultural and linguistic uniqueness throughout Canadian history and she can continue to do so as a productive, yet distinct, part of Canada. Bibliography cites 6 sources.

  • UK Immigration History

    A paper which looks at the history of immigration to the UK, the history of London and its development as a multicultural city, and at Iraqi migration patterns, past and present, to the UK.

  • Wedding Dress History

    A 7 page paper which examines the history of the wedding dress. The focus is predominantly on the history of the Western wedding dress. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • West Misperceptions of the History of East Asia

    A 5 page research paper that argues that the traditional orientation of Western historians toward East Asian history is deceptive and inadequate. The writer then argues that thesis of Edward Said in Orientalism can be applied to the Far East and examples are drawn from Chinese history to support this argument. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Websites on Black History and Information Verification

    A 5 page research paper that contrasts and compares sites on black history. An Internet site entitled "History Notes" lists numerous articles by Runoko Rashidi. Two of these articles were selected for comparison with other Internet sites for verification of information and to discern if contradictions exist between the articles selected and other Internet sources. The two articles chosen were "Ancient Africa and Early Rome" and "The Moors in Europe." Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • The History of Traditional Mexican Cuisine

    A 7 page research paper that examines the history of Mexican food and specifically, the history of several traditional dishes, such as enchiladas, tacos, and salsa. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Overview of the NFL's Dallas Cowboys

    This 7 page report discusses the history if one of the best known and most flamboyant of all teams in the history of the National Football League -- The Dallas Cowboys. The team has been described as one of the great American sports dynasties and yet it has had to deal with countless criticisms for having such a distinction. They have been called the “Yankees of football,” “America’s team,” and always with a bit of tongue-in-cheek “God’s team.” Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • The Contribution to American History and Jewish American History by Henry Kissinger

    A 5 page paper which examines the life and contributions of Henry Kissinger to Jewish American history and American history in general. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Sneakers and Their History

    This 5 page paper discusses the history of tennis shoes. This paper examines specifically the history of walking shoes from the 1900's to the 1940's. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Disputes and Western Civilization History

    A 3 page paper which examines whether the disputes of Western Civilization were fought because of conflicts over territory or ideas. The works cited are Margaret L. Mead’s “Western Civilization: A Social and Cultural History” and Jackson J. Spielvogel’s “Western Civilization: A Brief History.” No additional sources cited.

  • History Texts' Depiction of Native Americans

    This 8 page paper evaluates a variety of American history books and focuses on how Indians are portrayed. Many texts ar mentioned. It is noted that there is still scant information on Native Americans in all history books in a variety of decades. Bibliography lists 11 sources.

  • History and Implications of Medicare's Managed Care

    A 5 page paper discussing the history of Medicare managed care, economic implications and outlook for the future. The paper focuses on the history of the Medicare managed care, which saw its greatest growth throughout the decade of the 1990s. Medicare managed care has as much difficulty as other types of HMOs, however, and many are ceasing operations. This leaves seniors in a pool of uncertainty as increasing numbers of physicians turn away Medicare patients. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • American Popular Foods History

    This 6 page paper delves into the history of food in general, but explores American favorites like soda, the hamburger and French fries. A brief food time line to denote the history of all foods is included. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • The History of Accounting and its Career Benefits

    This 6-page paper examines the history of the accounting profession and explains why someone might choose accounting as a career based on its history. The essay discusses accounting in ancient times, as well as the first chartered accountant group and double-entry bookkeeping. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Traffic Signals and Their History

    In the history of rural America the growth of a town was often measured by the addition of traffic light. The distinction was even made whether your town merited a blinking light, or the genuine three-color article. Yet the traffic signal itself has its own unique history, current contributions, and future significant role, will be the basis of this 5 page discussion. Biblioography lists 4 sources.

  • Haunting and its History

    7 pages. This paper examines the history of amusement park haunted houses, as well as those that become popular during the Halloween season. A history of Halloween is given which will help to explain why people enjoy being scared out of their minds and even pay to do so. Bibliography lists 15 sources.

  • Multimedia and Communications' History

    This 20 page paper provides an overview of the history of communications leading up to and including multimedia. Various aspects are discussed inclusive of the history of video and audio communications and the way in which computer technology has affected the lives of ordinary individuals. The transitions over time are explored and a historical perspective is provided. Finally, the paper takes a look at how the media as a form of communications has affected the world. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • Analyzing 'The History Man' by Malcolm Bradbury

    This is a 10 page paper analyzing Malcolm Bradbury’s “The History Man”. “The History Man” (1975) by Malcolm Bradbury was considered by many an introduction to a new genre called “the campus novel”. The novel explored the academic and personal life of the main character, Howard Kirk, and his colleagues and students as the charismatic teacher taught his sociological perspectives on life and developed a certain scoundrel reputation as a manipulative and exploitive instructor in the satire fun-filled novel. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Cultural Understanding and the Reflections of Photography

    An 8 page discussion of the value of still photography and film in cultural research. The author contends that cultural history, a subcategory of both anthropology and history, is indeed replete with examples of the value of these mediums in preserving culture in a visual format. It is emphasized that this value is not exclusive to the use of photography as a documentary tool by the researcher but that instead it encapsulates the use of film produced by the culture itself. Asserts that both documentary and fictional film can be of tremendous research value.

  • Cooperative Learning, History, and Reading

    A 5 page paper discussing learning the subject of history by incorporating content reading and cooperative learning into the curriculum. By combining the various methods and approaches to learning, the student can expect to gain much more valuable information out of history, a subject often confined to lectures. The content area reading method is discussed and defined, as is the method of cooperative learning. Bibliography lists 6sources.

  • Louisiana Purchase

    A 3 page paper which examines the history and legacy of the Louisiana Purchase which is considered to be one of the most important land deals in the history of the nation. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • American Appeal of Blues Music

    This 6-page paper focuses on blues music, its history (and how it has depicted American history) and its never-ending appeal. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Marijuana Propaganda verses Fact

    This 9 page paper explores the history and legality of marijuana as it exists in the twenty-first century. Admittedly, the anti marijuana stance that has existed for most of our history is attributable to considerably misunderstanding and a propaganda campaign by the US government yet the relative plusses and minuses of marijuana are still being weighed out. Bibliography lists 9 sources. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • Life's Service and Disservice According to Friedrich Nietzsche

    This 6 page paper talks about Nietzsche's essay entitled History in the Service and Disservice of Life. The ideas are related to modern philosophy. The concepts are further compared with Greek philosophy. Concepts regarding history and its importance are discussed in general. No additional sources cited.

  • Russian History's Inconsistencies and Dichotomies

    This 5 page paper looks at the history of Russia with a focus on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The attitudes that created dichotomies and the nation's inconsistent policies are explored. The history of this nation is tied in to the state of affairs today. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Unique U.S. Southern State of Louisiana

    This 4 page paper examines the history of Louisiana and looks at its place in Southern history. What is different about Louisiana is discussed as well as what is the same. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • A Review of of Beloved by Toni Morrison

    A 5 page paper which discusses how Toni Morrison's "Beloved" presents us with the ghost of Beloved as a symbol of individual history and the collective history of a people. Bibliography lists 1 additional source.

  • American Historical Contributions of Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson, and Benjamin Franklin

    A 7 page discussion of the historical contributions of these three men. While it is easy to look at history as dry fact, when we consider these facts on an individual basis, history comes to life. A review of the contributions and personal characteristics of each of these men allows us to make a connection between America’s past and the present. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Failure of Afghanistan's Humanitarian Aid

    A 10 page overview of the history of humanitarian aid in Afghanistan. This paper contends that while there are indeed people living in sub-human conditions and even starving to death in some instances, very little of our aid gets through to the needy and what does is often received with suspicion and hatred. The reasons for our failure can be attributed to the history of the interworkings between this country and the countries which are trying to assist it. Bibliography lists 20 sources.

  • A History of American Organized Crime

    A 15 page research paper that offers a history of organized crime in the US. The writer follows this history from Prohibition to the current day, concentrating on the career of Lucky Luciano, and arguing that the influence of the Mafia has declined in recent years, as Asian and Latin American gangs have gained ascendancy. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Disco Music and History

    A 3 page paper which examines whether disco music was a result of history or rather influenced history. No sources cited.

  • Male Historians and the Challenges of Women's History

    This 4 page paper considers the issue of a feminist approach to history. Joan Kelly-Gadol's essay Did Women Have a Renaissance, published in Becoming Visible: Women in European History, directly relates to the question of the emerging approach of female historians. Female historians, after reflecting on the traditional narratives of male dominated societies, have recognized that women essentially had no voice in the past. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • Pivotal Historical Point of the 1789 French Revolution

    A 5 page research paper that argues the position that the French Revolution of 1789 was a pivotal point in history. In other words, everything that had occurred in recent world history led up to and influenced the coming of the French Revolution and then the Revolution influenced everything that came afterward. Examination of this topic shows that there is a great deal of validity to the position that the French Revolution was the most significant historical event of this era. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Tokugawa Period of Japanese History

    An 11 page paper which examines to what extent the Tokugawa Period in Japanese history was a history of rapid and extensive urbanization. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • History, Brands, and Product Life Cycles

    This 4 page paper considers why a brand with a long history, or the perception of a long history may not be as successful as a more up to date brand. The paper considers the role of the product or brand lifecycle and the impact historical association may have on a brand and the need for brand renewal. Examples are cited to illustrate the points raised. The bibliography cites 4 sources.

  • History of Mexico and Mesoamerican History's Role

    A 5 page paper which examines how Mesoamerican history is an important element in understanding Mexican history. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • History of California and the San Luis Obispo de Tolosa Mission

    In 11 pages, the author discusses the history of the mission San Luis Obispo de Tolosa and how it helped to shape California's history. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • History of Europe

    A 9 page paper which addresses there specific topics in European history. The paper examines why Britain's attempts to colonize America were unsuccessful, John Locke contribute to the development of a progressive theory of history, and the similarities and differences between British and French colonization. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • A History of Nationalism in Russia

    A 4 page research paper that examines the topic of Russian nationalism from an historical point of view. The writer argues that by examining the history of Russian nationalism, it is possible to gain insight into the continuing role that Russian nationalism has played throughout Russian history and particularly in regards to how it contributed to the fall of the Soviet Union. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • The Straight Path by John Esposito

    A 5 page book review of John Esposito's The Straight Path, which the writer describes as an easily readable, comprehensive historical introduction to the study of Islam that provides the student with a thorough grounding in Muslim theology, politics and law. By discussing Islamic history within a cultural context, Esposito provides insight into why the Muslim world developed as it did. By offering a means to understand Islamic history, Esposito also aids his readers in understanding the Islamic world of the present. No additional sources cited.

  • Impressionism/Music & Art

    A 5 page research paper that discusses the relationship between impressionist music and painting. Art and music have always developed in parallel with one another throughout the course of history (Impressionism). The impressionism of the late nineteenth century, which originated in France, exemplifies this principle as impressionist music and art are closely related. This examination of impressionism in music demonstrates the close relationship that the development of this genre of music history had with painting of the same era. Bibliography lists 12 sources.

  • Literal Interpretation of the Old Testament

    A 4 page research paper that presents some objections to the concept that the Bible is literally true, as dictated directly to the Hebrews by God. The writer argues that even a brief examination of the history of the Bible demonstrates the illogic of believing the Old Testament as literally true. Furthermore -- even if one believed that the original Hebrew scripture was divinely inspired -- this history also demonstrates the multiple translations that scripture has undergone. The implications are discussed. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Hebrew History and Yahweh

    Yahweh : A 5 page paper. The name Yahweh is not used in all Christian Bibles, nonetheless, the term has a history that dates back to the Old Testament. This paper discuses the use of the term in one Christian Bible and the need for the term Yahweh in Hebrew history. The writer also discusses the use of the terms 'jealous God' and 'angry God.' Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • 1960s' Countercultures

    This 11 page paper explores counter culture in the 1960s with a focus on how various disciplines treat the time period. History, art history and music are three areas discussed in depth. The mainstream culture is also looked at. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • A History of the Tabernacle and Catholic Pulpit

    A 22 page research paper that consists of 18 full pages of text and 4 pages of annotated bibliography. The writer offers an overview of the history of Catholic architecture, focusing on the evolution of church construction, but also touching on the history of the pulpit. Bibliography lists 15 sources.

  • Sports Marketing and Consumer Behavior

    8 pages. This sports marketing project includes a description of the behavior and history of marketing to sports enthusiasts, suggestions for the application of these findings and a summary or overview of the history. The company that is analyzed is that of Hillerich & Bradsby, makers of the world-famous Louisville Slugger bat. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • History of Educational Psychology

    This 12 page paper provides an overview of the history of educational psychology, with an assessment of the major points in history and a reflection on major contributors, including Piaget, Vygotsky and Gardner. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Southern and South African: Power of Christian Music

    A 12 page research paper that offers an overview of the influence and history of Southern Christian music in the US, and its role in the Civil Rights Movement, and the influence and history of Christian Music in South African, looking at its role in the anti-apartheid movement. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Theological Foundations Pastoral Care

    A 20 page paper that includes several sections. It begins with an introduction to the topics. Other sections are: pastoral practice and pastoral theology; History of pastoral care; History of pastoral theology; why pastoral theology is important; and personal reflections. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • Pythagorean Theorem and its History

    5 pages. An interesting research paper on the background of the Pythagorean Theorem that is used in algebra and geometry. Details the history of the theorem. This is actually a fascinating history and one that is not often discussed in the classroom. The Pythagorean Theorem was founded by a cult that actually worshipped numbers and felt that everything in the Universe was number-related. A very interesting history for a well-known math theory to say the least! Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Analyzing On the Use and Abuse of History for Life by Friedrich Nietzsche

    A 5 page paper analyzing Neitzsche’s view of the study of history. Neitzsche indicates that there is value in being able to be “unhistorical,” that is, being able to forget portions of history that do nothing to add value to the present, but he also states that the “super-historical” is the preferred state. This is the perspective that calls on art and religion to inform conclusions about past events and their applicability to the present time. It is one that considers more than only one narrow view of any point or time in history. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • The Park and the People A History of Central Park by Roy Rosenzweig and Elizabeth Blackmar

    This is a 5 page paper reviewing Roy Rosenzweig and Elizabeth Blackmar’s book, “The Park and the People: A History of Central Park”. Roy Rosenzweig and Elizabeth Blackmar’s “The Park and the People: A History of Central Park” (1992, 1998) aptly chronicles the history of New York’s Central Park and the people who created it. Perhaps one of the most important aspects of the book is the highlighting of those who created, designed, and controlled the park and how it was adopted by the elite and the working class citizens of New York through its growing concept of a ‘public park’. Despite the influences of the elite gentlemen and designers who were inspired by the great city parks of Europe, Central Park was quickly adopted by the working classes from those who labored during the construction of the park to those who were settlers in the area. The concept of “public park” and the query of “whose park is it anyway” continues to be of great importance in present day New York as does the importance of the people who play a role in the continued popularity of the park. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • A Book Review of Modern Middle East History

    A 6 page book review of A History of the Modern Middle East by William Cleveland (1994). This is a complex and scholarly work, designed to present Middle Eastern history to both students and general readers who have not previously studied this subject. The Middle East plays a prominent role in the daily news. In many cases, commentators and policymakers appear mystified by Middle Eastern attitudes and, particularly, by their stance towards the West and the US. Cleveland's history not only explains past events, but also places them within cultural and geographic context that aids the reader in seeing how the region evolved to its present state. No additional sources cited.

  • New England in the Seventeenth Century and Environmental History

    A 6 page research paper that examines chapter 3 from a text concerning American environmental history. In the text Major Problems in American Environmental History, editor Carolyn Merchant assembles an eclectic yet revealing collection of documents and essays that offer a form of "snap shot" of a specific period in American history in relation to environmental issues. Chapter 3 of this text focuses on the New England forest in the seventeenth century. Examination of this chapter demonstrates the basic conflict not only between how the Native Americans perceived the natural world, but also between how different groups of Europeans perceived it. These documents indicate that how the natural world is perceived and conceptualized within the boundaries of the human imagination is crucial to human interaction with the natural world. Bibliography lists 12 sources taken from this 1 text.

  • Railroads of Guatemala and Their Economic History

    16 pages in length. The economic history of Guatemala's railroads has been one of significant upheaval with regard to its status, structure and overall existence. It has, indeed, been a long and winding road for Guatemala's railway system in that it has experienced quite a metamorphosis within the past several years. Attempting to rebuild a part of its history that has been sorely neglected, Guatemalan officials have put forth a considerable effort to re-establish their railroads as a means by which to bolster an otherwise sagging tourist economy. The writer discusses the economic history of Guatemala's railroads. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • Western History and the Divine Nature of God

    A 5 page research paper that examines the history of philosophy concerning the nature of God. Throughout the course of Western history, philosophers and theologians have sought to answer questions pertaining to the nature and existence of God. "What is the nature of God and how is he related to the universe? Is God a person, like man, but more ideal? …Can the human mind know God," these and other questions have plagued humanity from earliest history (Frost 100). This examination surveys concepts of God from Plato to Aquinas, showing how the conceptualization of the divine progressed during the millennia.

  • London's Early History

    A 5 page overview of some of the formative periods of London’s history. In short, the history of London occurred in leaps and bounds but it also included many years of slow, gradual change. Over her history London progressed from a people whose subsistence was meager and relationships with the rest of the world were essentially non-existent, to a people whose city serves as one of the foremost cultural, economic, and political capitals of the world. This rise included influence from a diversity of peoples ranging from the Romans, to the Saxons, to the Vikings, and to the Normans.

  • Historical Connections Between Puritanism and Calvinism

    An 8 page discussion of the history of the Puritans. The author contends that this history is considerably more extensive than that that unfolded in the “New World”. Indeed, the Puritans are integrally connected to Scotland and a man known as John Calvin. Puritans were followers of Calvin’s radical new approach to religion. The reverberations of that approach would reach far beyond Scotland and into the Americas as well as the rest of the world. Not only would it shape the actions of the Puritans themselves, it would determine the way they would interact with others throughout history. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Math Through the Ages, A Gentle History

    A 4 page book review. William Berlinghoff and Fernando Gouvea offer a fascinating and insightful view of the history of mathematics in their text Math Through the Ages: A Gentle History For Teachers and Others. The authors' intention in this work is to give their readers "a general feel for the lay of the land perhaps to help you become familiar with the significant landmarks" (Berlinghoff and Gouvea 5). In short, this is an overview of math history, a "brief survey" of what is in a gigantic topic (Berlinghoff and Gouvea 5). However, the appeal of this book goes deeper than this, as the authors often offer insight into the topic that helps to explain historical details, helping the reader see how math concepts developed and evolved. No additional sources cited.

  • G.B. Nash, C. Crabtree, and R.E. Dunn's History on Trial Culture Wars and the Teaching of the Past

    This is a 6 page paper discussing the book “History on Trial: Culture Wars and the Teaching of the Past” (1997). The publication of “History on Trial: Culture Wars and the Teaching of the Past” which describes the heated controversy surrounding the formation of the National History Standards in the mid-1990s, has in itself several controversial issues which makes it a useful tool in discussion forums in the social sciences. The authors of the text, Gary B. Nash, Charlotte Crabtree and Ross E. Dunn were involved in the selection of the committee working on the standards and have provided a background look at the events which took place during the development of the standards. Different issues discussed were the fact that while several historians approved of the constant updating and reinterpretation of historical events in the past and the inclusion of addition of multicultural issues while others believe that history as it has traditionally been taught should not be altered to any extent. The authors provide criticism of their own critics but their close proximity to the situation also provides additional limitations to the work which is provided to the reader as highly subjective in its context. Overall however, it is in a sense a historical document in its own right which like any other event from history is open for discussion or controversy and widely resembles many of the points outlined by the authors. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • 'The End of History?' by Francis Fukuyama

    A 17 page paper that presents an outline and explanation of Fukuyama's thesis about the end of history and the last man. The essay "The End of History?" published in 1989 and the book, The End of History and the Last Man, published in 1992 are still being discussed and analyzed in today's literature. Fukuyama's works created a great deal of furor and criticism in some circles and were applauded in other circles. This paper reports the interpretations of these two works by numerous scholars and also presents the criticisms levied against the thesis by other scholars. The thesis is that liberal democracy has won as the preferred system; this was evidenced by the end of the Cold War and this constitutes the end of history. One question asked by a number of authors is whether Fukuyama means this is the end of history or the end of historical thinking? The thesis is much more complex than this statement would imply and the complexities are discussed and reflected upon. The writer includes their own reflections. Bibliography lists 21 sources.

  • eCommerce History

    An 11 page paper tracing the history of ecommerce over the past century. After computers became necessary for business, it became desirable to use the electronic environment for more than only information storage. Data networking was the only missing link, and eventually telecommunications networks were sufficiently available to enable purchasing and payments in the electronic environment. Ecommerce was born, to be embraced by business and consumer segments at different rates. The purpose here is to trace the history of ecommerce and technology over the past century, and to make a conclusion as to whether the industrial age has ended. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • An Overview of the History and Future Trends of Advertising

    A 48 page overview of advertising. Merchants and manufacturers have been advertising their products and services literally for hundreds of years. Though advertising never has been as intense as it is in today’s hypercompetitive environment, it nonetheless has been instrumental in the success (and failure) of many, many businesses over the years. The purpose here is to review advertising’s history and how it has changed over the years, and to glimpse into the future for what forms it likely will take in coming years. The paper discusses advertising’s history; the 4 Ps; semiotics; the fallout of Calvin Klein’s 1995 campaign; international advertising; and advertising as art. Bibliography lists 30 sources.

  • Mass Media and Entertainment

    This is a 5 page paper discussing mass media for pleasure and entertainment with examples from British history. Mass media in relation to today’s society has a great many formats in which to give the public information, promotion of new merchandise, news, entertainment and various forms of pleasure in the world of television, journalism, films, computer games and the internet to name a few. Traditionally, media was thought to be a source of viable information to the masses yet history shows that media was also used as much for the pleasure and entertainment of the masses as it was to provide information about current, world or political events. In today’s newspapers, although seemingly filled with violent news, they are also filled with “feel good” stories, entertainment sections, film and literary reviews as well as the classic comic, jumble and crossword features. In the Victorian era, the mass media were the providers of scandals and serial novels highly popular in that time. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • How Eighteenth Century London Society Was Shaped by the Role of Women in 'The Rambler,' 'Evelina' and 'Moll Flanders'

    14 pages in length. There has rarely been a time in the history of mankind that women have not had to struggle in order to assert their worth as a gender. From the time when males first declared patriarchal authority over their female counterparts, women have fought – in various ways and with various results – to be treated both equitably and respectfully. Literature has long reflected this perpetual struggle between the genders, most often taking the side that support patriarchal control; however, a slow but steady change began occurring in eighteenth century London society that helped nurture a growing metamorphosis, which included Samuel Johnson 'Rambler' (Misella), Daniel Defoe's 'Moll Flanders' and Frances Burney's 'Evelina: Or, the History of a Young Lady's Entrance into the World.' Bibliography lists 11 sources.

  • Traditions, Culture and History of Burma

    This is a 5 page paper discussing Burmese history, culture, and traditions. Burma (Myanmar) is a country rich in culture, religion, history and traditional festivals and beliefs. Over 89 percent of the population is Buddhist and this provides a great deal of traditional structure and family values to the way of life in the country. Most of the population belongs to the agricultural sector which further retains the traditional rituals of the small communities. The political situation in Burma however is turbulent as a militant government has controlled the country for several decades which has led to a great deal of rioting, controversy and violation of human rights. Because of the political situation and record in Myanmar, some countries have imposed trade sanctions against the country which impacts the economy considerably. Despite the poor conditions however, the cultural and religious basis of Burma and the Burmese remains intact and a significant and central aspect of lives of the people. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Perspective Comparisons of Western Civilization A Brief History by Marvin Perry and Ishmael by Daniel Quinn

    5 pages in length. Humankind's history has been filled with advancements; indeed, one can readily argue that since the very first time man realized he had the ability to formulate specific answers to problematic questions, he has been furthering the human race without so much as a reprieve. This unwavering progress has been recorded and taught in every classroom of every school all over the world. It would never occur to anyone who has spent his or her entire life believing such teachings that there could be something incredibly wrong with the manner by which humanity has furthered its own species. This is precisely the point of Daniel Quinn's Ishmael, which effectively characterizes the origins of civilization as nothing short of disastrous for both the planet and other species alike. When compared with the likes of Marvin Perry's Western Civilization: A Brief History, it becomes quite clear how mankind demonstrated the damaging characteristics of individualism from the beginning. No additional sources cited.

  • Car Racing History and NASCAR Marketing

    A 14 page paper that provides the history of car racing beginning in the prohibition era. The first actual organized race was held in Daytona Beach in 1938, organized by Bill France who went on to establish the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing. NASCAR was officially established in 1947 with the first race under the bylaws and rules being held in 1948. A lot has changed since those first races. Today, the NASCAR races take place across the country although Daytona Beach is still the headquarters for the organization. This essay traces the history and evolution of NASCAR and comments on the changing demographics of fans over the years. The second part of this essay focuses on marketing strategies used by NASCAR, including partnerships and sponsors. The essay concludes with comments regarding future trends in marketing strategies. Data regarding fans and sponsors are included. Bibliography lists 14 sources.

  • Early Literature and Poetry of China and Japan and Women

    A 12 page research paper. Japanese and Chinese literature, both poetry and prose, have extensive roots that reach far into their histories. This is especially true of China, which is the only country in the world with a literature, written in one language, which goes back 3,000 consecutive years. Throughout their long histories, these cultures have influenced each other. The following examination of Chinese and Japanese literature looks specifically at the significance of female writers in these traditions. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Global Communication's Developmental History

    (5 pp) The history of international communication is as varied as the development of the nations themselves. The speed of development of all communications is linked to the economic progress of that nation. Where once the stories or the information seemed related to the community, then the state, and the nation, now, that same information can be transmitted with electronic speed to almost any where in the world. Yet are we all getting the same news? This discussion will examine the possibility and subsequent history that will put a different slant on the "spin" of international communications. Bibliography lists 3 sources)

  • History of U.S. Army Aviation

    This is a 5 page paper giving an overview of the history of U.S. Army Aviation. In 1861, during the American Civil War, hydrogen filled balloon were used by Union and Confederate forces to direct artillery fire. These balloons were considered to be the origins of U.S. Army Aviation. Over the course of history the U.S. Army Aviation acquired their first Wright brothers’ fixed wing aircraft in 1909 of which they had over 11,000 during World War I. As Army Aviation and the Air Force began to operate separately, Army Aviation began to develop more aircraft which could support their ground forces. In the 1940s, Grasshoppers and Sentinels were used in North Africa in World War II. The Korean conflict brought the first helicopters into Army Aviation. The helicopters evolved the most rapidly and were highly effective in rough terrain, were eventually armed which resulted in the highly sophisticated gun ship helicopters of today such as the AH-64 Apache, the UH-60 Black Hawk, the OH-58D Kiowa Warrior, and the RAH-66 Comanche. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • History and Testing Measures of Intelligence Theory

    This 5 page paper outlines major points in the history of intelligence theory and testing. These types of theories began with Pythagoras and have a long history that includes Plato, Aristotle, Philo, Galton, Binet, Terman, Weschler, Gardner and others. What each contributed is discussed. The measures of intelligence began with Galton but it is the Stanford-Binet and the Weschler scales that are most well-known. The essay briefly explains what the Mental Status exam measures. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Foreign Policy Articles

    A 7 page research paper that offers an analysis of literature, which addresses the nature of foreign policy formulation. First of all, it examines the work of Jean A. Garrison, whose conceptualization of the policymaking process provides a cohesive, insightful framework for understanding the decision-making process within the context of group dynamics. The utility of this framework is then discussed in reference to various case scenarios drawn from history and discussed in scholarly literature. Collectively, this indicates how scholarship facilitates understanding the origins and complexities of the governmental policies that serve to shape the contemporary world and its history. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Relevancy of the History of Civil Rights

    A 5 page research paper that sums up the state of racism in America during the Civil Rights movement and today. Presumably the United States is a pluralistic country made up many races and ethnic origins, wherein all citizens enjoy equal rights under the law. Conservative Republicans, arguing for the dismantling of Affirmative Action laws, argue that racism is a thing of the past and that such laws are not longer necessary or just. However, an examination of Black history and the history of the Civil Rights movement demonstrates the blatant, deeply-embedded institutionalized racism of the first-half of the twentieth century is still evident. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • History of Colonial Order Construction

    A 10 page contention that the same construction of the colonial order which has determined much of our history also controls many aspects of our contemporary world. This contention is presented with the backdrop of the historical interaction which occurred between colonizers and the colonized to emphasize that the same scenario is unfolding today even in countries like the United States as our tendency for the world view of “us” verses “them” determines our relations with one another. With such recent incidents as the Rodney King beating, a beating forever etched into our minds by the modern technological marvel of the video camera, the construction of the colonial order has progressed forward from the pages of history and into our contemporary social consciousness. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • The Chancellors A History Of The Leaders Of The British Exchequer, 1886-1947 by Roy Jenkins

    12 pages in length. Roy Jenkins' purpose for penning The Chancellors: A History of the Leaders of the British Exchequer, 1886-1947 was not so much to chronicle the political contributions of each of the nineteen men who held office during this particular period; rather, the author chose a more personal approach as a means by which to portray the psychological and political components of each protagonist. Unlike similar accounts on the subject, Jenkins employs a significant sense of humor, not-so-subtle irony and rather unflattering perspective of what he calls a disparate lot of British Chancellors who had no more in common with one another than somewhat more than average ability and substantially more than average ambition. Indeed, The Chancellors' essays do not represent the typical and stuffy account of history's British moneymen. No additional sources cited.

  • The European Miracle by E.L. Jones

    A 6 page book review of E.L. Jones' The European Miracle. In this text, Jones endeavors to answer the following question, which is "How to account for the ascendancy...of the First World" (Kellas 330). In his search for answers, Jones looks at European history and geography and contrasts and compares its development with the history of Asia, which he pictures as taking a different socio/economic path. Jones characterizes the Ottoman empire as "intellectual backward" and speaks of India's "total lack of political inspiration," pointing out the social structure in India "impaired political stability and the resulting instability impaired development (Kellas 330). As this suggests, in answer to the questions that the text poses, Jones presents a multitude of elements as contributing to the miracle of European development. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • NANDA

    An 11 page research paper that includes a 1 page abstract. This paper offers a review of nursing literature that focuses on systems of nursing classification, with an emphasis on the classification system of nursing diagnoses known as NANDA. The history of this organization is summarizes, explaining how North American Nursing Diagnosis Association (NANDA) reinvented itself as NANDA International (NANDA-I) to reflect its growing multi-national membership. The historical background on nursing classifications systems is also discussed, and this includes an overview of the two other principal forms of nursing classification, before offering a general overview of NANDA and NANDA’s history. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Psychology and the Effects of Dreams According to Sigmund Freud

    A 18 page research paper that examines the impact of the career of Sigmund Freud and his The Interpretation of Dreams on culture and psychology. There are certain events in history that can be perceived as pivotal, that is, after this event occurred, everything pertaining to a certain field changed as existing paradigms and concepts were irrevocably altered. Such an event occurred with the publication of Sigmund Freud's seminal work, The Interpretation of Dreams (first published in 1900). It is through this work that Freud's concepts began to infiltrate the intellectual climate of the dawning twentieth century. Examination of the impact of this work, as well as Freud's ideas in general, demonstrates that the publication of The Interpretation of Dreams constitutes a pivotal point in the history of psychology, after which everything changed to accommodate Freud's revolutionary concepts (Messer and McWilliams, 2003). Bibliography lists 15 sources.

  • Origins of Mental Illnesses

    A 4 page paper that traces the origins and history of abnormal psychology since the earliest times B.C. Only the highlights can be reported. The paper also discusses four theoretical models: sociocultural, biological/medical, and psychosocial. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Cognitive View of Psychology

    A 3 page research paper that looks briefly at the history of cognitive psychology and the factors that differentiate it form other braches of psychology. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Topics in Community Health Nursing

    A 6 page research paper that discusses the history and parameters of community health nursing practice. Topics covered include school nurses, occupational nursing and the expanding horizons of CHN. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Psychology and Philosophy

    This is a 3 page paper that provides an overview of the value of learning history to psychology. Plato's advocation of reason is also explored. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Overview of Developmental Psychology

    A 5 page research paper that offers a brief history of developmental psychology, an overview of the areas of emphasis today, including infancy development and development of adolescence, and a new and different approach to studying development. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Humanistic Psychology

    This 3 page paper considers the history of humanistic psychology with respects to the influences on it, its founders, its nature and concepts. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • A Short History of Reggae Music

    This 3 page paper looks at the history and the meaning of Reggae. The paper includes many facts. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Contemporary Classroom Invention of Music and Montessori

    An 8 page discussion of the value of music in academic achievement. This paper provides a brief overview of Montessori history and notes the observations of a teacher who has informally implemented the methods. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Advertising's Power

    This 5 page paper details the psychology behind the sucess of advertising. A brief history of American advertising is included. Early brands such as Coca-Cola, Ivory Soap, and Wrigley's are examined, as well as the psychology behind the Tommy Hillfinger brands. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Sixteenth Century Keyboard Instruments

    A 9 page research paper that discusses the manner in which the clavichord, harpsichord and organ were used in sixteenth century music. Typically, when one thinks of the history of keyboard music, the era recalled is the Baroque and the career of J.S. Bach. While the three most significant keyboard instruments of the Baroque era were the clavichord, harpsichord and organ, these instruments' origins considerably predate the age of Bach and were also very important to music during the sixteenth century. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • History of the Guitar

    In ten pages this paper offers a history of the guitar and how it has changed the face of music from classic to modern times. Five sources are listed in the bibliography.

  • Nurse Retention and Teams Effects

    This 8 page paper presents a case history of one trauma center that decreased their turnover rate from 58 percent to 15 percent and have a list of nurses who want to work at the center. This essay reports the process this center used to develop empowered teams that led to such remarkable success. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • A Total Quality Management Overview

    An 8 page paper written as an internal report on TQM as a possible route for a company to take to increase quality while reducing costs. The paper provides an overview of TQM; its history and development; the Baldrige Award; and underlying management philosophy. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Preceptorship in Nursing

    A 9 page research paper that examines nursing preceptorship. The paper begins with a brief history of nursing education and then moves on to define nursing preceptorship and to explore its role in nurse retention, the nurturing of critical thinking skills and other areas of nursing practice. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • This 10-page paper analyzes intercity passenger rail transportation and the history of the railroads. There are 7 sources cited.

  • Australia and Tennis

    This 15 page paper looks at the sport and the characters who play it and watch it. Demographics are considered in this paper that looks at ethnicity, gender and class as it relates to tennis. The history of the popularity of tennis in Australia is discussed. Statistics are provided. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Ishmael Reed's Flight to Canada and History

    A 9 page examination of history in Ishmael Reed’s “Flight to Canada.” Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • American Political Leadership and Thomas Paine

    A 3 page paper which examines Thomas Paine and indicates why he would have made a very good political leader in the United States’ history. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Civil War Naval History

    A 7 page book review that discusses Divided Water, The Naval History of the Civil War (1996) by Ivan Musicant. This historian traces how the US Navy grew from a "drowsy, moth-eaten organization on the fringes of the technological revolution," to, by war's end, being a "maritime ironclad power briefly unmatched by any navy in the world" (Musicant 432). The writer relates this to naval virtues of honor, courage and commitment. No additional sources cited.

  • Business Impact of TQM

    This paper examines the concept of Total Quality Management, some of its history, and its impact on businesses. The paper examines two sides of TQM, the supporters and detractors. Bibligraphy lists 10 sources.

  • Historical Reviews of Literature Featuring Native Americans, Black Women, and the Poor

    This 9 page paper discusses the various viewpoints of those who throughout history have had little voice: Native Americans, black women, and the poor. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • An American Literature Study

    This 4 page paper provides a study in American Literature by analyzing the work of William Bradford with that of Cotton Mather. This paper highlights their similarities, differences, the culture and history of the times, etc. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Special Education/Literature Review

    A 15 page research paper that discusses special education, its history in the US. This examination of issues pertaining to special education offers a broad overview of this topic via a review of relevant literature. Bibliography lists 16 sources.

  • A Review of Literature on ERP Systems

    This is a 6 page paper that provides an overview of enterprise resource planning systems. History and best practices are covered. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • U.S. Democracy and Worldviews

    Since the start of the most recent Gulf War, the countries of the world have placed the United States under close scrutiny. Once self-proclaimed as one of the foremost democratic countries of the world, recent events in political history have led some to believe that the American democratic process no longer represents the kind of legitimate democracy that American defends in their war against those opposed to democratic principles. This 5 page paper provides an overview of the issue presented and relates it to the current literature. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • U.S. Ethnic Relations' History

    This is a 3 page paper which discusses the history of multiculturalism in the United States. The bibliography has 3 sources.

  • UN's History and its Role

    This 4 page paper examines the role of the UN today as well as to relay some of its history. A discussion on its relevance is included. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • U.S. History and the Definitive Component of Race

    This 3 page paper examines slavery and views race as integral to the practice. White slavery is touched on as well. Racism is discussed as something that is unique to American history. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • How Women Have Been Depicted in Advertising Copy

    A 13 page paper which examines the history of how women have been portrayed in magazines. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Overview of Incarceration

    This 12-page paper examines the concept of incarceration, what it is used for, the history and its effectiveness. Also discussed in this paper are alternatives to incarceration. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Buddhism History Examined

    This 3 page paper provides a short history of buddhism. How it had emerged and the transitions it made are included. Various countries are named and some information about the practice is relayed. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Chosen People and Judaism

    A 4 page research paper on the history and religious tradition of 'The Chosen People.' The writer describes the concept of 'the chosen people' in Judaism and its role in Judaism and Jewish theology. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • A Study of Anabaptist Reform

    A 12 page research paper that offers an examination of both primary and secondary sources offers an overview of Anabaptism, its background and history and then its theology. Through this discussion of sources, the focus will be on Anabaptist beliefs and why these beliefs resulted in brutal persecution of followers by both Protestant and Catholic authorities. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • History and Theology in the Black Church

    This 4 page paper discusses the history and theology of the black church. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Connection Between Friday and Crusoe in Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe

    A 6 page paper which first considers Crusoe’s early relationship with a Moorish boy named Xury, and how this parallels the subsequent relationship between Crusoe and Friday in an attempt to determine whether Friday follows Crusoe because he loves him, fears him, or a combination of both. Specifically considered are Crusoe’s rescue of Friday, their discussion of theology, Friday’s father, the duo’s journey to Europe, Friday’s death, and how this parallels Crusoe’s earlier relationship with Xury, and how both relate to events in world history such as Christianity, colonialism and slavery. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Musical Differences Between the U.S. and India

    The music of different countries, in this case that of India and the United States, is comprised of different histories, cultures, faiths and education. While the music of these two countries might be completely different from one another, the fact remains that each country has music that represents these same agendas. Includes outline

  • Brazilian Samba Music

    A 3 page essay on Brazilian Samba. The writer describes the music, concentrating on its evolution and history. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Silent to Talkies Cinematic Transition from Metropolis to The Gold Diggers of 1933

    A 5 page research paper that examines the transitional period between silent film and "talkies." Metropolis (1926) and Gold Diggers of 1933 are two films that stand on either side of pivotal moment in cinematic history. The writer discusses what was lost and gained with the addition of sound. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • The Biological, Psychological, and Social Obstacles to Understanding Transsexuality

    In five pages this paper examines transsexuality within biological, psychological, and social contexts with references to Joyce Meyerowitz’s How Sex Changed: A History of Transsexuality in the United States and George Chauncey’s Gay New York: Gender, Urban Culture, and the Makings of the Gay Male World, 1890-1940, with the theme of misunderstanding transsexualism also addressed within the context of Sigmund Freud’s essay, ‘Sexual Aberrations.’ There are no additional sources listed in the bibliography.

  • Masturbation

    A 6 page paper which examines various aspects of masturbation. The paper examines history, social, religious and other perspectives concerning masturbation. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • The ‘Bright’ Promise of Communism Contrasted with the ‘Darkness’ of the Great Depression in the Films The Grapes of Wrath and Bound for Glory

    In seven pages this paper treats these films from 1940 and 1976 as if they were historical documents from the Depression era and analyzes how these respective films interpret this period in American history. Three sources are listed in the bibliography.

  • An Analysis of the Films, Bowling for Columbine and, The Decay of Fiction

    A 6 page paper examining two films and a museum’s film exhibit. Taken together, “The Decay of Fiction,” “Bowling for Columbine” and the Guggenheim Museum’s film installation reflect a broad history of film while remaining based in the present. The two films and the Guggenheim installation discussed here illustrate film’s capacity to instruct and edify while it concurrently instills emotional bases supporting the film’s purpose. All of these artists have used that ability to its greatest potential. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Coen Brothers' Film O Brother, Where Art Thou?

    This 5 page paper provides an overview of the film O Brother, Where Art Thou? This paper outlines the function of the cinematography in Coen brother's film, O Brother, Where Art Thou?, which helps to create the tone of the film, determines elements that support the development of the central characters, underscores the narrative parallels and contrasts among the central characters in the film and identifies certain patterns that are common to films that depict specific periods in history. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Horror Genre and Death Line by Gary Sherman, The Wicker Man by Robin Hardy, and The Innocents by Jack Clayton

    This 19 page paper explores the way in which Jack Claytons The Innocents (1961), Robin Hardy’s The Wicker man (1973) and Gary Sherman’s Death Line (1972)have stretched and developed the British horror genre. The paper starts by looking at what is meant by genre and genre theory and defined the horror as a genre. A brief history of British horror films is then given before the content and context of the three films is discussed to assess the way they challenged and changed the way horror films were made. The bibliography cites 11 sources.

  • Comparing the United States and France

    This 16 page paper examines the social and cultural anthropology of France and compares it to that of the United States. Various aspects are explored including geography, religion, ethnicity, and history. Similarities and differences are highlighted. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • A Honduras Overview

    A 3 page description of the history, geography, political structure, population and culture of the Honduras. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Overview of Honolulu Annotated Bibliography

    This 9 page paper is an annotated bibliography of sources giving information regarding Honolulu and the surrounding area. Sources are drawn from books, journals, magazines and Internet sites covering such things as geography, history, society, politics and culture. The paper lists 22 sources.

  • 1958 Film Touch of Evil by Director Orson Welles

    (5 pp) Three minutes into 1958's Touch of Evil, supposedly only made for the sake of money, it was clear that Welles couldn't help himself - it was the longest tracking shot in history, setting up every element of the brilliant, melancholy film noir to follow, summing up the genre of which it was one of the last and greatest examples, and blurring the boundaries between good and evil, duty and corruption, longing and loss that this film would forever define. In this discussion the motif of 'borders' is examined. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Social Process Theory and the Film American History X

    A 6 page research paper that combines a film review of American History X (1998) with an analysis of the film in terms of social process theory as an explanation of juvenile delinquency. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Overview of Portuguese Americans

    5 pages in length. The writer discusses history, customs, beliefs and cultural assimilation as they relate to Portuguese-Americans. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • U.S. Presidential History

    An 8 page paper that outlines the two-centuries-old history of the office of the Presidency of the United States and examines the massive changes this office has undergone throughout that time. Discussed are the nature of the changes that marked the Presidency, particularly across the last half of the twentieth century, and the American public's overall loss of trust in faith in its governmental leadership that resulted from these changes. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Economic History of Kazakhstan

    An 8 page paper on this republic of the former Soviet Union. Its ecomonic history and the subsequent problems that have developed are examined. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Family and History of the American South

    A 3 page essay on southern family life. The writer discusses the relevance of family history in the way many southerners perceive themselves today. Race relations, culture, and other historical factors all contribute to the importance of family in this region of the Untied States. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Harlem's Musical Renaissance Reflected in Josephine Baker and Diana Ross

    A 7 page paper that compares Josephine Baker and Diana Ross and the contribution that each has made to the advancement of African American music. Included is a discussion of the Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s and 1930s and the effect this era had on black entertainment. Also included is a brief history of the changes that have shaped African American music from the time of the Harlem Renaissance to the present. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • 911 Emergency Response Systems

    A 6 page paper describing the history and progression of 911 emergency response systems and their application today. The author attempts to show the factors that impact the effectiveness of using 911 emergency response systems and addresses a number of complaints about its effectiveness. FREE Outline included. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • The History Of American Gospel Music

    This 5 page paper discusses the history of gospel music in America, from its pre-Civil War beginning to its breakthrough in the mid-1900s to its current popular status. It pays special attention to the influence of gospel music and its performers, particularly Thomas Dorsey and Mahalia Jackson, on the changes in the African American condition. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • World Wide Web and its History

    A 7 page paper tracing the history of the world wide web, how it started, why, and how it has evolved to its present state, as well as the future outlook for the web. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • The Development and History of Artificial Intelligence

    A 10 page paper discussing the history and development of artificial intelligence to the current time and an analysis of IBM's Deep Blue chess-playing computer. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Historical High-Points in Nursing History

    A 5 page research paper that offer five historical developments in nursing history. The writer discusses the contributions of Florence Nightingale, Agnes Hunt, Clara Barton, Hildegard Peplau and Virginia Henderson. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • The History of Fortune Cookies

    A 4 page paper which examines the history of the fortune cookie. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Irish Tensions

    A 5 page paper which examines Ireland’s tumultuous history and considers the political, economic and social struggles including the potato famine, religious unrest, rebellion and independence movements and the role of women. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • Understanding Terrorism Based Upon The Terrorist Act of 9/11

    20 pages in length. The reality of suicide attack - and indeed terrorism itself - is not even a remotely new concept within the timeline of man's existence; in fact, the extent to which social, political, economic and religious discord has precipitated at least some sort of violence and/or intimidation throughout history speaks to the notion that humanity is both unsettled in mind and unevolved in spirit when it comes to the failed objective to coexist even now in the twenty-first century. Bibliography lists 21 sources.

  • Post 1950 West and Marijuana

    An 11 page discussion of the history of marijuana usage in countries like Great Britain, Canada, and the U.S. since the mid part of the twentieth century. The author reviews some of the critical laws regarding marijuana usage, inclusive of the 2002 decision by Great Britain to lessen the criminal penalties for possession of marijuana and to in effect look the other way, to conclude that while countries like Great Britain and Canada are slowly preparing for the leap toward legalization, the U.S. is holding back and looking at the edge. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • History of Turkey and Kuwait's Rates of Exchange

    This 10 page paper discusses the exchange rate history of Turkey and Kuwait and compares/contrasts them. Suggestions and theories are proposed based on the available data to account for the disparity between them. Bibliography lists 13 sources.

  • English Law

    This 10 page paper considers the different sources of English law. The writer outlines the history and development of common law, statute law and the law of equity and how they form the current structure of English law. Relevant cases and statutes are cited. The bibliography cites 6 sources.

  • Ancient Greek Women and the Effects of Medicine, Law, and Architecture

    A 12 page investigation into the lives of ancient Greek women as they were impacted by architecture, law and medicine. Exactly how these factors interacted to shape a woman’s life, however, is largely a matter of conjecture. Because most of Greek history was dominated by male authors, we must turn to other aspects of Greek culture to glean hints as to how a woman interacted in this male-dominated world. Bibliography lists 15 sources.

  • European History and Religion from the Sixteenth Century to Today

    This 6 page paper provides three sections with timelines of significant events in European history as it relates to religion. A summary section is also included. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Karaite Sect's History

    A 7 page paper which examines the history and development of the Karaite sect. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • International Law and Nuclear Weapons

    This 36-page paper covers the issue of nuclear weapons and whether they ae prohibited by international law. The paper discusses the history of nuclear weapons, the use of treaties in terms of legal control and the 1996 ruling of the IJC World Court on the legality of nuclear weapons. Bibliography lists 36 sources.

  • World War I A Chronological History

    This 8 page paper provides a history from beginning to end of the First World War. Causes of the war are discussed and how the war ends is also noted. Major battles are highlighted. A timeline is included. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Number 0 and its History

    A 5 page review of the history of the manner in which the number zero came into common mathematical usage. Traces its development to Mesopotamia and through the various other regions of the world. Distinguishes between the mathematical concept and the philosophy of nothingness. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Tommy Riley (Thalassophobia Case Study)

    This 4 page case study concerns a client with a fear of the ocean. A concise history is provided. No bibliography.

  • GM Powertrain Harvard Case Study

    A 5 page paper. This case study is set in 1997 when a new plant manager is faced with numerous issues. The subtitles include: brief history of company, competitive and business environments, problems in the case, options and recommendation. Bibliography lists 1 sources.

  • Patient Case Study

    This 10 page paper provides an overview of a patient history, diagnosis and potential treatment options. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • U.S. Forced Sterilization and the 7th Edition of Sociology by John J. Macionis

    (5pp) A less than reputable part of US sexual history of forced sterilization , in examined in the light of John J. Macionis classroom Text, Sociology, seventh edition, 1999. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • An Examination of Aborigine Oppression in Doctor Worreddy's Prescription for Enduring the Ending of the World

    This 3 page paper discusses this complex and insightful telling of the oppression of the Aborigines in Australia. This story illustrates the ways in which the whites oppressed the blacks and how the culture and history of the Aborigines was devestated as a result. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Educational Effects of Single Parenthood

    This 10 page paper provides a hypothetical case study of a mother raising a daughter in 1980s Camden, New Jersey. The daughter's history is traced through the educational system from birth through college. The case is evaluated sociologically and several environmental factors are determined to have been detrimental to the educational success of the child. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Xerox's Transformation

    A 5 page paper that provides a brief history of Xerox and emphasizes the transformation of Xerox Corp. under Anne Mulcahy. The writer also mentions Alan Mulally, CEO of Ford, and the challenges both these CEOs faced and how they handled those challenges. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Colonial Age and Wilderness Literature

    A 5 page paper which examines some colonial recordings and poetry, discussing the concept of wilderness in colonial times. The paper examines John Smith’s “General History of Virginia,” William Bradford’s “Of Plymouth Plantation,” and three of Anne Bradstreet’s poems. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • 'The Odyssey' of Homer and the Hebrew Bible Compared

    A 5 page comparison of the first chapter of the Hebrew Bible and Homer's epic poem, 'The Odyssey.' Throughout history, from the time of the earliest civilizations, there have been literary compositions that attempted to explain life and the consequences of human action as it might relate to divine will. Each culture has addressed the relationship to the divine its own fashion. Homer expressed this for the ancient Greeks and unknown Hebrew scholars recorded the oral traditions of the Jewish tribes. No additional sources cited.

  • Oregon’s Death With Dignity Act and Physician Assisted Suicide

    In six pages this paper examines the history, passage, and specifics of Oregon’s Death With Dignity Act, the controversial physician-assisted suicide issue and what states’ positions are on it, and the contributions of Michigan Dr. Jack Kevorkian. Six sources are cited in the bibliography.

  • Maya Angelou/Phenomenal Woman

    A 4 page essay that offers an explication and analysis of this poem. Throughout the course of human history, men haven been primarily admired for their accomplishments, but the focus of admiration for women has been on whether or not their appearance fit with what a particular society considered beautiful. In her poem "Phenomenal Woman," Maya Angelou challenges this pervasive cultural feature and asserts that she is extraordinary and immensely attractive, without fitting within any of society's preconceived notions of how female beauty and attractiveness should be defined and conceptualized. No additional sources cited.

  • Maya Angelou/Phenomenal Woman

    A 4 page essay that offers an explication and analysis of this poem. Throughout the course of human history, men haven been primarily admired for their accomplishments, but the focus of admiration for women has been on whether or not their appearance fit with what a particular society considered beautiful. In her poem "Phenomenal Woman," Maya Angelou challenges this pervasive cultural feature and asserts that she is extraordinary and immensely attractive, without fitting within any of society's preconceived notions of how female beauty and attractiveness should be defined and conceptualized. No additional sources cited.

  • Connection Between Global Travel and the History of Flight

    This 14 page paper provides an overview of aviation history, with a focus on technology and engine development. New trends in world travel are also discussed in light of technological change. Bibliography lists 15 sources.

  • A History of Jews in America

    8 pages. One from person was chosen from each of the following time periods in American Jewish history: 1654-1820, 1880-1924, and 1924-1945. They are Rebecca Gratz (1781-1869), Lillian Wald (1867-1940), Molly Picon (1898-1992). The author discusses how these individuals exemplify the key issues facing the Jews in the United States during said time periods. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • History of Typography and Design

    This 6 page paper considers the history of topography, as well as its modern applications. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • History and Uses of Sugar Cane

    This 5 page paper looks at the history of the sugar cane and its domestication in the colonies in America after 1640. Also considered is the rise of the use of sugar in its use in popular foods and drinks such as Coca-Cola. The bibliography cites 6 sources.

  • Overview on the History of Dental Fillings

    An 8 page discussion of the history of dental fillings. Traces the filling from ancient times to present exploring the various types of materials which were used. Explains that the choice of filling is related to performance but also to availability and cost. Notes that the evolutionary path of fillings is tied as well to the evolutionary paths of other dentistry aspects such as drill evolution and the development of molding techniques and materials. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Shaping History Through Cinematic Narratives

    (5 pp) This tutorial uses five films to examine the use of narrative in history: Kurosawa's Rashomon, Lang's Kriemheld's Revenge, Pudovkin's The End of St. Petersburg, Pontecorvo's The Battle of Algiers, and the Bunuel and Dali work, Un Chien Adalou.

  • An Examination of American History from 1865 until 1920

    (5 pp). This was an amazingly energetic time during this great chunk of history. Summaries of historic highlights, including Reconstruction, the Gilded Age, the Rise of Industrialization and Urbanization, and the impact of these times on marginalized peoples are discussed. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • A History of Performance Art

    (10 pp.) Performance art is a confrontational art experience, whether one chooses to say that the art form begins in the sixteenth century with Comedia del Arte political street theater, or the recorded fistfight that broke out in the beginning of the twentieth century. Both forms were Italian, and both began with audience participation in the performance itself. Yet the form continues to make its own history today. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Unmanned Space Travel and its History

    A 9 page paper that provides a history of unmanned space flight that has lead up to the Mars Pathfinder mission and the interrelationship of all of those missions to the eventual human habitation of another planets, namely, Mars. The quest for Mars was begun 40 years ago, and all of the space exploration to date, manned or unmanned, including discoveries about earth and the universe, have been made toward this purpose. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Contemporary History, the Jews, and Zionism

    A 7 page paper on the Zionist movement and its underlying belief that the Jewish people must return to Eretz Yisrael. The writer discusses Zionism's spread throughout modern history as a political movement, as well as its value in academic and non-academic circles today. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • History and Contemporary Message of the U.S. Constitution's 4th Amendment

    An 8 page paper that provides an overview of the history and current application of the 4th Amendment. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Erie Canal's History

    A 6 page paper discussing this major inland waterway and its influence in American history. The paper covers why it was built, the many roadblocks to its completion, its importance economically, socially, and politically, and how it is used today. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • NHL History

    This 10 page report discusses the history of the National Hockey League. The National Hockey League was created 1917 in Montreal following suspension of operations by the National Hockey Association of Canada Limited (NHA). Information relating to the development of the League, its rules and standards, as well as the role it has played in the development of hockey are noted throughout the paper. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • A Literary History of Texas' Independence Movement

    A 5 page paper which considers how the history of Texas independence is chronicled in Jesus F. de la Teja’s 1991 book, 'A Revolution Remembered: The Memoirs and Selected Correspondence of Juan N. Seguin' by examining how five people were motivated to act and the reasons for their actions and how five military figures were able to control others through intimidation, force, etc. 1 source is cited in the bibliography.

  • A General History of World War II

    5 pages in length. The largest and most costly war in history, World War II did much to bring together nations that had up until then been bitter enemies. The writer briefly chronicles the prewar climate, what actually set off the fighting, as well as the aftermath that followed.

  • A History of The Council of Florence

    A 10 page paper which discusses the history of the Council of Florence. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • History of Slavery in the US

    A 3 page paper which examines the history of slavery in the United States from Pre-Revolutionary to the Civil War. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • World History Effects of Three Forms of Nationalism

    A 6 page paper which examines how nationalism influenced 19th and 20th century world history, also considering the various factors in each and what they share in common. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Hoover Dam

    This 4 page paper examines the construction and history of the Hoover Dam and also addressed environmental concerns. Many facts and figures are relayed. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Major Changes in World History, 1900-1990

    This 4 page paper examines three major changes that occurred in world history from 1900 through 1990. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Culture and History According to Robert Darnton

    This 5 page paper provides an overview of Darnton's views on history and culture. Robert Darnton, in The Great Cat Massacre, applies Clifford Geertz assertion regarding culture to a study of the past. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • An Oral History of One Woman Presented as an Historical Interview

    This 5 page paper provides an overview of the life of one woman. “Thelma” is an 86 year old woman who has experienced life through some of the most tumultuous periods in American history. Thelma’s husband, “Donald,” a corn farmer from Etlan, Missouri, died in 1982, after 50 years of marriage.

  • Behaviorism's History and Development

    This 5 page paper provides an overview of the history and development of behaviorism. This paper answers some central questions, including: How did Pavlov’s work influence Watson’s behaviorism? How do the studies of little Albert and Peter support Watson’s ideas on emotion? and How did hull’s behaviorism differ from the views of Watson and Tolman? Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • “American History X": Sociological Analysis

    A 4 page paper which analyzes the film “American History X” from a sociological perspective. No sources cited.

  • U.S. Political Parties: History and Roles

    A 12 page overview of the political party as it exists, and has existed in the U.S. The author emphasizes the change that has occurred over our history. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • "X-Men" - Relationship To the Study Of History

    6 pages in length. With the not-so-subtle reference to Nazi Germany and the omnipotent power of Hitler, the 2003 release of X-Men illustrates how the study of history is one that perpetually itself; inasmuch as the focus of attention is upon General William Stryker's myopic objective to eradicate the entire mutant population out of a perceived fear, the film serves to mirror the detrimental influence a single individual can have with regard to manipulating the minds of an otherwise civilized society. Bibliography lists 12 sources.

  • Yakuza, Triad, and Mafia History

    A 3 page paper which presents the history of the organized crime groups of the Mafia, Triad, and Yakuza. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Examining Two Aspects of Islamic History

    A 3 page research paper that briefly looks at 2 aspects of Muslim history. The first section addresses the differences between the Islamic and Christian concept of God, and the second addresses how Muslim expansion changed after its first six centuries. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Prostitution in Medieval and Early Modern Europe

    A 5 page paper on the history of prostitution as it involves medieval and early modern Europe. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Machines and Their History

    A 14 page paper which examines the history and development of machines. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Philip Sugden's 'The Complete History of Jack the Ripper'

    A 3 page paper which provides a summary and review of "The Complete History of Jack the Ripper" by Philip Sugden. No additional sources cited.

  • Modern Asia, A History

    Asia This 3 page paper is a brief outline of Asian modern history on nationalism, globalisation, colonialism, modernism and the formation of nationalism, separatism and globalisation's impact on the states and nations. The bibliography cites 2 sources.

  • A Concise History of the Catholic Church by Thomas Bokenkotter

    An 11 page research paper that offers a comprehensive book review of Thomas Bokenkotter's A Concise History of the Catholic Church. Examination of this text shows it to be theologically insightful while maintaining historical objectivity. The writer gives an overview of each of its five sections, particularly focusing on the new chapter in the 2004 edition. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Historical and Economic Effects of Lean Manufacturing

    A 5 page paper discussing lean manufacturing. “Lean manufacturing” is the current incarnation of the concept of Just-in-Time (JIT) manufacturing, an outgrowth of and partner to Total Quality Management (TQM). The evolution of the two concepts within the current business environment has led to the new terminology, and the concept of lean manufacturing reflects the changes. The purpose here is to review lean manufacturing’s history and to assess how it affects the US economy. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Internet History and General Information

    This 5-page paper provides an overview of the history of the Internet, as well as dial-up, satellite, cable modem and DSL Internet connections. Also included are discussions about Internet 2.

  • Ancient History's Contemporary Social Influence

    A 5 page paper which examines how ancient history in Egypt, China, Greece, and India have influenced our societies. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • History of Yoga and its Trends

    This 13-page, turabian-style paper deals with yoga, the trends, its uses and its history. Also included are discussions about the six main types of yoga. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Historical Overview of Radio

    A 5 page paper which provides a research on the history of radio. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Questions on the History of China

    This 5-page paper attempts to answer various questions about Chinese history, including feudal societies, literary scholars (Du Fu, to name one) and the purpose of the emperors. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • American History Q and A

    A 12 page paper which presents questions and answers to US history. The questions address such figures as Booker T. Washington and Woodrow Wilson and discusses events such as bimetallism and nuclear research. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Overview of Memoral Park in Houston, Texas

    This 5 page paper discusses the various amenities and attractions, history and location of Houston's Memorial Park in Texas. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • US Influence on the History of the Panama Canal

    This 7-page paper focuses on the history of the Panama Canal and the influence of the U.S. government in making this project happen. Other topics for discussion include whether or not the U.S. could be considered imperialistic in its efforts to build a Canal though this country. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Ohio's Oberlin College and Its History

    This 5 page paper examines the long history of Oberlin College in Ohio. Early founders to the modern trend examined as well as Oberlin's contribution to the early educational efforts in the US. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • The Reconstruction Period of American History from 1865 until 1877

    A 5 page paper that discusses specific aspects of this era in American History. The topics discussed are: Lincoln's plans, Johnson's plans, Congress's plans, the Military Reconstruction Act, why some believe Congressional Reconstruction was too radical and others believe not radical enough, the successes and failures, and the lessons we can learn for today's world. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • The History of African Americans From the Civil War Reconstruction, through the Progressive Age, and the First World War

    3 pages in length. The writer provides a brief overview of these three periods as they relate to African-American history. No bibliography.

  • The History of Wine in Germany

    This 4 page paper discusses the history of German wines, the introduction of technoloy, its standing in the marketplace, types of German wines, and future for German wines. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • MRSA Infection

    A 24 page literature review that examines the problem of MRSA infection. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been generally considered in the past to be a hospital-acquired (HA) pathogen; however, community-associated (CA) MRSA infections are increasing. The effects of these S. aureus infections can range from the inconvenient to the devastating. History, epidemiology, treatment and prevention are discussed. Bibliography lists 24 sources.

  • “Apology” and “The Passion of Christ”

    A 4 page paper which examines the connections, as they involve literature and not history, between Plato’s “Apology” and Mel Gibson’s “The Passion of Christ.” Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Category Management

    A 20 page paper providing chapters 1 and 2 of an MBA thesis discussing category management from the retailer's perspective and hypothesizing that its use leads to greater customer satisfaction. Chapter 1 is the introduction and provides background on category management, its uses, history and development. Chapter 2 is the literature review for the project. Bibliography lists 31 sources.

  • The History of Mathematics

    This 6 page paper examines three books on the history of math. Some quotes are included. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Mathematics One on One Tutorial and Peer Alternatives

    A 7 page overview of the importance of the one on one tutorial approach in improving a student's academic performance. The author emphasizes that the tutorial environment has a long history of success and is becoming a more and more important feature of twenty-first century education. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Literary Influence of the Romantic Period

    This is a 5 page paper which discusses the introduction of the Romantic Period in history and the influences literature of the day had in regards to its influence on society, music, drama and future literature. The revolutionary change in literature from rationalism in the 18th century to truth, self-identity, and humanitarianism in the 19th century had an enduring affect which still continues today. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • 20th Century U.S. Welfare Capitalism and Personnel Management

    This 14 page paper looks at the history of personnel management as it evolved between 1900 and 1940. Welfare capitalism during that time period is also discussed and concepts are interrelated. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Effect of Childhood Experience of Sex Abuse on Marriage

    A 12 page research paper/literature review that examines the effects of childhood sexual abuse on women within the context of marriage. This literature review investigates the findings of empirical research and what this body of information reveals about the precise effects of childhood abuse on the relationships of adult women, with a particular regard for how a history of child abuse has an effect on their marriages. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Merger of CIT and Newcourt Credit and Subsequent Management

    A 3 page paper discussing CIT’s acquisition of Newcourt Credit, emphasizing the current management styles at both organizations. CIT is more reserved and methodical in its operations, while Newcourt has a history of seeking innovation in finance. The company acts as the financing arm of Dell Computer and Yamaha Motors, but in a way that the customer never sees. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Alzheimer's Disease History Overview

    This 4 page paper discusses the history of the discovery of the disease, and background information about it. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Self Discovery and French Literature's Evolution

    This 7 page paper discusses the common theme of the search for self in throughout the history of French Literature. Examples given. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Erikson and Vygotsky Theories on Life History

    8 pages in length. Understanding the developmental path each individual takes throughout life requires the realization of how so many elements play an integral role in this overall growth. The extent to which developmental theories help to put this into perspective is both grand and far-reaching; that Erikson and Vygotsky represent two of the most well received of all theories speaks to the manner by which the following life history incorporates the tenets of social cognition and specific stages. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Tango of Argentina's History and Development

    An 18 page paper which examines the history and development of Argentine Tango. Bibliography lists 20 sources.

  • Irish Folklore in the Poetry of William Butler Yeats

    A 10 page emphasis that Yeats' work is important not just from an entertainment perspective but also from the perspective that it preserved a critical chapter in Irish history. Many of his poems capture the spirit of Ireland, the richness of the folklore and the old wives tales as well as the soul of the quest for Irish independence. The author of the paper uses "Come Gather Round Me, Parnellites" and "Sailing to Byzantium" to illustrate this point. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Stuik’s “A Concise History of Mathematics”

    This 4 page paper is a review of the book ‘A Concise History of Mathematics’ by Dirk J. Struik. The paper reviews the content and the style of the book which was first published in 1948 and traced the development of mathematical theory form prehistory to the first half of the twentieth century. The bibliography cites 2 source.

  • OVERVIEW OF MATHEMATICS HISTORY

    This 10-page paper provides a brief history of mathematics, as well as some famous mathematicians. Also discusses mathematics applications today. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Gambling and Organized Sports

    This 10 page paper provides a history of gambling in organized sports and evaluates the trend. Concepts like point shaving are defined and discussed. Various real life examples over time are relayed. Suggestions for resolving the problem are included. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Historical Overview of the New York City Public Transportation System

    This 10 page paper provides an overview of New York City public transportation, which primarily covers its long history. The paper begins in the early 1800s and goes through to the present. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • Sports Origin and Theories

    This 5 page paper provides an analysis of theories in respect to the history of sports. Class based theories are compared with theories which focus on practical issues. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Examination Of Alcohol And Sports

    5 pages in length. The writer discusses the history and impact of the relationship between sports and alcohol. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Successful Women's Soccer in the US

    13 pages in length. The twenty-first century has witnessed myriad changes to the sport of soccer, not the least of which has been the addition of women's teams. Amidst the struggle and strife rose a special strength that helped propel soccer to the heights it has reached in contemporary global athletics; with the entire world rallying around this original form of football, the World Cup has taken on an entirely new look by adding women to its long and illustrious history. Bibliography lists 16 sources.

  • Total Quality Management and Customer Service

    This 42-page paper discusses how the concept of customer service and satisfaction can be tied to the concept of Total Quality Management (TQM). The paper discusses the history and reasons for TQM, why it's so important to customer service and how these two match up. Also presented are case studies of how TQM has benefited customer satisfaction. Bibilography lists 15 sources.

  • Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Lou Gehrig's Disease

    8 pages in length. Lou Gehrig's disease -– also called amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) – is named as such because of the man who was unlucky enough to be the first one diagnosed with the fatal neurological disease. One of baseball's most beloved players, Gehrig's progressively weakened condition forced him to step back from the plate for good on July 4, 1939 but not before he delivered what is still to this day one of history's most poignant moments in sports. Bibliography lists 11 sources.

  • Implementing Patient to Nurse Ratios in the Healthcare Environment

    This 4 page paper looks at the development of the patient to nurse ratio requirements in California. The history of their adoption into legislation is discussed, including the failed attempts and opposition by the hospital industry. The paper then identifies the ratios that have been set and discusses some of the atrocities concerning the implementation. The bibliography cites 4 sources.

  • ANA as a Political Action Committee

    This 5 page paper focuses in on the political action committee (PAC) affiliated of the ANA. The ANA's support of health care for the elderly is at the crux of this paper as well as the history of such issues affecting the aging population. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • The Roper, Logan and Tierney Model of Nursing

    A 4 page paper discussing the history and utility of the Roper, Logan and Tierney model (12 activities of daily living), followed by a short discussion of the four metaparadigms of nursing: nursing, health, environment and person. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Clinical Psychology and Scientific Practice

    This 9 page paper discusses the history of clinical psychology, its origins and the reciprocal relationship between science and clinical practice. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Psychological Contribution of Sigmund Freud's Interpretation of Dreams

    This 5 page paper looks at Freudian psychology and dream interpretation both together and independently. The history of dream interpretation is discussed as well as Freud's contributions to psychology. The paper concludes that Sigmund Freud's contribution in terms of dream psychology is significant. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Jung's Analytical Psychology Journal Article Critiqued

    4 pages in length. Petteri Pietikainen's article from the October 2000 issue of the Journal of Contemporary History entitled "The 'Volk' and its Unconscious: Jung, Hauer and the 'German Revolution" discusses Jung's (1936) analytical psychology by delving into the concepts of human perception and the unconscious. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Criminal Profiling and Other Issues

    A 19 page paper that discusses numerous issues related to the topic. Some of those issues are: antisocial personality, criminal and non-criminal psychopathy, compulsive behavior, addictions, history of forensic evaluation, methods of criminal profiling, types of forensic evaluations, characteristics of serial predators and more. Bibliography lists 23 sources.

  • Multicultural Psychology

    This 4 page paper examines this branch of psychology. Its history is included. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Family Therapy Problem and Solution Focuses

    A 4 page research paper that contrasts and compares solution- and problem-focused therapy for at-risk families. The writer discusses these therapies within the overall context of the history of psychology. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Alcohol on the College Campus

    A 10 page paper discussing the psychology, motivation, and results of alcohol abuse in college students. Reasons such as anxiety, peer pressure, and family history of alcohol abuse figure most prominently in the factors motivating college-age drinking. Bibliography lists 12 sources.

  • Forensics

    A 9 page overview of forensics. The author defines forensics and illustrates its history. Examples from criminal investigations are emphasized along with forensic psychology. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Adolescent Counseling and William Glasser's Theories

    A paper which consider how the theories of William Glasser are used in counseling adolescents, how these theories were developed, and the various influences both inside and outside psychology which impacted on Glasser’s work. A brief overview of the history of the relevant psychoanalytical models is included, in order to provide a background to Glasser’s own model. Bibliography lists 17 sources

  • A History of Children In Mental Health Facilities

    This 15 page paper is a comprehensive and exhaustive discourse on the development of the mental health care center in the United States, in particular the advent of treatment of children and adolescents. Examples are given from experts in the field of child psychiatry and history. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Four Issues Regarding the History of Australia

    A 14 page paper. Four issues in Australian history are discussed: the changes in the roles and lives of women; some of the notable persons in the 20th century; why there was a surge in home ownership in the 1950s and the reasons for the moral panic concerning adolescents in the 1950s. bibliography lists 14 sources.

  • Theater History

    This 10 page paper discusses the history of the theater. Specifically, the play "Oedipus The King" is used to illustrate the humble beginings of the theater. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • PC's History and Impact

    7 pages. Personal computers have come a long way since the seventies, the eighties, and even within the last five years. Because technology is changing at such a rapid pace we have seen personal computers impact our lives in many different ways. Socially, economically and industry-wise the personal computer and its history are described in this well-written and concise paper. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Steven Shapin's A Social History of Truth and The Leviathan and the Air Pump

    This 10 page paper discusses, compares and contrasts Steven Shapin's two books, 'A Social History of Truth' and 'The Leviathan and the Air-Pump'. The major themes and thesis of each are outlined. Examples and quotes cited from texts with page numbers. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Wine and Cooking History

    A 17 page paper which examines the history of wine and cooking with wine. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Gabriel Garcia Marquez's Writings and the Impact of History

    This 5 page paper discusses the relationship between the violent era in Columbia's history and the novels of Gabriel Garcia Marquez. Novels examined and cited are One Hundred Years of Solitude and No One Writes the Colonel. Bibliography lists 3 sources

  • Gunpowder's Invention and Historical Impact

    This is a 10 page paper which discusses the history of gunpowder and the impact it had on society and continues to today with the great increase in the ownership of guns and weaponry. Constitutional issues and the power of the modern day NRA are considered when discussing gun control. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • A Police Corruption History Including Issues and Solution Possibilities

    This is an 8 page paper discussing the history and the issues involved in police corruption on a national and global scale. Specific examples are used and possible solutions are discussed. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Capitalism and Europe in the 20th Century

    8 pages in length. There exist several reasons why the history of European twentieth century can be summed up as the triumph of capitalism, including two world wars, Fascism, Nazism, Stalinist Totalitarianism and the Depression. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Information for Those New to Teaching

    A 5 page paper presenting general comments about being a new history teacher. Tips regarding the kinds of strategies a new teacher needs are included as is an example that focuses on the Revolutionary War. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • History and Future Promises of Space Exploration

    An 8 page overview of the timeless attraction of space and how that attraction has translated into space exploration programs. This paper traces the history of space exploration and contend that this exploration has the potential to result in more than just satisfying academic curiosity. Space exploration, in fact, directly benefits mankind in a number of ways. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • America's Latino Gang History

    This is a 6 page paper discussing the history of and the issues involved with the formation and development of Latino/Hispanic gangs in the United States. The increasing Hispanic population in the country has also seen an increase in the membership in Latino gangs. Violence surrounding these gangs is high and usually involves racial discrimination and conflict issues. Recently, Latino gangs have affiliated with their communities and other inter-racial gangs to help develop a solution to overcome discrimination and violence issues. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Musical Differences Between Classical and Romantic Eras

    An 8 page research paper that examines the differences between the Classical era in music history (i.e. Haydn, Beethoven, etc.) and the Romantic era (i.e. Schumann, Brahms, etc.). Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • The Arabs, Israelis, And Kissinger A Secret History Of American Diplomacy In The Middle East by Edward R.F. Sheehan

    5 pages in length. Henry Kissinger once said that to implement an effective foreign policy, it must be drafted through calculations of power and the national interest. Examining Edward R. F. Sheehan's "The Arabs, Israelis, And Kissinger : A Secret History of American Diplomacy in the Middle East," one can readily surmise that while Kissinger may have lived up to his own political doctrine, the manner by which it was manifested included the elements of secrecy and deal making unbeknownst to the American people until agreements were well underway. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Wig and its History

    This 5 page paper delves into the history of the wig from Ancient times through modernity, and looks at a variety of aspects. A focal point is when Louis XIII re-ignited a trend for males to wear wigs. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • A US Prison Reform History

    This paper examines the history of both prisons and prison reform in the United States. The paper also discusses the effectiveness of incarceration as a tool for detering criminals, and examines what critics have said about prisons through the ages. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Internet2 History

    This 7 page paper provides an overview of the history of Internet2, including its development, implementation and the future ambitions. This paper considers the basics of Internet2, the underlying reasons for its development and the implications. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • World Cup History

    7 pages in length. Heralded as the world's most popular sport for the past one hundred and twenty-five years, the game of soccer has a most memorable history. From its early yet tenuous beginnings in 1904 to the first World Cup Tournament to its strong presence in the twenty-first century, soccer has demonstrated a staying power unequaled to nearly every other sport. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Harpsichord History

    A 6 page research paper that offers a brief history of the harpsichord, its development and the principal schools that characterized the production of the instrument during its heyday. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Drug Abuse Historical Overview

    A 5 page research paper that, first of all, gives a brief historical examination of the history of drug abuse, and then addresses the questions of whether or not there is a universal need to have altered states of consciousness. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Internet Medieval History Websites Compared

    A 6 page research paper that examines and critiques three internet sites that deal with medieval history. The writer evaluates each site according to graphics, usability and the quality of information. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • 1845 to 1865 History of U.S. Railroads

    A 15 page research paper that outlines the early history of America's railroads, focusing on the period from 1845 to 1865. The writer examines the social and economic forces that led to the construction of the Transcontinental Railroad. Also examined are the ways in which railroads affected the country socially and economically. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • The Secret History by Donna Tartt, Alfred Hitchcock's Rope and Education

    A 6 page paper which examines the theme of education in Alfred Hitchcock’s film “Rope” and Donna Tartt’s novel “The Secret History.” Bibliography lists 2 additional sources.

  • Mental Illness from Ancient Times to the Present

    This 4 page paper provides an overview of mental illness and its history from ancient times to the present. There is an emphasis on the causation of mental illness but treatment issues are highlighted as well. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • The Role of Women and Minorities in the Labor Movement

    A 7 page paper which examines the role of women and minorities in the history of the labor movement. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • The Secret History by Donna Tartt and Greek Themes

    This 6 page paper analyzes twelve different texts in reference to the use of Greek themes in Donna Tartt's book, The Secret History. Bibliography lists 12 sources.

  • Trumpet History

    A 15 page research paper that examines the long evolution of the trumpet. Long used as a military signaling device, or as a symbol of high social status, an examination of the trumpet's history and evolution demonstrates that it is only in its modern incarnation that the trumpet fulfills its full potential as a musical instrument capable of great versatility. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • History, Revolution, and Karl Marx's The Communist Manifesto

    This 5 page report discusses The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Karl Marx’s declaration, in the most simplistic terms, was that all events are determined by economic forces. The Manifesto was much more than a “literary and philosophical work,” -- it was also a revolutionary document, a plan to battle and a call to arms, and a reflection of the history of humanity in the Western world. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Teaching Jr. and Sr. High School History Problems and Perspectives

    A 7 page paper which examines some of the problems and perspectives of teaching history in Junior highs and High schools. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • History, Recreation, and Public Administration

    A 12 page research paper that addresses two topics. The first half of the paper is a brief history of policy in public administration from Woodrow Wilson's essay in 1887 to the 1990s. The second half of the paper is a "memo" to a county Board of Supervisors concerning formulating a plan to address the county's recreational needs for the next two decades. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • 20th Century Race History

    This 6 page paper discusses the history of race in the twentieth century and included such major movements as slavery, segregation, desegregation, and the civil rights movement. Furthermore, many notable authors and their views on this topic are noted in this paper, such as Zinn, McBride, Mel King, and more. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Relationship Between Truth and History

    This 5 page paper examines two works of fiction: Coetzee's Disgrace and Churchill's Cloud Nine, and determines how fictional narrative works in relation do describing history and writing about truth. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Cooperation History and Evolution

    This 6 page paper critically evaluates the statement that evolution is the history of co-operation. This is discussed from the perspective of evolutionary biology and looks at many types of organisms form soil bacterium through to bees and human life. The occurrence of cooperation and reasons for its’ occurrence and the way in which it is ensured, The paper also considers different types of cooperation before reaching a conclusion. The bibliography cites 10 sources.

  • North America and the Immigration of the Scots

    This 28 page paper discusses the history of the immigration of Scotts to the United States and Canada. Specifically, this paper explores the reasons for their immigration, as well as settlement patterns, hardships they endured, ports of entry and so forth. Bibliography lists 15 sources.

  • World History Changed by 3 Important Battles

    This 13-page paper describes the three battles commonly termed as the turning points in history: The Battle of Tsushima, the Battle at Stalingrad and the Battle at Dien Bien Phu. The paper disucsses the impact these fights had on both the players and the world. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • The Balkans A Short History by Mark Mazower

    5 pages in length. Mazower works diligently to teach his readers to differentiate between the Balkans as a geographical entity and the Balkans as the epitome of violence amidst chaos. Author and professor of history at Princeton, Mazower illustrates the source of such strife as being two important points: 1) nationalism and 2) the perpetual imbalance between cultural and religious existence forced upon them by Eastern and Western Europe. No additional sources cited.

  • Political and Social History of Greece

    A 3 page paper which examines various aspects of Greek history as it involves social and political rule. The paper examines monarchy, democracy, oligarchy, aristocracy, and tyranny. Source used was faxed from a textbook by the student and has no bibliographic information.

  • Samuel Johnson's The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abyssinia

    A 4 page paper which examines Samuel Johnson’s “The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abyssinia” as it relates to the society of his time, as well as the timeless theme of searching for happiness. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Hillary Rodham Clinton's Living History

    A 12 page paper which examines Hillary Rodham Clinton’s book “Living History” and then discusses it in relationship to leadership theories and practices. Bibliography lists 5 additional sources.

  • Colonial History of America Until 1877 and Women

    A 6 page paper which specifically examines how the calls for equality, liberty and freedom conflicted with the reality of women’s lives, considers if they made greater gains in either political or social life, and concludes with an assessment of how women’s roles evolved over this period in American history. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • A World Societies History

    This 6 page paper compares and contrasts the cultures and civilizations of: Africans, Pre-Columbians, Asian, Islamic peoples. Examples, features, history examined. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • History, Literature, Knowledge, and Native Americans

    8 pages in length. The writer provides two smaller essays on 1) Native American stereotyping and 2) the difference between history and literature. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • 'Fifty Grand,' 'The Natural History of the Dead,' and 'Hills Like White Elephants' by Ernest Hemingway

    This 3 page paper discusses three of Hemingway's short stories: Hills like White Elephants, The Natural History of the Dead, and Fifty Grand. Each are analyzed for summary, characters, and themes. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Rama from a Legend and Historical Perspective

    This 3 page paper discusses the legend and the history of Ramayana as depicted by historians and by R.K. Narayan. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Abused Child and Historical Abuses of the Irish in The Butcher Boy by Patrick McCabe

    A 6 page paper which examines the film and novel, written by Patrick McCabe, “The Butcher Boy” as it uses the abused child as a metaphor for the abuse of the Irish in history. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • An Analysis and History of The Congress of Racial Equality

    A 10 page paper which examines the history of CORE (The Congress of Racial Equality) and analyzes the organization. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Four Commencement Speakers from American History

    A 7 page exercise in selecting speakers for a fictional graduation. The author selects four key speakers from three different historical periods. The theme of the proposed graduation is individualism and spirit of community, the balance between the spiritual and material worlds, and race and ethnicity in American history. Thomas Jefferson, Henry David Thoreau, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, and Amy Tan are used to illustrate these themes. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Women's History Museum Design

    A 4 page research paper that discusses the task of designing a museum, drawing on the experience of visiting museums in the Washington, DC area. The writer details what would constitute her "ideal" museum, which in this case is a museum devoted to women's history. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • History of WMDs in Iraq

    This 6 page paper examines the weapons of mass destruction that Iraq possessed prior to the U.S. invasion of that country. Furthermore, this paper provides analysis as to the reasons for the U.S. invasion as well as the history of prior wars between the U.S. and Iraq. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • US Same Sex Marriage History

    This 3 page paper discusses the history of gay marriages in the United States and the liklihood of legalizing same sexed marriages. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Living History with Hillary Clinton

    A 5 page paper which examines Hillary Clinton’s book “Living History” as it relates to her leadership style and what a reader can gain from her work. Bibliography lists 1 additional source.

  • History of Traditional Costumes for Chinese Weddings

    This 8 page paper examines the history of traditional Chinese wedding attire. Furthermore, this paper explores the social and cultural significance of the traditional Chinese wedding outfits. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Analyzing A History of the World in 10 1/2 Chapters by Julian Barnes

    This 4 page paper presents an analysis of this unique and startling fictional account of the history of the world, illuminating its commentary on spirituality and human nature. Furthermore, this paper examines this work in light of other great works of literature, such as the book of Genesis, Augustine's "Confessions", Freud's "Civilization and its Discontents", and others. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • U.S. History from 1960 to the Present Time

    (11 pp) This tutorial exercise examines history and policies of blacks, women and Indians within a thirty year time span. The presidencies of Reagan and Johnson are examine, as are some generalities concerning domestic and foreign policy. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Historical Origin and Development of Jiu jitsu

    This five-page-paper explores the history and development of the martial arts form of Jiu-jitsu. How it began and the many changes it has gone through over the years and in different cultures are outlined. Bibliography lists four sources.

  • Aloe's History and Use

    A 10 page paper which presents an examination of the history and the uses of the aloe plant. Bibliography lists 15 sources.

  • IMF's History and Performance

    This 25 page paper looks at the development and history of the IMF, its' aims and goals, and how they may be criticized as needing reform. The writer then goes on to illustrate this argument for reform by looking as specific countries including the UK, South Korea, Indonesia, Russia and Argentina. The bibliography cites 20 sources.

  • Questions on Art History

    7 pages. This is a series of four questions concerning such topics as the difference between modern and contemporary art, narrative perspectives on collecting art, and why art museums are resistant to art history.

  • Literature Review on US History and Unionism

    This paper examines the literature available about unionism and the United States. In addition, the paper offers brief topics about unions including history of American unions, trends that unions face today, and how management and unions are trying to get along. Bibliography lists 20+ sources.

  • Displays Featured in Washington D.C.'s Museum of Natural History

    A 5 page paper which discusses the displays of Asia, Africa, and South American in the Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C.. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Judith Walkowitz's City of Dreadful Delight and Gender History

    Gender History in Walkowitz’s “City of Dreadful Delight”: This 9-page essay examines Judith Walkowitz’s theories relevant to gender issues and female sexuality in the Victorian Era. Her treatise on the fluctuations pertaining to class and gender in late 1800’s London both informs about the past while still reverberating/ reflecting modernity. Bibliography lists 4 sources. SNGenhis.doc

  • Historical and Social Relevance of Silicon Valley

    This 11 page paper provides a history of Silicon Valley and also delves into how personal computers and the Internet are important to society. Many people are named in this historical look at computers, inclusive of Bill Gates, Steve Jobs, and Frederick Terman. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Sixteenth Chapter of James L. McClain's A Modern History Japan

    A 5 page paper which summarizes chapter 16 of “A Modern History: Japan” by James L. McClain. No additional sources cited.

  • The Southwest's Architectural History

    A 2 1/2 page paper which discusses some of the architectural history of the Southwest. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • A History and Sociological Overview of Prostitution

    A 7 page research paper that offers a brief history of prostitution, which is analyzed according to several sociological perspectives: functionalism, conflict theory and symbolic interactionism. Bibliography lists 12 sources.

  • The History of Wal-Mart

    When the first Wal-Mart opened in the early 1960s, the idea of discount shopping among rural America was almost unheard of, except for the five-and-dime stores. But with Wal-Mart founder Sam Walton's vision, Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. today is a multi-billion dollar, international company. This paper examines Walton's philosophy, a little bit of history, and some glances into the future. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • The Culture, History and Artistry of Black America

    A 5 page paper which examines Paul Beatty’s “The White Boy Shuffle” as it involves a somewhat irreverent look at African American history and culture. The paper then compares his presentations with the outlooks provided by Addison Gayle’s “The Black Aesthetic” and Larry Neal’s essay “The Black Arts Movement.” No additional sources cited.

  • A View of Alternative History or What Might Have Happened if Adolf Hitler's Invasion of Great Britain Had Been Successful

    This 5 page paper takes an alternative approach to history and considers what may have occurred had Hitler and the Nazi's been successful in invading Great Britain. The writer considers the German policies of the time and evidence from other countries in order to reach some conclusions. The bibliography cites 5 sources.

  • Slave Trade Economics and History

    15 pages. Explores the history and economics of both the North and the South before, during and after the Civil War. Bibliography lists 17 sources.

  • Treatment Delivery Systems and Addiction Treatment History

    This 4 page paper looks at the history of substance abuse treatment. The problem is looked at from the nineteenth century on, but a significant change in the 1980s is highlighted. Government involvement in the treatment of addiction and other problems are discussed in depth. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Police Corruption Selective History

    This 15 page paper focuses on brutality and bribery as it looks at the long standing blue wall of silence. While the history of corruption is discussed, going back to Tammany Hall days, contemporary examples of problems in police departments are discussed in depth. Some studies are cited that look for causes of corruption. Solutions are discussed as well. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Rewriting History with William Shakespeare's 'Richard the Third'

    An 8 page paper which examines how Shakespeare’s Richard III rewrites history by portraying him as little more than a deformed and evil caricature despite his intelligence, cunning, and psychological astuteness. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Nigerian Ibo or Igbo People History

    A 2 page paper which examines the history of the Nigerian Ibo (Igbo) people. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • History or Etymology of Words Plus an Annotated Bibliography

    A 4 page paper which presents an annotated bibliography of 10 articles that deal with the etymological history of words. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Ibo History

    A 4 page paper which examines the history of the Nigerian Ibo (Igbo) people. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Mathematics' History and Critical Milestones

    This 5 page paper discusses three of the more critical milestones in mathematical history. Emphasis is placed on Pythagoras as it pertains to all of the disciplines. Quotes cited from texts. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Vietnam A History by Stanley Karnow

    A 4 page paper which examines Stanley Karnow’s work “Vietnam: A History.” No additional sources cited.

  • Wealth and its History

    This 7 page paper examines the history of wealth, from capitalism to the Industrial Revolution to Adam Smith and more. This paper provides many examples of how wealth was originally created, and the circumstances which allowed for this opportunity. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Microphones and Their History

    This 3 page paper examines the history of microphones. Furthermore, this paper emphasizes how microphones relate to the music industry. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • History of the Modem

    This is a 5 page paper which explains the history and development of modems. The bibliography has 5 sources.

  • History and Introduction of the Early Catholic Church

    A 10 page research paper that offers an overview of early Catholic Church history. Topics covered include the New Testament, Apostolic Fathers, growth and expansion of the Christianity, heresies, and others. All topics are examined briefly. Bibliography lists 22 sources.

  • Medieval Italian History and Literature

    A 15 page research paper that offers brief (generally 1 page) synopses of essays that deal with Italian medieval society. Then the writer offers a more extended analysis of parts of Patricia Skinner's 2001 text Women in Medieval Italian Society; a brief essay on Dante's Inferno and Otto of Freising's Deeds of Frederick Barbarossa. The underlying theme to the entire paper is how these sources contribute to the study of history. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • A New York City Subway System Social History

    This 6 page paper examines the social history of the subway. A great deal of anecdotes regarding the system is relayed. Specific information on size and condition is included as well. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Contemporary Actions and the Predeterminant of History

    A 4 page contention that our actions today are often determined by decisions that we made well back into the chapters of history. Indeed, even if we consider such gross aspects of our lives as our politics and our religions we see that this is indeed the case. One of the more interesting examples that supports this contention is the Renaissance. We are still feeling the reverberations of this historical period today, over six centuries since its advent. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Historical Development of the Irish Language

    This 11-page paper details the Irish language, focusing on its history and development from the Celt tongue. Also discussed in this paper are the use of Irish language as it pertains to education, poltics, religious teachings and so on. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Voice Over Internet Protocol History

    A 6 page paper reviewing the history of voice over Internet protocol (VoIP). From its beginnings as an old and expensive technology that no one could find a good use for, VoIP now is poised to overtake POTS (plain old telephone service) in the future. If the future unfolds as the creator of the Skype VoIP service envisions, then existing telephone companies will find themselves with the need to discover new sources of revenue. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • History of the Middle East

    An 8 page research paper that discusses various aspects of Middle Eastern history. Topics covered include the coinage of the term "Middle East," and the rise and fall of the Ottoman and Safavid Empires. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Cake Culture and History

    A 6 page paper which examines the history and culture of cakes, with an examination of decorating and ingredients as well. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Japanese Historical Meiji Period

    This 5 page paper discusses the Meiji Period in Japanese history as viewed by a primary Eurocentric source. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • A Short History of World War I by Jame Stokebury

    This 3 page paper provides a summary and analysis of, "A Short History of World War I". This paper highlights the strengths of this book as well as the major conclusions of the author. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • A Case History of Angina

    A patient was recently admitted to the surgical ward due to a health breakdown, the result of angina. This patient’s admission and treatment are described below. Covered are: patient's history, social background, health problem (diagnosis), contributing factors, affects on family, preventative care for future occurence (programme of treatment). Bibliography lists 10 sources. jvMedhel.rtf

  • European Historical Signficance of Herder's Outlines of A Philosophy of the History of Man and Burke's Reflections on the Revolution in France

    7 pages in length. The writer discusses the opposing perspectives of both writers and how each one influenced European history. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • A History of Temperament Theories

    This 10 page paper provides a historical report of theories about temperament. The history begins about 2,500 years ago when the four humors were proposed, a theory that was continued to be popular in the Middle Ages and even later. Philosophies and scientific advancements changed the theme somewhat but there continued to be four dimensions of temperament. Even Keirsey proposed four dimensions of temperament. It was in 1990 when five dimensions of temperament were proposed by McCrae and Costa, Jr. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • A History of the Dictionary

    An 8 page research paper that offers a brief history of the dictionary. While the writer mentions early dictionary, the research concentrates on the compilation of the first English dictionaries, focusing specifically on the dictionaries written by Samuel Johnson and Noah Webster, which culminated in that magnificent Victorian project, the Oxford English Dictionary. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Television Sitcoms and Their History

    A 12 page overview of the history of the sitcom. The author traces the sitcom from the 1950s to the present, commenting on the social circumstances which both shaped it and were shaped by it. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • History of the Civil Rights Movement in America

    This 7 page paper examines the general history of civil rights in the United States, ranging from the mid-1800's through the modern-day civil rights movement that occured in the late 1950's. This paper highlights such topics as the Reconstruction era, the KKK, the 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments, the GI Bill, the modern civil rights movement, and more. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Perceptual Losses Between the Page and Big Screen

    An 8 page paper that argues the point that the historical written word loses much of the personal perception it evokes in individual readers when it is converted to the film medium due to the influence of the personal perception of the cinematographer. The history and evolution of historical cinematography from the earliest days of the film industry to present are discussed, including a brief description of the progressive documentary format that emerged in the 1990s. Bibliography lists 6 sources. LCFilm.doc

  • All About Eve and the Introduction by Marilyn Monroe.

    (6 pp.)It has been suggested that the 1950 movie "All About Eve," should be reclaimed and included in the history of feminist film theory. The writer will discuss that and the "talking" i ntroduction of Marilyn Monroe in this film, and her own applicability within feminist theory discussions. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • School Violence and its History

    This seven-page-paper presents a discussion the history of school violence and the reasons for increased school violence in recent decades. Bibliography lists five sources.

  • NY's Transportation Growth

    This 10 page paper examines the history of New York State--with special attention to NYC--as it respects its geography and advent of transportation systems. The trains, subway and roadways are discussed.

  • The Battleship Potemkin and Birth of a Nation

    A 4 page research paper that examines American director D. W. Griffith's 1915 film Birth of a Nation and Russian director Sergei Eisenstein's 1924 film The Battleship Potemkin, which depict crucial periods during their respective nations' histories. The writer argues that these films rationalize the social and political status quo in each of the director's countries at the time the films were produced. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Microsoft and Applicability of Antitrust Laws

    A 9 page paper discussing the theory and history of antitrust laws and monopoly designation, and the reasons that theory and reality rarely meet on common ground. The Justice Department has found Microsoft to practice predatory pricing based on the fact that it gives away its products for free; Microsoft's competitors want the government to force Microsoft to compete on price, as they do. The paper looks at Standard Oil, Ford Motor Company in the 1920s and RCA. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • History and Impact of the 1967 President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice

    This paper examines the 1967 President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice, the history of the commission and the impact of its recommendations. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Writing and its History

    A 10 page paper which gives an historical overview of the history of writing, beginning with the hieroglyphics and progressing to present day. Discusses such achievements as Gutenberg's printing press and the creation of punctuation. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Barbara Kingsolver's Pigs in Heaven

    5 pages. Best known for her best-selling book The Poisonwood Bible, Barbara Kingsolver has woven another intricate tale with sympathetic and realistic characters that have an interesting story to tell. Pigs in Heaven is a book steeped in the tradition of the Cherokee Nation, and emphasizes the importance of children maintaining a connection with their culture and the roots of their history. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Milestones in Cognitiivism

    4 page paper that traces eh history and reports the milestones in this school of psychology. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Indian Music and the Tabla Drums

    This 6 page paper gives an in depth overview of the tabla drums used in traditional/classical Indian music. Basic strokes, history, and construction discussed as well. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Falasha Liturgy and Indian Cassette Industry, Reflection on these Issues

    A 6 page essay that summarizes and reflects on the 1980 article "''Historical Ethnomusicology': Reconstructing Falasha Liturgical History" by Kay Kaufman Shelemay and Peter Manuel's 1991 article "The Cassette Industry and Popular Music in North India." No additional sources are cited.

  • Music and Poems

    A 5 page research paper that offers lines from four poems and then describes the features of music that might be composed to express the poetry with each section of the paper representing a different era in music history. Eras included are the Baroque, the Classical, the Romantic and the Modern. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • Origins of Blues Music

    A 10 page research paper which examines the origins of the blues and how this musical medium grew out of African-American culture as an expression of protest against the society which suppressed them. The writer covers such topics as the history of the blues, as well as spotlighting African-American artists whose works were instrumental in forming the blues as we know it today. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Christian Worship Music and Theology

    A 4 page paper which examines the role of music in the theological history of Christian worship. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Listening and the Appreciation of Music

    A 12 page research paper that examines the art of music appreciation and what it takes to really listen to music. The writer argues that knowledge of how music is composed and musical history adds to the appreciation and enjoyment of the discerning listener. The three planes of listening as defined by Aaron Copland are discussed and the writer includes a brief survey of the basic period in musical development. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Mariachi Music of Mexico

    5 pages in length. Mariachi music is as much of Mexican heritage as is the overall cultural mystique that surrounds its haunting melodies. The various sones typically associated with this particular type of music is what separates – sometimes almost indistinguishably – the unique musical attributes that each son projects. Realizing the subtle differences between such sones as huasteco, jalisciense and jarocho provides the student with a significantly better understanding with regard to the history of Mexican music. No bibliography.

  • Lanza/Elevator Music

    A 5 page book review on Joseph Lanza's history of Muzak and easy listening mood music. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Music History, Classical Era to the 20th Century

    A 4 page essay that offers a concise summation of music history from the classical period in the eighteenth century through the twentieth century. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Popular Music and Mariah Carey's Influence

    A 5 page research paper on the 1990s diva of popular music‹Mariah Carey. The writer explores Carey's history, her popularity, t he tendency of the press to focus on her personal life, and her general influence in popular music. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • The Bible And The Koran - Christianity And Islam

    A 15 page paper that begins by explaining what sacred texts are, what scripture is and the importance of these. The paper discusses the Bible and Christianity and the Koran and Islam, reporting the origins of the books, their function, their importance, with comments about translations and interpretations. The writer also explains the four approaches to the Bible that have occurred through history. The writer also comments on the controversies regarding the interpretation of the Koran. Bibliography lists 14 sources.

  • Music as a Reflection of Society

    This 6 page paper takes a look at the history of music from the 1960s through the present day. The paper argues that popular music reflects society. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Evolution Of Gospel Music In America

    A 7 page paper that presents the history and evolution of gospel music beginning with music created by slaves. The name of this music also changed from anthem to spiritual to gospel over the years. The essay comments on the separation of white gospel music and black gospel music and identifies some of the pioneers in this field as well as more contemporary performers as gospel transitioned to mainstream. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Music Industry Survival and Development

    This 21 page paper provides an abstract, a table of contents and then a look at the history of the music industry and where it is headed. Sections include ideas about the specifics of the music business, inclusive of legal issues. Genres as well as the changes in popularity from decade to decade are issues discussed in this paper that also looks at the social problems caused by music. Violence, sex and other problematic aspects are part of the analysis. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Important Developments in Nursing

    This 3 page paper looks at two developments in the history of nursing that are important. The two events discussed are the work of Florence Nightingale and the development of evidence based nursing followed by discussion of the work of Dorothy Johnson who developed the Behavior System Model of Nursing. The bibliography cites 5 sources.

  • Behaviorist Psychology v. Humanistic Psychology

    A 7 page research paper that contrasts and compares the humanistic and behavioral approaches to psychology. The writer summarizes each school of thought, relating a brief history of each perspective, and then discusses their relative merits, showing that the mechanistic approach of behavioral psychology incorporates weaknesses into this approach. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Developmental Psychology Overview

    This 5 page paper provides an overview of the history of developmental psychology with attention to Piaget, Freud and Erikson. Each of the theorists' basic views is discussed as it concerns development. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Argument by David M. Halperin 'There Has Only Been 100 Years of Homosexuality' Assessed

    A 10 page paper which critically assesses David M. Halperin’s argument, “There has only been 100 years of homosexuality” by discussing the theory and history of sexuality which informs Halperin’s theory, and drawing appropriate conclusions. Bibliography lists 15 sources.

  • Leisure Music

    This 7-page paper focuses on house/dance music, its history, its current status, some information about demographics, and its evolution. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Mainstream Society, Underground Music, and African American Culture

    In five pages this paper examines the concept of underground music as it relates to African American culture and urban history with go-go music and soul among the topics of discussion. Four sources are cited in the bibliography.

  • Guqin Music and the Chinese Zither Instrument

    A 12 page research paper on this ancient and subtle Chinese instrument. The writer includes an overview of Chinese music as well as details on the construction, playing techniques, and music of the Ch?in which shows the history and significance of this remarkable instrument. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Mood Disorder: Case Study

    5 pages in length. Yolanda's dual diagnosis of major depressive disorder and drug abuse places her in Axis I: Major Depressive Disorder, Recurrent with 1) at least two major depressive episodes, 2) no episodic history of mania/mixed/hypomania, and 3) symptoms not due to another disorder. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Assessment and Plan for Team 83

    This 21 page paper looks at a case study supplied by the student. A firm operates in a competitive environment selling generic household electrical goods. Using the history of the firm the paper presents an assessment of past performance and a proposed strategy for the firms future. The bibliography cites 5 sources.

  • Japanese Organized Crime Syndicates, the Yakuza

    A 25 page in depth paper on the Yakuza (Japanese Organized Crime Syndicates). The writer details the history, organization, activities of the Yakuza in Japan and abroad and also talks about Yakuza's linkage to other organized crime groups. Provided, are in depth discussions of past and recent Yakuza bosses, Yakuza activity in the international drug trade, sexual slavery, financial sabotage, corporate manipulation, loansharking, etc. Report is based on information obtained from Yakuza: Past & Present. Primary source cited in Bibliography.

  • The United Church Of Canada

    A 4 page paper that provides a brief history of how this church came into being as well as their liberal theology. The writer reports comments about worship services in relation to a more liberal theology. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Dr. Jack Kevorkian's Role in Physician Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia

    A 12 page paper defining euthanasia and physician assisted suicide. Provides a history of the issues and includes an examination of the legal, ethical, religious, and medical facets. Relates the specifics of court cases revolving around Karen Ann Quinlin and Dr. Jack Kevorkian and provides a brief biographical outline of Dr. Kevorkian. Bibliography lists twelve sources.

  • Standardized Testing and its History

    This 11 page paper discusses the history of standardized testing and it's impact on education. This paper examines standardized testing from its inception through the 1970's. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Seeing History Through Hill's, Hobsbawm's, Thompson's, and Marx's Eyes

    This 10 page paper looks at Marxist ideas and technique as well as how other theorists view history. Each theorist is discussed in his own right, but all are compared and contrasted to one another's thinking. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • KKK's History

    A 7 page paper that examines the history of the development of the Ku Klux Klan. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Singapore History since WWII

    This 5 page paper evaluates the political history of Singapore. Many facts are included. Freedom of expression is discussed as a problem in this lucrative nation. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • World War II A Chronological History

    This 10 page paper provides a history from beginning to end of the Second World War. Causes of the war are discussed and how the war ends is also noted. Major events are highlighted such as the Holocaust and the dropping of the bomb on Hiroshima. A timeline is included. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • Colonial and Post Colonial History of Bali

    An 8 page essay that draws heavily on J. Stephen Lansing's anthropological study of Bali entitled "The Balinese" and outlines the history of this island culture during its colonial and post-colonial eras. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Tartt's The Secret History and the 'Fatal Flaw' Concept

    A five page paper which considers the concept of the 'fatal flaw' in Tartt's "The Secret History" and the way that their fascination with the darker side of the picturesque affects the lives of Richard and the others. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • Corrections, Policing, and Women

    In 7 pages the author discusses women in law enforcement and corrections, while paying particular attention to the history of women in the field, cases of women fighting to be in corrections, the name of the first women getting into law enforcement, problems encountered by women while in training and on the force. Women that have entered this field have encountered similar problems across the nation. It has been a widespread occurrence. Free outline included. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Ancient Rome and Law

    This 10 Page paper considers the history and the status of law within Ancient Rome. The paper considers in greater detail the legal status of the citizens and the civil right of suing another citizen in a Roman court. The bibliography cites 7 sources.

  • Historical Functions of Museums

    This 10 page paper delves into museums and how they are to be considered in light of new technology. The function of museums throughout history, and throughout the world, are explored. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • The History of Marijuana; Legal Status and Usage

    This 5 page paper looks at the history and use of marijuana, also known as cannabis. The paper starts with the ancient world an its’ use for ritual purposes as well as food and cloth and traces the its position to the modern day and the laws which prohibit it allow its use. The bibliography cites 6 sources.

  • History and Pros and Cons of Capital Punishment

    A 5 page paper which examines the history of the death penalty and then discusses the pros and cons of the issue. Bibliography lists sources.

  • U.S. History's Watershed Event, the Civil War

    4 pages in length. In describing the social, economic and political impacts, along with the results of war upon American psyche, one must grant a considerably broad overview of the primary issues associated with such a significant turning point in American history. Slavery, freedom and race relations reflect three of the most important aspects of why the Civil War can be looked upon as a watershed event for America, inasmuch as an entire classification of people finally earned the right to live like human beings. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Peter Horne's Women in Law Enforcement

    A 7 page overview of the book by author Peter Horne. This paper covers the highlights of the book, focusing on the history of women in law enforcement in the United States. Starting with their debut into law enforcement in the nineteenth century and proceeding through contemporary times, the author outlines the major accomplishment made even in the face of sometimes overwhelming obstacles. No additional sources are listed.

  • Cases and History of Antitrust Law

    This 7 page paper discusses Antitrust Law from several perspectives. History of Antitrust Law is discussed as is regulatory authorities, current legislation and historic cases. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Injury and Safety Impacts of Bicycle Helmet Laws

    A 6 page reviews of the history and impact of laws mandating the use of helmets for bicyclists. Bicycle helmet laws are quite controversial not only within the U.S. but also in other areas of the world (especially in Australia, Canada, Finland, Iceland, and New Zealand) where they have been implemented. Many debate the quest of just how effective they are in improving safety and reducing injuries. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Mt. Saint Helens

    This 12 page paper discusses the geography and geologic information regarding Mount Saint Helen's Volcano. Furthermore, an in-depth history of the volcano is given as well as the effects of its most recent eruption in 1980. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Culture of Costa Rica

    A 6 page research paper that examines the culture of Costa Rica by looking the topics of religion, education, economics, family, class structure, language, history, natural resources and geography. In so doing, this survey of culture shows the complexity of this Latin American society. Biography lists 8 sources.

  • The History of Cinematic Comedy

    This 5 page paper explores the history of film comedy by examining two films produced prior to 1980 and another produced prior to 1960. Other film examples are also mentioned and discussed. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Early 20th Century Historical Contributions of the Average Female

    An 8 page paper looking at the way women's contributions to our culture have fundamentally altered American history in the early part of this century. The paper contends that even if women's political contributions are ignored, changing social attitudes - changed by women, from within -- toward such issues as consumerism, contraception, and working outside the home transformed our culture. Bibliography lists five sources.

  • An Overview of Apocalyptic Literature

    This 5 page paper provides an overview of the history of the theories that predict the end times, focusing on how religion uses it to control its people. How the elite used the theories to control the social order during the high middle ages is explored. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Johnson and Kaplan's Relevance Lost The Rise and Fall of Management Accounting Reviewed

    This is a 10 page paper reviewing the book “Relevance Lost: The Rise and Fall of Management Accounting” by H. Thomas Johnson and Robert S. Kaplan first published in 1987 and has since been printed over nine times. The book is extremely relevant in its recognition of the importance of the development of the management accounting discipline over its course in history and the realization that the system must be drastically updated in order to be effective in today’s global competitive industries. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Cocaine and its History

    A 6 page discussion of the early history of cocaine. The author traces cocaine from the coca plant utilized by the traditional peoples of the Andes through the late nineteenth century and the invention of Coca Cola and various other products that commonly contained the drug. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • The Federal Reserve: Its History and a Prediction on What It Will Do

    This 3 page paper examines the history of the FRB and what it might do in the future. Interest rates are the focus of attention. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • History/Education & Educational Psychology

    A 5 page research paper that offers an overview of the historical foundations of education, psychology and how they combine in educational psychology. The writer gives a brief sketch of the men and concepts that makeup this history. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • General Psychology Questions

    21 pages in length. The writer briefly answers 20 general questions about psychology, its history, popular theorists and how they are pertinent to contemporary practice. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • Socrates, Rationalism, Behaviorism and Psychology

    A 7 page research paper that examines the history of psychology, with special focus on Socrates, rationalism and behaviorism. Bibliography lists 14 sources.

  • 'Father of Psychology' Wilhelm Wundt

    A 4 page research paper that examines the life and work of Wilhelm Wundt. The history of psychology begins with this topic being studied as sub-topics under the fields of both philosophy and physiology (Oakley, 1995). It became a field in its own right primarily through the work of Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) who is frequently referred to as the "Father of Experimental Psychology" or simply as the "Founder of Modern Psychology." The writer briefly examines his life and accomplishments. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Benjamin Rader/American Sports

    This 8 page paper examines Benjamin Rader's book American Sports. The book delves into history of sport in the United States. The paper focuses on the rise of sport as equated with the rise of cities. No additional sources cited.

  • Sport of Horse Show Jumping Overview

    A 3 page research paper that offers a brief overview of the sport of horse show jumping. The writer discusses the nature of the sport, its history and predicts increased popularity in its future. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Relationship Between Physicians and Advanced Practice Nurses

    This 8-page paper covers the relationship between advanced practice nurses (also known as nurse practitioners) and physicians. The relationship between these two has always been difficult. The paper examines the history of this relationship, why it has been so difficult and what some hospitals are doing to solve the problem. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Professional Nursing and Theory

    This 5 page paper provides an overview of the current status of nursing theory, related to the contextual view of the history of nursing theory. This paper relates the fact that in the the curative model, nurses provide assessments, act as integral members of healthcare teams, provide direct and indirect patient care, and address central issues for patients, including patient advocacy. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Nursing Honor Society Sigma Theta Tau International

    A 5 page paper describing Sigma Theta Tau International, Inc. (STTI), the Honor Society for Nursing. Described by one author as the nurses’ equivalent to Phi Beta Kappa, STTI is an exclusive organization that holds to exacting qualifications and criteria. The paper includes information on the organization’s history, services it provides for members and how membership benefits individual nurses. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Nursing and the Impact of 1996's Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act

    A 5 page paper discussing the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996. The paper provides a brief history of the law and discusses the data security aspect that went into effect in 2005, but the focus of the paper is how it can be expected to affect nursing and nursing duties. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Homosexuality and Latin American Gender Roles

    This 8 page paper discusses the societal views toward gender roles and homosexuality in the history of Latin America. Specific examples given. Quotes cited from texts. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Informal and Formal Group Dispute Resolution

    6 pages in length. The concept of conflict resolution takes into consideration the history of cross-cultural psychology in that it assesses culture as an indispensable component in the understanding of human behavior. Because there exist myriad contrarieties in the manner in which people behave from culture to culture, such perspectives as relativism and absolutism are integral in their own application. The writer discusses formal and informal conflict resolution as it relates to Australian Aboriginals and European settlers. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Mathabane/Kaffir Boy

    A 5 page book review that discusses this autobiography as a primary historical source that relates information about the apartheid era of South African history. No additional sources cited.

  • The Real Reason for Sexual Restriction in Society Today

    This 6 page paper examines sexual practices and ideas in today's society. Various cultures and practices through history are considered. A sociological explanation for the status quo is revealed. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • The Relationship Between Music and Magic

    This 5 page paper traces a brief history of magic, and some of the music magicians use in their acts. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • The Basque Tradition

    5 pages. This paper is an interesting study of the Basque people and the music, dancing, and clothing that they wear in their cultural dances. For hundreds of years the music and dance of their culture has been passed down through the generations and it still entertains yet tells us about the history of this beautiful culture. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Creative Cultural Expression and Rap Music

    This 6 page paper considers the culture and development of RAP music as a valid genre of expression and creativity. The writer considers the history of the music, how it became popular, its reputation and how this may indicate who it will grow in the future. The bibliography cites 6 sources.

  • African History: The Bible and Africa

    A 10 page paper which examines the history of Africa through the Bible. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Debussy and Chopin

    A 5 page research paper that compares and contrasts the Romantic era with the Impressionist, but focuses primarily on contrasting Chopin with Debussy. The Romantic and Impressionist eras in music history are quite different in their repertoires. However, an examination of the music of Impressionism, and specifically, a comparison between the piano styles of Chopin and Debussy, illustrates the connections between the Romantics and the Impressionists and shows that there were features of Romanticism that the Impressionists adopted and then emphasized rather than abandoned. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Reshaping Everyday Life/Jack Larkin

    A 5 page paper offers a brief overview of Jack Larkin's history text The Reshaping of Everyday Life, 1790-1840 and then offers a 4 page detailed discussion of chapter 6, which is on music during this period. No additional sources cited.

  • Venice, Italy

    A 10 page research paper that discusses the history of Venice, Italy, and also its architecture, painting and music, focusing particularly on the sixteenth century. Then, the writer discusses the current crisis of Venice sinking and what is being done to preserve the city. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Comparison Between Robert Schumann and Franz Haydn

    An 8 page paper that compares Haydn's String Quartet Op. 76, No. 4, second movement and Robert Schumann's "Scenes from Childhood," No. 13, "The Poet Speaks." In doing so, the writer explores how theses works fit into music history, which composer took a classical approach, which took a romantic, and how these eras are defined. Biography lists 5 sources.

  • Performance Enhancement Drugs and the 'Payoff' in Sudden Death

    A 6 page paper that explores the problems resulting from the use of performance and endurance enhancing drugs in athletic training programs as well as the use of drugs such as cocaine and marijuana to build mental confidence before athletic events and to ease the competitive edge following these events. Discussion includes the dangers of anabolic steroid use along with a brief history of its introduction to the athletic arena. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Pledge of Allegiance and the U.S. Supreme Court

    A 5 page argumentative essay that examines the Supreme Court case in which a California doctor is challenge the constitutionality of the Pledge of Allegiance. The writer presents the facts of the case and its history and argues that the Court should uphold the Pledge as it is now written. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Knowledge Theme in 'Paradise Lost' by John Milton and Doctor Faustus by Christopher Marlowe

    A 5 page research paper that examines the use of the theme of knowledge in Christopher Marlowe's late sixteenth century play, The Tragical History of Doctor Faustus, and John Milton's mid-seventeenth century epic poem, Paradise Lost,. The writer argues that each author addresses the issue of predestination and free will in determining the relationship of knowledge to God's will. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Latin America's Liberation Theology

    A 15 page research paper that describes the history and development of Latin American liberation theology. Liberation theology is a term that was coined in 1973 by Gustavo Gutierrez, a Peruvian Roman Catholic priest (Berrman, 1987). This branch of theological thought refers to Latin American Catholics who subscribe to the idea that Christianity should be primarily concerned with focusing on liberating people from oppression and poverty. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Spirituality and Liberation Theology

    This 4 page paper looks at the life and times of Gutiérrez and how his ideas on spirituality mesh with his notions of liberation theology. Notions of class differentiation and the poor and what the Catholic church should do are discussed. The history of liberation theology is touched on. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Hotel Industry and Issues of Sexual Harassment

    This is a 7 page paper discussing the sexual harassment issues in industries today. Current laws and history are introduced and specific examples of harassment and special issues relating to the hotel and restaurant hospitality industry are discussed. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • US Civil War and Weapons

    In 7 pages, the author discusses the history of weapons used in the American Civil War. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Rights of Citizens in Ancient Rome

    In 5 pages, the author discusses Ancient Roman History with respect to citizenship rights, what citizenship meant with respect to rights and duties, and how, why, and where citizenship rights were extended to others 509 B. C. – 89 B. C. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Corruption and Police

    A 6-page essay that traces the history of the American police department and the corruption that has hindered it from its early beginnings. A look at early police involvement with politics is included, as well as a look at the corruption that resulted from the association of the department with organized crime during America’s prohibition era. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Long Island's Transportation History

    This 8 page paper provides a history of transportation on Long Island, New York with a focus on trains, automobiles and boats. The Long Island Rail Road is discussed. Bibliography lists 11 sources.

  • Contemporary Symbolic Logic History

    This 6 page paper explores the history of logic, with a focus on Aristotle. Applications for use of logical principles are fully explored. The paper looks at the use of logic from Ancient times through the postmodern era. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Number e's History and Use

    This 5 page paper introduces the topic with a modern day look at compound interest, then delves into the history of the number e. Both early and modern uses are discussed. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Lies My Teacher Told Me by Loewen and A People's History of the US by Zinn

    A paper which looks at two critiques of the way in which American history has been deliberately misrepresented by successive governments, and the resultant mythology which has been constructed by historians and presented as factual evidence.

  • Collective Bargaining and its History

    This 5 page report explains that collective bargaining is when one group argues for its rights, needs, or demands from another group. It most often refers to the workplace and labor relations, negotiations between employers and employees (who are usually represented by a labor union) about terms and conditions of employment. A brief history of collective bargaining in the United States is presented. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Global History and the Significance of Political Ideology

    This 5 page paper looks at social change, economics, ideology and environment and concludes that political ideology has had the most significant impact on world history. Each subject is discussed and examples are provided. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Political Institutions Shaped by the History of Western Europe

    This 6 page paper looks at European history and how it has affected Europe as it is known today. An emphasis is placed on politics. Communism is discussed. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • A Political History of Cuba

    An 8 page paper discussing Cuba's oppressive political history. The Cuban people are hard working and strive to maintain optimism. The fact is, however, they have suffered centuries of political and economic oppression. Cuba presents perhaps the finest example of the consequences of inept government based on unworkable ideology rather than on the realities of life. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • US and New Jersey's Capital Punishment History

    A 10 page discussion of the history of the death penalty in the United States. Emphasizing the experiences in New Jersey and providing corresponding information for several other key states, the author of this paper concentrates on the key legal events and the controversy surrounding capital punishment. Bibliography lists 15 sources.

  • Electronic Music History

    A 6 page research paper that gives an overview of the history of electronic music. The writer discusses the contributions of various composers, as well as giving a brief description of the electronic technological advancement that pertained to music. Bibliography lists 20 sources.

  • History and Evolution of Hare Krishna

    10 pages in length. There exist a great many philosophies by which people live their lives that help maintain order and a sense of direction that otherwise would merely drift in subconscious thought. One particular philosophy that has not set well with mainstream society is that of Hare Krishna, which partakes of the spiritual side of life by eschewing that which is overtly materialistic and shallow. The writer discusses the history, legal problems and ultimate maturation process of the Hare Krishna movement. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Social History and Collective Memory

    A paper which considers the psychological concept of collective memory with particular reference to its importance in the study of social history. Bibliography lists 5 sources

  • Waldo E. Martin Jr's Brown v. Board of Education A Brief History with Documents

    A 2 1/2 page paper which reports on Waldo E. Martin Jr.’s “Brown v. Board of Education A Brief History with Documents.” No additional sources cited.

  • English Drama and its History

    A 5 page paper which examines the history of English drama up to 1600. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Issue of Mortality in Literature and in Life

    This 8 page paper examines the issue of mortality and explores three works of literature as part of the analysis. Genesis along with Gilgamesh and Pliny the Elder's Natural History are the works discussed. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Brief Nursing History

    2.5 pages in length. The writer provides a brief history of nursing and the theorists who helped shape the industry. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • History and the Role of the European Central Bank

    This 10 page paper looks at the history and development of the European Central Bank, ECB, and the role the bank now places, The papers includes the operations of the central bank and considers issues such as structure, decision making processes, accountability and independence. The bibliography cites 30 sources.

  • History of American Women

    An 8 page research paper that answers 4 questions concerning American women's history drawing from Sara M. Evans' Born For Liberty (1989). The topics covered include political and legal rights during the colonial era; women's participation in the Revolutionary War; the "cult of true womanhood"; and the contribution of the "mill girls" to industrialization. No additional sources cited.

  • Computer Hacking History

    3 pages in length. The writer provides a brief history of computer hacking from the 1960s forward. Bibliography lists 12 sources.

  • Economics as the Driving Force of History

    4 pages in length. That some historians claim history's driving force is economic in nature recognizes the unmistakable glare of man's constant quest for more, a notion that has not only maintained a perpetual separation of social class but also caused considerable suffering as a direct result. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • U.S. Employment Prospects in History Teaching

    This 5 page paper discusses the various options for a history education major. Examples are given. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Apartheid's History

    6 pages. This paper gives an overview of the history of Apartheid, especially in the context of two specific books. White Supremacy by George Fredrickson and Ethnic Power Mobilized by Heribert Adam are the two books which are analyzed and commented on in this historical look at Apartheid. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Marco Polo, Herodotus, and Their Histories

    A 5 page paper which examines the historical presentations offered in Herodotus’ “Histories” and Marco Polo’s “The Travels of Marco Polo.” No additional sources cited.

  • Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century History, Europe, and the Norton Simon Museum

    A 5 page paper which examines art in the Norton Simon Museum and discusses it relevancy to 18th and 19th century history as it relates to Europe. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • Blues Music History

    This 5 page paper provides an overview of the history of the blues. Attention is paid to origins of this important music style Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • 3 Canadian History Articles Analyzed

    This 5 page paper takes a look at three articles submitted by a student. The articles that confront Canadian History during the 1700s are evaluated individually. Much about the fur trade and economy is discussed. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Freedom Rides and African American History

    A 6 page paper which discusses the history of the African American through the Freedom Rides. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • History of Western Civilization

    A 14 page paper which discusses 5 different aspects of the history of Western civilization. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • U.S. Voting Rights

    This is a 5 page paper that discusses the history of voting rights in the United States with particular focus on the progress of civil rights and voting rights during the 1960s. The bibliography has 6 sources.

  • Fifteenth to Seventeenth Centuries' English Feasting History

    An 18 page paper which examines the history of feasting in England from the 15th to the 17th centuries. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Aspects of U.S. History - Vietnam and the Civil Rights Movement

    This 6-page paper focuses on two facets of U.S. history -- first, how Brown vs. Board of Education helped spark desegregation and ultimately the Civil Rights Movement; and second, how the Vietnam War escalated under the leadership of Presidents Lyndon Johnson and Richard Nixon.

  • History and Overview of Condoms

    A 10 page paper which provides a look at the history of condoms and also provides a general overview of their use. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • 3 Articles Analyzed Pertaining to Twenty Fifth Egypt Dynasty Kush History Until Meroe Concentration

    This is a 7 page paper discussing three articles on Kush history from the 25th dynasty in Egypt until their concentration in Meroe. The history of the Kush of Nubia is recounted in three articles by Helen Chapin Metz, Claude Rilly and Noah Kippley-Ogman. The Kush were concentrated in Nubia until the expansion of their strength and influence eventually led to them conquering Egypt around 750 B.C. and ruled during the 25th dynasty until approximately 656 B.C. At this time, they were invaded by the Assyrians which led to their retreat to Napata and eventually Meroe. Once concentrated in Meroe, the Kush became a major trading force based on their central location and production and trade of their own iron. Eventually however, the Kush became weakened through the exploitation of their own resources which led to the loss of their farming industry and the end of the Roman empire which reduced trade along their route. Meroe was eventually conquered by the Axumite army A.D. 350 thus ending their independence. Metz, Rilly and Kippley-Ogman provide slightly different perspectives, details and areas of concentration in their articles which provide readers with an overall history of the Kush but are not necessarily consistent in the details of each era of the Kush. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • History and Trade School Problems

    8 pages. This is a literature review regarding the issue of trade schools vs. schools of higher education. For the most part there is an ongoing argument that trade schools are not as socially responsible nor as distinguished as schools of higher education. This paper shows why that statement is in most cases a false one; trade schools can be and in many cases are advantageous over schools of higher education. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Ancient History and Interactions Across Cultures

    An 8 page paper which examines some of the cross-cultural interactions in the pre-classical, the classical, and the post-classical periods. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Real Analysis Conceptual History

    This 5 page paper delves into the concept of real analysis and looks at key people integral to the emergence of this mathematical field of study. Several mathematicians are named including Archimedes and Cauchy. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Thailand's Cultural Diversity and its History

    This 5 page paper consider how the cultural diversity in Thailand originated with the tribal kingdoms and different ethnicities. The writer then consider how this has proven to be of bandit to Thailand in today’s global economy where cultural diversity is common. The bibliography cites 4 sources.

  • Significant Events in American History between the late 1950s and 2002

    A 5 page paper that outlines and briefly discusses some of the major events of the last 45 years in the United States and their impact on American life. Some of those events include the 2000 presidential election, the attack on America, Vietnam, Dr. King and the Civil Rights movement, the assassination of President Kennedy, Watergate, StarWars and many more. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • An Overview and History of the Penitentiary at Alcatraz

    This 11 page paper provides an overview of this historic institution. Details on how it was constructed and how secure it had been are included . Information on attempts to break out of this high security prison are also included. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • London's Finance and Trade History

    This is an 8 page paper discussing the developmental of London as an international center for trade and finance. Since the invasions of the Romans until the international commerce market which stands today, London has long been considered the center of international trade and finance. The strategic location on the Thames River and the early establishment of the wool industry in Britain, allowed for London to become a major trade centre in Northern Europe with trade alliances with the Dutch, Germans, Danish and Italians initially. The period of colonization and the trade of the raw commodities from the colonies further increased London’s hold on the manufactured goods coming out of England, shipping, and the redistribution of products throughout the world. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Christianity History and Significance of 'Church Order'

    6 pages in length. In order for Christianity to have held its religious endowment and authority for as long as it has, it was necessary to impart specific elements of Church order as a means by which to guide followers. To question religious strength is to cast a shadow of doubt upon the entire faith and its existence; as such, the Church recognized a great need for order and consistency to ensure unyielding dedication from its followers and, therefore, uncompromising devotion of its principles. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • History and the Philosophy of Karl Marx

    This 5 page paper provides a discussion on historical materialism. Marx's theory is relayed and evaluated in the context of the real world. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • U.S. History, Quilting, and Quilts

    An 8 page paper which examines how quilting enhanced the role of women in nineteenth-century society, considers the significance of quilting bees and quilts as folk art. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Colombia's History Since its Independence

    This 4 page paper discusses the developments which have come to Columbia since its independence, examines the causes of the civil wars, and analyzes the potential for the future. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Reading Education History

    A 6 page paper. One writer developed a historical framework that illustrated four ages of reading pedagogy. These are used as the basis for the historical account of reading education. The writer also includes major theorists in the discussion, such as Noah Webster, John Dewey and Norm Chomsky. A history of reading education would not be complete without mentioning the decades old debate of phonics versus whole language. Finally, the essay considers the major trend in literacy and reading programs. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • History of Israel and the Impact of the Exodus from Egypt

    This 7 page paper discusses the effects that the exodus from Egypt had on the Hebrews and the founding of the Jewish faith. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • US Black Muslim History

    This 3 page paper provides an overview of how African Americans embraced Islam in the United States. While Farrakhan is mentioned the focus of this paper is on other factions. Some statistics are provided. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Business History and Management

    A 4 page paper discussing this question: “Does the ‘managerial revolution’ in leading industrial nations explain their competitiveness and growth performance?” The structure and function of the integrated managerial enterprise is credited in the view of many with giving rise to large firms and enabling them to achieve success, but others claim that this explanation is not sufficient outside of the rapid growth of big business in the later years of the 20th century. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Answers to Questions on Immigration History

    A 7 page paper which answers questions (asked by student requesting this essay) from Nancy Foner’s work “From Ellis Island to JFK.” No additional sources cited.

  • LSD's History

    This 6 page paper gives an overview of LSD(acid) including the use and abuse of the drug over the years. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • From the Light into the Darkness of Japanese History

    A 6 page paper which examines what may have happened from the Meiji to the early Showa periods (until 1930) that transformed Japan from liberal to conservative, considering such factors as group positions within society and government, continuity or discontinuity, that may have caused such a dramatic shift in ideology. Did these factors suddenly arise or did they predate this historical period? Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • Affirmative Action's History

    This 7 page paper provides a history of affirmative action, along with a look at its future. Many events and court cases are discussed inclusive of Bakke and Hopwood. Affirmative action is discussed as it respects both a legal and ideological timeline, and in the end it is thought that affirmative action will fizzle, in part due to the fact that diversity is embraced by many institutions. As recent Supreme Court decisions suggest, race should be one of a number of factors, but discriminatory practices should never be tolerated. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Hera Temple and Early History of Greece

    This 4 page paper analyzes the architecture of the first Temple of Hera in Greece. Elements analyzed for style and lifestyle of the people, function, and symbolism. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • A Cognitive Behavioral Therapy History

    This 6 page paper examines this umbrella of cognitive theories. Various ideas from Beck, Ellis and others are duly noted. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Economic History Of The Pacific Northwest

    This 2.5 page paper reports some of the characteristics of the economy in Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia since the 1930s. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Jason Meyer's Article 'No Idle Past: Uses Of History In The 1830 Indian Removal Debates'

    A 4 page review of the Fall 2000 article by Jason Meyers summarizing the political discord surrounding the Trail of Tears, the nineteenth century forced removal of the Cherokee people from their traditional land in the state of Georgia. No additional sources are listed.

  • History and the Philosophies of Karl Marx

    Karl Marx's theories are discussed. Attention is paid to the labor theory of value and economic determinism. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Performance of HMOs

    A 10 page paper tracing the history of health maintenance organizations (HMOs) and reviewing their performance over the years. HMOs' performance exceeded expectations during the decade of the 1990s, evidenced by total spending being a full $1 trillion less than expected 1993 – 2000. The health care industry has changed once again, however, and HMOs find themselves drowning in the rising costs they are unable this time to contain. Though they performed well in the past, it does appear that the time has come for another approach to delivering health care to individuals. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • American History Themes of Imperialism and War

    This 4 page paper discusses the topics of imperialism, the two world wars, and Vietnam, and how they can be connected using two specific references, Liberty, Equality and Power and Having Our Say. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Psychology and its Historical Evolution

    This 7 page paper begins with brief comments about psychology in ancient times and events prior to 1800. The major discussion is on events since the 19th century. This essay is very much like a timeline in narrative form. The writer provides dates and persons who introduced different ideas and theories. Most of the major contributors to the field of psychology are included. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Progress as Defined by American History from 1867 until 1909

    (5 pp) In the last portion of the nineteenth century Americans progressed at an uneven gait. In the West, men took giant steps across the country as they explored and claimed land; often walking over others such as the Native Peoples in the process. These same men "brought their" women with them through incredible difficulties, but then saw no reason to give them any political allowances. Children were "owned" as much as women were. Racial differences, although somewhat equal on paper made little progress. In the East labor and management systems, political patronage, and social reform began to demand attention, and progressive attention.

  • Early Photography History

    (5 pp). In the early nineteenth century, the new "invention" photography seemed as though it could "capture" the whole world, some labeled it, the "mirror with a memory."This discussion will examine some of those early photographers and their experiments. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • The Error of Reconstruction by Kenneth Stampp and Revisionist History

    Can you remember some phrase about education, which goes something like, "the more you learn, the more you discover how much you do not know." Such is the case in "revisionist history." Basically "revisionism" works from the premise of new information, or the use of additional information. Kenneth Stampp is a historic revisionist concerning the Civil War and the Reconstruction Period. In this 6 page discussion, we will examine the "new" data that he brings to light in his 1967 (and still being published) text, The Error of Reconstruction.

  • History and Effects of Disease

    An 11 page overview of the impact of disease on world cultures. Correlates the impact on traditional cultures and the way those cultures dealt with that impact with advances in modern medicine. Emphasizes the impact of disease on the Americas and specifically on the Native American inhabitants of the Americas. Describes common European diseases which either directly or indirectly impacted the Americas and our contemporary, verses our traditional, understanding of those diseases and their treatment. Includes a one page Roman numeral outline. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • History and Culture of the Cherokee

    An 8 page overview of the culture and history of this American Indian group. The author emphasizes that today the Cherokee, in many ways, are little different from mainstream While culture in the United States. They have, in fact, assimilated almost completely into that culture. At the time of contact with non-Natives, however, there were often substantial differences between Cherokee and White culture. These differences translated into rocky relationships between the Cherokee and the United States government, relationships which eventually resulted in the forced removal of most of the Cherokee from their homelands, the establishment of a government reservation for the people, and the separation of the nation into two distinctly different political units. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • The History and Evolution of Infection Control

    5 pages. The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the new and more enlightened study of infection control in the face of bioterrorism. While new rules have been put into effect and are of a more serious nature than ever before, the fact is that OSHA has had infection control rules in place for many years. This paper will take a look at the past and present day ways to control infection. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • History and Impact of the Cold War

    This is a 10 page paper discussing the events that led up to the Cold War. Major causes and issues are included and the overall effect of the war is discussed. The gradual build up of forces on both the capitalist Western side and the communist Eastern side are included. The paper focuses on the major countries involved. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Agriculture's Development History

    This 8 page paper discusses the development of agriculture by primitive man. The areas of the New World and the Fertile Crescent are compared and contrasted in their development of farming. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Early Labor History in Three Strikes by Howard Zinn, Dana Frank, and Robin Kelley

    A 5 page analysis of the circumstances and meanings presented in the book by Howard Zinn, Dana Frank, and Robin Kelley. Broken into three major sections, each authored by either Zinn, Frank, or Kelley, this book details the bloody Colorado Coal Strike of 1913-1914, the Detroit Woolworth's Strike of 1937, and the New York Musicians Strike of 1936-1937. Although only the Detroit Woolworth Strike was won, these labor strikes will forever memorialize internal labor movement relations of the early half of the twentieth century. The author of this paper contends that the progress made in these strikes are directly applicable to the contemporary working environment as well. No additional sources are listed.

  • Islamic History in Spain

    This essay examines the period of time in Spain during which the land was under Islam rule. The paper examines the impact that the Muslims had on Spanish architecture, art and music. Bibliograpy lists 4 sources.

  • Analyzing a History of Yugoslavia from 1918 until 1991

    This is an 8 page paper analyzing the history of Yugoslavia and its divisions of nation states and provinces within the years 1918 to 1991. After World War I, Yugoslavia was formed and over the course of the next 70 years underwent radical changes in its national borders. Up until the socialist republic in 1946, historical and national alliances had been divided only to be reunited again by the socialists. However, the nations did not get independence or international recognition until the break-up of Yugoslavia in 1991. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • US Lutheran Church and its History

    A 6 page paper that explores the changes that the Lutheran Church has undergone since its introduction to America beginning in the 1600s. Discussed are the divisions and reunification that the Lutheran Church in America has experienced during the twentieth century and the differences that still remain between the traditional Lutheran Church and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • History of the Arpanet

    5 pages in length. Reviews the history of the Arpanet from its beginnings, the problems it has faced and the innovation it has wrought as a forerunner to the Internet. The myth surrounding the Arpanet is that it was devised as a means to survive a nuclear war. While this is certainly interesting, the truth is that the Arpanet was commissioned by the Department of Defense in 1969. The true purpose of the Arpanet was to save money by linking the computers of scientists and researchers. The writer explains in this well-written paper details regarding the Arpanet. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Guillotine History

    This 5 page paper presents a description and overview of this item once used as the primary means of execution. Its origin, which was in revolutionary France, is the focus of the paper. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Healthcare of African Americans After the Second World War

    A 5 page paper which discusses how Africa Americans experienced a great change in access to health care, and access to health care professions following WWII, when the federal government made an active assault on discrimination policies. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • A Consideration of the American Museum of Natural History

    (6 pp). The Rose Center's permanent exhibits, detailing the size, scope and growth of the universe as well as the earth's place within it, were unveiled in February (2000) inside the new structure of steel and glass. The seven-story orb appears to hover next to the museum, and at night it is illuminated, by a soft blue light. The center replaces the old Hayden Planetarium, a New York City landmark that introduced millions of city kids to the night sky between 1935 and 1997: kids are still thrilled - no matter what their ages. still and design and exhibits are spectacular.

  • Dominant Historical Discourse of Community and Self

    11 pages in length. The writer discusses how those in supposedly "minority" positions could be said to have used "dominant" discourse for their own purposes; the virtues and the problems involved in the American tendency to make the single "self" somehow representative for everybody else; and Lincoln's vision of community. Included in the discussion are views from Thomas Jefferson, Frederick Douglass, Cabeza de Vaca, Cherokee Memorials and the Federalist Papers. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • US Slavery History

    5 pages in length. A discussion of the beginnings of slavery in the South and how it impacted the economics, as well as the nature of the institution. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • 1010 to 70 AD History of the Israelites

    (3 pp) The attitudes imposed upon "the Chosen" people of Israel have been disruptive from their earliest beginnings. Fortunately there have also been some unifying factors along the way. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Reconstruction to the Populist Party in U.S. History

    (8pp) Basic themes and questions have been suggested from the class material covered in chapters 16 through 21, from Carol Berkin's text Making America, volume 11, second edition, 1999. This paper covers that information.

  • US Women's Suffrage and its History

    This is a 3 page paper discussing the history of the women’s suffrage movement in the United States. The women’s suffrage movement within the United States began in earnest in 1848. Reflecting the sentiments of women around the world, organizers of a national convention that year began the process to fight for the right to vote (suffrage) and enfranchisement (the end of slavery) for women. The suffrage movement had two organizations, the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) headed by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the American Women Suffrage Association (AWSA) organized by Lucy Stone and others. The two organizations merged in 1890 which was also the year which also saw women’s rights to vote gradually being accepted across many of the Western states. After a long struggle and witnessing the enfranchisement of women occurring in many other countries, the Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution giving women the right to vote was finally passed in 1920. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Flute History and Use

    A 4 page paper discussing changes in the flute since the 14th century. The flute as it is known today owes many of its characteristics and qualities to the changes designed and implemented by Theobald Boehm (1794-1881) in the early 19th century. A woodwind most often used as a soprano voice in orchestras, marching bands and ensemble groups, the flute remains one of the most popular of all the musical instruments commonly in use today. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Inclusion and Exclusion in Donna Tartt's The Secret History

    This 5 page paper discusses the issue of inclusion and exclusion. Also explored is the idea of the imposter, and an argumentative paper is written which supports the idea of Bunny being the outsider, rather than Richard. Thesis supported by statements in the text. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Contemporary Nursing's History

    This 5 page report briefly discusses the development and history of modern nursing in the Western world. “Modern” nursing, just as other aspects of modern medicine, began to come into its own in the mid- to late-19th century in the Western world. Between war, scientific advancement, and the onslaught of the Industrial Age, humans were becoming aware of certain physical truths regarding their physical bodies, good health, and what constituted beneficial care and treatment. It has continued to advance along with technology and human knowledge. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Post 1945 History of Africa

    This is a 5 page paper and timeline discussing the history of Africa from 1945 to present day. A timeline from 1945 to present day Africa shows a great deal of change which has occurred within the last fifty years throughout the continent. Since 1945, African countries have gained independence from their colonial countries, established democracies and are heavily involved in international trade and commerce. However throughout this time period, Africa has also been fraught with civil wars, drought, famine, poverty and increasingly poor health. Culturally, although the African countries gained their independence from their colonial countries, the influence of the French, British, Portuguese, Dutch, Spanish and Italian cultures are still felt across Africa and acknowledged. Today, African leaders are working with international agencies and corporations to increase their trade and economic status, establish new health and debt relief plans and improve international relations in addition to addressing the national and international exploitation of their people and natural resources. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Race Concept and its History

    14 pages in length. Drawing upon the work of David Goldberg's "Racist Culture: Philosophy and the Politics of Meaning," one can readily argue that idea of race has always combined references to what is seen as natural (fixed) and social construct, suggesting that very divergent discourses have been implemented over time as a means by which to account for human diversity within the colonial context of European and non-European differences. Furthermore, the notion of race is not inherent to biology, but rather it is a social and cultural classification that has been erroneously attributed to biological implication. The writer discusses the concept of race from the Puritan colonization to present-day criminal justice system. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • History and Linguistics of the Jamaican Creole Language

    This is an 8 page paper discussing the Jamaican Creole language. The Jamaican Creole language, also known as Western Caribbean English, has been a unique language since the beginning of the 19th century although is it still only officially linguistically classified along with Creole and Pidgin languages as “language isolate, unclassified” with the International Linguistics Center in Dallas, Texas. Because of its unique elements which differentiate it from Standard English in the areas of linguistic phonology, morphology, semantics and pragmatics, linguists believe that it should not be considered a “dialect” but should be reclassified as a “nation-language”. Not only spoken in Jamaica, Jamaican Creole is also spoken in Columbia, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Panama. Jamaican is also influencing cultures and societies around the globe as large communities of West Indians who reside in countries such as Canada and the United States not only bring their language to the culture but also elements of their music, mannerism and lifestyle which are being adopted by neighboring communities. The Jamaican language is considered an excellent example of the many languages which are participating in the “Latinization” of the English language and are important in the linguistic study of the evolution of language. Includes an outline. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • The Secret History by Donna Tartt and Henry's Suicide

    This 5 page paper examins whether or not Henry's suicide was a noble gesture, or not. This paper excerpts from the text as support for the thesis. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • The Life and Works of Emma Lazarus

    A 5 page essay on the poetry of Emma Lazarus (1849-1887) who is the most prominent Jewish American poet of the nineteenth century. Through her eloquent poetry and other literary work, she endeavored to express what it meant to be outside the mainstream of American society, to give a voice to the thousands of immigrants who were trying to integrate themselves into American society during the nineteenth century. The writer discusses 3 of Lazarus' poems. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • History Of Educational Psychology - Emergence Of Cognitive Psychology

    A 3 page outline of a future paper that provides a brief introduction and then, continues as an outline with headings and subheadings and sometimes includes full sentences and that leads up to the emergency of cognitive pyshcology. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • A Historical and Theological View of Urban Renewal in Lupton's "Renewing the City"

    This is a 7 page paper that provides an overview of Lupton's "Renewing the City." The correlations between the biblical book of Nehemiah and contemporary urban planning methods is explored. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • The Western Tradition of Psychology

    This 4 page paper traces the western tradition of this discipline. The contributions of notable philosophers like Aristotle, Thomas Hobbes, Descartes, Spinoza and Leibniz are discussed alongside those of Freud. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Art History Questions

    A 4 page research paper in which the writer addresses four specific art topics, which includes ancient Egyptian art; Picasso's "Gernica"; the importance of music in the writer's life; and the writer's personal position on the importance and value of art. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • History of Judaism in China

    This 15 page report discusses the history of the Jews in China. Approximately 1,000 years ago, of Jewish traders from the Middle East who settled in the Sung dynasty's imperial capital of Kaifeng along the Yellow River in east central China. They openly prayed in Hebrew, observed Jewish dietary laws, circumcised their newborn sons and built a synagogue facing Jerusalem in which to worship. They lived in peace for centuries, eventually establishing a Jewish society and culture that has been estimated to range in numbers between 5,000 to 9,000 people. In the 1930s and 1940’s, there were an estimated 30,000-40,000 Jews in China. Most of whom left after the end of World War II or during the Cultural Revolution. Bibliography lists 7 sources. This paper is an extension of BWchina.rtf.

  • Resources on the Internet and its Applications

    This 10 page report discusses a broad range of reference information that relates to the Internet and its various applications. Numerous citations are include with brief pieces of information written to provide a more comprehensive, yet condensed, overview of the Internet. Bibliography lists 24 sources.

  • Prejudice, Assimilation and Tolerance

    A 5 page paper that provides an overview of the arguments of Montaigne, Condorcet and Herzl on the problems of prejudice against different races and religions, and evaluates their perspectives in terms of the call for assimilation and tolerance. 4 sources cited.

  • U.S. Government Actions from 1861 through 1900

    A 7 page paper discussing noble and brutal acts of the government during the period of 1861 through 1900. Bibliography lists 11 sources.

  • WWW History

    This paper provides an overview of the development of the internet and the world wide web, providing a great deal of technical information in 9 pages. In addition to the evolution of this widely used phenomenon, current application in terms of business, entertainment and education are noted as well. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • History and Societal Effects of Opium

    8 pages in length. Opium was the drug of choice during eighteenth- and nineteenth-century America. Popularized for its mood-altering capability, opium was first consumed in crude form and then later transformed into various recreational and medicinal strains. From the juice of the opium plant's poppy came laudanum and paragoric, two alcoholic extracts; black drop or Quaker's opium; and a preparation for smoking, of which the Chinese immigrants were particularly fond. However, crude opium was the most popularized form centuries ago, inasmuch as approximately ten percent of its composition is that of alkaloid morphine, its most powerful mood-altering ingredient. The writer discusses the history of opium usage, as well as contemporary efforts to curb opiate popularity. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Civil Rights Movement and the Role of African American Women

    A 5 page paper that discusses the behind-the-scene roles that black women played in the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s and how these roles supplied the support and strength to carry this movement forward. Also discussed is the triple burden of oppression that these women have labored under, a burden consisting of not only racial prejudice, but gender and class prejudice as well. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • History of the Philippines from Various Perspectives

    A 5 page research paper that offers two opposing perspective to the acquisition of the Philippines by the US. The writer argues that the official version of this acquisition emphasizes the altruistic characteristics of US colonial rule, but fails to mention the hidden agenda of the US Senate to gain imperial status by acquiring US colonies. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • History of Literature and Changing Character Gender Roles

    This 3 page paper discusses the changing roles of men and women as evidenced by literature. The Pelagasian Myth, Dante's Divine Comedy, and Milton's Paradise Lost, are all evidenced. Bibliography lists 0 sources.

  • Anti Semitism Throughout U.S. History

    A 5 page discussion of the depths that anti-Semitism sometimes flow in our own country. While acknowledging this hatred and bias that has been constructed against Jews, the author of this paper denounces the growing tendency to indict the Roosevelt administration as anti-Semitic. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • History of the LGBT Movement

    A 5 page review of a few of the many accomplishments that this movement has enjoyed over the last thirty years. The author emphasizes members of this movement still encounter rigid resistance in many arms of American society. For some members of this movement this resistance is greater than for others. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • Early Europe, Scientific Theory Development, and Counterfactual History

    An 11 page exploration of the way society repressed scientific fact in Europe, between 1000 A.D and 1800 A.D. The toll this repression took was a delay in the development of muchmore advanced knowledge. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Bellini, Durer, and Ribera and an Art History Examination

    A 3 page paper which examines three artists (Jusepe de Ribera, Albrecht Durer, Giovanni Bellini) from three different time periods (Baroque, Early Renaissance, Classical Renaissance). Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Intermediate English as a Second Language Class Reading Lesson Plans on US History Themes

    This 20 page paper provides an overview of a reading lesson for an intermediate ESL class. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • African American Education Throughout History

    In this 4 page paper, the writer encapsulates the struggle for education for black children between Colonial America and the 1930s. Major persons, dates and events are presented. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Various Employee Issues in the Workplace Workplace Considerations: Entitlements, The History of Rights, Education & Training, Community Support, and Whistle-Blowing

    This is a 5 page paper discussing some issues considered by employees within the workplace. In addition to the basic elements of an employee contract, employees should be aware of their employers’ support of their employees and to what extent this support covers. Employee entitlements for instance may be expected but can vary from organization to organization. While employees are aware of certain rights which exist within the workplace, they should also know whether or not these rights are indeed better or worse than the rights of those who preceded them. Many organizations support education and training for their employees but in almost all cases, the education should be job related for the employers make a considerable financial investment in their employees and wish to retain them. Employees should also be aware of any community-related support their organization has and to what extent that support also benefits the organization. Lastly, employees should be aware of whether or not their organization and state supports “whistleblowers” and in what instances whistle blowing would be considered a positive step. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Westward Settlement and Environmental Effects

    This 4-page paper examines westward settlement during the 19th century and its impact on the environment. Issues covered include technologies that spurred settlement, ecological impacts resulting from westward moement, and the reaction of settlers to the changes in the land. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Western Civilization Historical Periods

    A 3 page paper which defines and examines Renaissance, Reformation, Enlightenment, and Scientific Revolution as they influenced the development of Western civilization. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl by Harriet Jacobs and History

    A 4 page paper which examines and analyzes an excerpt from Harriet Jacobs’ “Incidents in the Life of a Slave Girl” as they pertain to historical context. No additional sources cited.

  • Art History and Orientalism

    A 4 page research paper that examines the nineteenth century art trend of Orientalism, which the wrier defines and then discusses, referring to representative works of art. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Black Boy by Richard Wright and History

    A 3 page paper which examines some of the key historical points made within Richard Wright’s novel “Black Boy.” No additional sources cited.

  • Post Second World War and Global History

    7 pages in length. The changes that have occurred since the end of World War II have been both grand and far-reaching; from a global standpoint, myriad events have taken place to completely alter the direction in which the world has progressed. Choosing but a handful of these incidents is weighty indeed, however, it can readily be argued that two issues served to transform the world in significant ways: The Cuban Missile Crisis and technology/globalization. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Gardens of Versailles Art History Examination

    A 10 page paper which examines how the fountains, sculptures and gardens that surround the famed French palace of Versailles reinforces the notion that kings are god-like and exert authority over their subjects as a father does over his children. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Witches, Midwives, and Nurses A History of Women Healers by Ehrenreich and English

    5 pages in length. The topic of this book evokes a sense of patriarchal control and unmitigated ignorance with regard to the 'science' of medicine and how it has evolved during the past few hundred years. Women's contributions, disregarded and shunned until very recently, have historically been overshadowed by oppressive patriarchal perspectives; by chronicling the events that have occurred throughout the centuries in relation to women and the medical community, Ehrenreich and English help to illustrate just how despotic the entire male-based medical profession has been, particularly in light of the unpleasant legacy left by the witch hunts of old. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • TV's History, Development, and Cultural Contributions

    This 5 page report discusses television and its impact on American life. From its invention in 1922 to its debut at the New York World’s Fair of 1939 and on to the Ed Sullivan Show, Star Trek, and American Idol, it has evolved as the most powerful communications medium in existence. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • U.S. History and American Racism AMERICAN RACISM AND HISTORY

    This 7 page paper discusses the interconnectedness of sexism and racism, as depicted by the women's movements and civil rights. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • American History X Film and Portrayal of Group Norms

    A 5 page paper. Every group develops norms of behavior. Group norms are the behaviors that are expected of each member of the group. This essay discusses three group norms that were demonstrated in the group of friends in this film. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • A History of the Holocaust by Rita Steinhardt Botwinick

    This 7 page paper looks at this comprehensive book and answers ten questions posed by the author. The paper considers thoughtful questions on the Holocaust and relies on the book to a large extent for answers. No additional sources cited.

  • Wildlife and the Impact of Urbanization

    This is a 10 page paper discussing the history, context, management and philosophies behind the problem of urbanization and its impact on wildlife. Urbanization has resulted in a large negative impact on wildlife in addition in regards to the flora and fauna communities. Within the last 300 years in the U.S., deforestation for urban or agricultural use has fragmented wildlife populations through urban sprawl, linear land use (such as roads and power lands) small and large agricultural land plots in addition to the introduction of exotic plants and animals which have an impact on native plants and animals. Agricultural use and urbanization in addition to being the demise of some species also causes the shift in native plants and animals in certain areas; shifts which tend to allow for the proliferation of some species often at the expense of others. Preservation and conservation efforts within the U.S. are primarily the result of the ethics and philosophies as promoted by Aldo Leopold who called for ecological considerations in regards to any urban planning. Preservation methods today focus mainly on restraining urban sprawl through the promotion of inner city renewal, the purchase of undeveloped land for preservation, promotion of mass transit through railways and fewer roads, and set growth boundaries around urban areas. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • History Of Religious Orders and Monasticism

    A 7 page paper that begins by explaining the origin or the word monasticism and the types of lifestyles that may be adopted as a monk. The connection between monasticism and asceticism is explained. The writer then traces the history of the practice of monasticism before and after Christ and identifies the first Christian monastic orders that were founded. The differences between Eastern monastics and Western monastics are described. It was in the 6th century that the monastic way of life grew so much with the founding of the Franciscans and the Dominicans. The founding of more religious orders, including the Jesuits, was re-emphasized during the Reformation. The challenges to monasticism are discussed. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • History and Uses of TQM

    A 4 pageoverview of the evolution of this management style. The author notesthe key players in the development of TQM and emphasizes it has evolvedover time to emphasize the human element of the industrial elements ofour business world. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • A History of the Magazine in America

    This 6 page paper outlines the remarkable development of the American periodical from the early 1700's thru the twentieth century. This paper tracks and gives example from historical documents about issues of circulation, photos, print and marketing practices. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Fritz Lang's Films

    This 8 page report discusses the work of German-born film director Fritz Lang (1890-1976) and the challenges he faced and creative risks he took. His work also included the technological shift from silent to “talking” pictures and the move from the German to the Hollywood school of movie-making. In many ways, Lang’s work is emblematic of the shifts that take place throughout any successful moviemaker’s career. However, because of the times and the absolutely fundamental changes (no sound compared to sound) that took place during his career, the process is even all the more dramatic. Six Lang movies are considered in the report: The Spiders, Spies, Metropolis, Fury, Man Hunt, and Journey to the Lost City. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • German History and the Contributions of Helmut Kohl

    This 10 page paper looks at Kohl's contributions and legacy, but really centers on other leaders such as Brandt and Adenauer. Kohl's rule is evaluated in light of policies implemented by his predecessors. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Apocalyptic Literature

    This 9 page paper compares and contrasts old and new apocalyptic literature. The bible is discussed along with Nostradamus . The New Age movement is highlighted. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Calculus' History

    This 6 page shows how calculus was derived from the studies in real analysis and lead to the development of calculus. The paper begins with the discoveries of Ancient Greece with thinkers such as Zeno of Elea and Archimedes and looks at many mathematicians such as Valerio, Cavalieri and Fermat finishing with Newton and Leibniz. The bibliography cites 3 sources.

  • Definition and Role of European Feudalism

    This is a 6 page paper discussing the development and purpose of feudalism in Europe from the 9th to 13th centuries. Originating out of the chaos which resulted from the breakdown of the Roman institutional system, the feudal system consisted of lords and kings which controlled fiefs across Europe. Through the development of the agricultural revolution and the expansion of textiles and export goods, the lords and kings became more established and the Orders of Knighthood developed during this time. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • The History of Rasselas, Prince of Abissinia by Samuel Johnson and Obsession

    This 5 page paper argues that this book, which is usually seen as a story about the choices of life, may be more accurately interpreted as illustrating the obsession of the main characters. The bibliography cites 1 source.

  • Passenger Aviation

    This 5 page considers the development of passenger aiplanes from the beginning of the twentieth century until today. The writer looks are aircraft such as the Boeing 247, the Boeing 307 Stratoliner, DC-3, DC-6 and DC-6 as well as the Dash 80 and Concorde. Consideration is also given to the on board flight management system. The bibliography cites 6 sources.

  • Graffiti's Development History

    This 5 page report discusses the existence of graffiti and the fact that graffiti is an expression of art, whether political, social, or aesthetic, it expresses something that its creator wants to express through the medium of paint and a bare surface that will be viewed by others. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • A Brief History of Time by Stephen Hawking

    A 5 page book report on the renowned scientist’s consideration of the significance of time in the universe. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Social Status of Women in the Ancient Societies of Greece, Rome, and Mesopotamia

    7 pages in length. Within the realm of life exists inherent elements to one's existence; paramount to man's existence is the concept of natural rights. Philosophers have long postulated what, exactly, these rights consist of within the massive scope of mortality, with some contending that natural rights are those that are without social infiltration, while others attest to the fact that natural rights are doled out only by social status. From century to the next, the issue of natural rights has evolved from overwhelming gender oppression to the recognition – in many parts of the world, at least – that women maintain just as important a place upon this earth as does her male counterpart. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Website on the History of Antique Telephones

    (5 pp) This discussion explores a website concerning antique telephones. Yet the material that is presented at the site (www.museumphones.com), tells more of a story, and the memories that first telephones bring back to us. Creative visual included of lineman on bicycle.

  • The History of Modern Music

    This 5 page paper is an informative journey through music from 1920 until the modern day. There is brief coverage of all the decades since the 1920's with examples of the contemporary styles of the day, including music by Stravinsky, Jazz, Modern, Blues, Rock and Roll, RAP and Punk. The bibliography cited 4 sources

  • Color Photography and its History

    9 pages in length. Once the staple of photography, black and white images have all but given way to its color counterpart. Indeed, the lure of bright, rich color was, in and of itself, enough of a selling point to draw away from what had heretofore existed only in the finite world of black and white. The advent of color photography brought with it an entirely new perspective to the industry, which included more expansive manufacturing plants, increased consumer interest and a glimpse into a more realistic image. The writer discusses the history of color photography. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • The Early Music Revival A History by Harry Haskell

    6 pages in length. The writer offers a general review of Harry Haskell's book, which is the first comprehensive historical study of its kind chronicling the early music revival, tracing its origins to the eighteenth century. No additional sources cited.

  • Golf's History and Evolution

    This 5 page report discusses the larger history of golf – how it evolved and what it has become. It has been fairly well established that golf was actually devised by the Scots in the 14th or 15th century. Since then, golf has evolved into a measured world by which a person can be judged by their awareness of proper etiquette, attitude, and dress, as well as how they hit the ball. Throughout the centuries, certain attitudes and rules transcend nationality and reasons for golf to create golf’s own unique world of beliefs, standards, and ideals. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • “A History of Mathematics: From Mesopotamia to Modernity”

    A 3 page overview of the book by Richard Hodgkin. This paper emphasizes Hodgkin’s message that mathematics have been a critical element in much of world development. No additional sources are listed.

  • Should The Bible Be Used To Teach History

    An 8 page paper. The question of the Bible's veracity must be addressed before this question can be answered. The greatest part of this essay addresses the accuracy of the Bible in terms of historical events; archaeological evidence is reported. The writer then comments on the title question. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • The Recording Ban and Other Issues in Music History

    This 3 page paper examines the 1942 ban and other issues that plague the industry. Problems concerning radio stations and recording companies are explored. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Ten of History’s Greatest Mathematicians

    This 7 page paper outlines the accomplishments of Isaac Newton, Leonard Euler, Euclid, Archimedes, Carl Friedrich Gauss, Joseph-Louis Lagrange, Pierre de Fermat, Rene Descartes, Leonard 'Bigollo' Pisano (Fibonacci), and Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • History Of Child Rearing Practices

    This 5 page paper provides an overview of child-rearing practices beginning in the 1800s. The 20th century was called the century of the child by the National Congress of Mothers in 1899. The writer reports the focus during that century was not on the child. The essay comments on changes in society and beliefs about children and childhood. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • "Colored People": The History of the Term

    This 3 page paper considers the various terms applied to African Americans over the years, whether or not the term "colored people" is derogatory, and whether the NAACP should consider changing its name. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Lebensborn and Eugenics Programs of Nazi Germany

    A 20 page research paper providing an overview of the laws pertaining to eugenics and the Lebensborn program of Nazi Germany. The writer centers on the program and the support mechanisms put into place to underscore the development of the Nazi master race in the late 1930s and early 1940s. Bibliography lists 12 sources.

  • What if the Mayflower Had Landed in Jamestown instead of Plymouth?

    A 4 page paper that speculates how the issue of slavery might have been different had the Puritan influence been over the plantations of the south. Included is a comparison of the type of people who colonized Jamestown and the type who colonized New England. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • History, Government, and Bureaucracy of Contemporary South Africa

    This 12 page paper looks at how modern South Africa came into being. The writer assesses what the country's primary challenges were . . . and still are. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • S and P 500 Price to Earnings' Ratio History

    This 5 page paper provides an overview of the S&P 500 over the decades and explores trends. Price to earnings ratio and earnings yield are explained. Two charts are included. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Generations The History of America's Future, 1584 to 2069 by William Strauss and Neil Howe

    5 pages in length. The writer discusses what the Thirteenth Generation is, how it differs from the Baby Boomers and what might be in store for them in the twenty-first century. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Birth of a Nation/Cinematic History

    A 3 page research paper that discusses The Birth of a Nation (1915, directed by D.W. Griffith for Epoch; screenplay by D.W. Griffith, Frank E. Woods and Thomas Dixon), which is a landmark film in cinematic history as it was the first important feature-length film, which had a tremendous impact on the nascent industry, as it changed the demographic makeup of film audiences (The Birth of a Nation, 1995). Up to this time, films were generally considered to be a working-class entertainment, but Birth of a Nation opened cinema to a much wider audience, one that had previously preferred only the legitimate theatre (The Birth of a Nation, 1995). Nevertheless, considering Birth of a Nation is also problematic due to this film’s overt racism. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • US History and the West's Role

    This 3 page report briefly discusses the importance of the role played by the West in the development and consciousness of the United States. Bibliography lists only one source.

  • Florida's Election Primary of 2002

    A 6 page discussion of the multitude of problems which repeated themselves once again in the September 2002 primary elections in South Florida. This paper outlines those problems and suggests that the solution lies in better communication within the extremely diverse community and better state oversight of the election process. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • The History of Rock Music in Mexico

    This 7 page paper chronicles the underground beginnings of rock and roll in Mexico to the rise in popularity of Mexican Rock and Roll to the point that its influences became international. Loads of quotes from texts. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Late Twentieth Century History and Politics of Chile

    A 20 page overview of Chilean politics, and the role of the U.S. in those politics, in the years spanning the election of Allende and the end of the Pinochet regime. The author contends that the U.S. exerted considerable manipulation in Chile and the result was the overthrow of Allende and the rise of Pinochet to the Chilean presidency. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • A History Of Holy Communion

    A 20 page paper that begins with a quotation from Justin Martyr. Worship in the early church illustrates how it was decided to administer the Eucharist on 'Sunday.' The history of the Eucharist from the 1st century. The writer comments on the theology of transubstantiation, a controversial topic and includes Scripture used by the Catholic Church as support for this belief. Different documents from the Holy See are reported illustrating the changes in the beliefs and practice of administering the Eucharist. Another issue discussed is the practice of the early church including infants and children in the Lord's Supper. Finally, the writer discusses Lay Eucharistic Ministers. Bibliography lists 14 sources.

  • Professional Education Organizations

    A 15 page discussion of the importance of teachers' groups. The author emphasizes that these groups can be very diverse yet can play a tremendously important role in the shaping of policy and even law relating to education. Bibliography lists 12 sources.

  • Calculus History

    Calculus provides methods to deal with varying quantities. O'Connor & Robertson (1996) state that it has been evolving since Zeno in 450 B.C.E, who was supposed to be the first to posit an equation based on the infinite. However, the first infinite equation is believed to have been introduced by Archimedes in 250 B.C.E., bringing with it leaps in logic from theorists like Barrow, Newton and Leibniz. Bibliography lists 4 sources. jvHisClc.rtf

  • Philosophy and Metaphysics

    12 pages in length. The writer discusses in detail the contributions to metaphysics made by such philosophers as Aquinas, Plato, Hegel, Kant and Charles Taylor. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • Cultural Diversity and the Dynamism of History by Sasaki Takeshi

    5 pages in length. The writer provides a brief analysis of Takeshi's article. No bibliography.

  • Behaviorism

    This 6 page paper provides an overview of behaviorism, which is one of two primary schools of psychological theory that were defined by long-standing philosophical premises but fine-tuned in the 20th century in reaction to the Freudian constructs that had shaped much of the psychological research after the turn of the century. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • A History of the Israeli Palestinian Conflict by Mark Tessler

    This 5 page report discusses Mark Tessler's 1994 book on the origins of the conflicts between Israel and the Palestinians. Tessler is intent on presenting the historical foundations of the conflict objectively but without being detached from it all. He recognizes and points out the very real injuries that have been suffered by both Palestinians and Israelis. He also makes comparisons of the ways in which Arab nationalism and Zionism have evolved alongside one another. Bibliography lists only the primary source.

  • History and Recommendations for Advanced Directives

    Considerations An 11 page overview of advanced directives in the medical arena. The author reviews the history of advanced directives utilizing such historic cases as the Karen Ann Quinlan case and the recent high profile case of Terri Schiavo to emphasize their importance. The provisions of the 1991 Patient Self Determination Act are explored and recommendations made regarding their implementation on both a personal and organizational level. Statistics are provided regarding the popularity of such directives. A copy of a generic durable power of attorney form is included as supplementary material. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Upton Sinclair's The Jungle and the American Dream

    A 3 page paper which examines the historical realities in Upton Sinclair’s novel “The Jungle.” The paper then discusses whether or not the Jurgis family has lived the American Dream. No additional sources cited.

  • Napoleon Bonaparte and Adolf Hitler

    This 4 page paper compares and contrasts the personalities and lives of Napoleon Bonaparte and Adolph Hitler. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Monica Sone's Nisei Daughter, Pauli Murray's Proud Shoes, and History

    A 5 page paper which compares and contrasts the historical aspects found in “Proud Shoes” by Pauli Murray and “Nisei Daughter” by Monica Sone. No additional sources cited.

  • Chinese Legalism and Confucianism

    This 6 page paper considers these different schools of thought, looking at what they were, how they differed and how this impacted on the political and social situation in China during the Qin and Han periods. The bibliography cites 3 sources.

  • How Pre History Shaped America

    A 5 page paper discussing the ways in which the first to arrive in America between 20,000 and 30,000 years ago have served to shape today’s American civilization and national culture. The paper discusses the resolve that they certainly must have had in leaving everything known for everything unknown, then using in the new places only those things available to them in the new environment. Asian cultures are enigmatic in their reverence for their ancestors, and it remains a fact that Westerners often dismiss. Ancestry does direct the paths of the future, however. Our pre-history, Renaissance and colonial ancestry well serves the world’s only “mongrel” country, one made up of many ancestral strains, all of which have proven to represent magnificent stock. The paper also includes a discussion of American reaction to Pearl Harbor and the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Analysis and History of the Dow Jones Industrial Average

    8 pages. Starting with the most famous market crash of 1929, this paper discusses other major market crashes through the year 2000. The Dow Jones Industrial Average is tracked for the last few years in order to determine the cause of these major swings and what it is that is preventing a strong recovery. This is an excellent overview of the Dow Jones and gives the student an effective basis on which to proceed with further research regarding market crises and possible recovery scenarios. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Relationships Between Men and Women in Literature and Throughout History

    An 8 page research paper that examines how historical sources and literature have portrayed male/female relationships. The writer specifically examines this topic in regards to marriage in the nineteenth century. Literary sources discussed are A Doll's House, The Awakening and Jane Eyre. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • Pakistan's Miniature Painting

    This is an 8 page paper discussing the history, influences and contemporary issues in miniature painting in Pakistan and India. The art of miniature painting was first known to exist in Persia where it was imported from into India during the 1500s at the beginning of the Mughal dynasties. In the Mughal schools of artistry, the art of miniature painting was given a more intense and dynamic feel which differentiated it from the formal structures used by the Persians. The technique is very specific in its use of wasli paper, squirrel hair brushes and vivid water based paint applied in multiple layers to earn it a silky finish. When the Mughal dynasty was displaced, so too were many of the artists who then had to earn livings applying their craft to other objects such as walls and furniture. During the late 1800s, when Indian nationalism began to take place, a revival of the traditional arts led to the re-introduction of miniature painting into the educational system where artists could earn specialties in it. Today, the art of miniature painting is one of the more popular and traditional methods of art especially found in the graduates of the National College of Arts in Lahore, Pakistan, the only school in the world offering a specialty in miniature painting. Modern miniature artists apply traditional Mughal methods in their depictions of the contemporary world and the political and lifestyle issues in Pakistan. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • History and Future of TCP/IP

    A 3 page paper tracing TCP/IP’s origins and assessing its likely future. Other technologies such as Ethernet and ATM have too many technical barriers that TCP/IP does not. In determining TCP/IP’s future, it appears that the connected world is moving more toward IP communications. The interim points between should be able to provide a rather seamless transition. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Overview of the The Silk Industry : Brief History, Modern Day Markets, Trade and Production

    This is a 7 page paper discussing the silk industry. Originating in Ancient China, the Chinese silk industry alone still maintains an annual global market of over $2 billion. While China still remains the largest exporter of raw silk and Japan is its largest consumer, silk is still one of the most popular natural fibers in demand in Europe and North America. The introduction of synthetic fibers and the more affordable sand-washed silk within the last decade however have driven the cost of silk down almost 50% on international markets. This has led to recent production center closures in Japan and the Republic of Korea which has caused a devastating effect on the millions of silk farmers in the countries of China, India and Brazil. The International Trade Commission and the International Silk Association are currently working together to continue the silk industry because it is comparatively an environmentally friendly product in addition to its employment of millions of people in developing countries. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Romantic Era and History of Science

    A 5 page paper discussing the qualities of the period of 1770-1830 in scientific advancement. The age of enlightenment is associated with order and reason; progress and change belongs to the 19th century. A.L. DeJussieu (1748 – 1836), C.F. Mirbel (1776 – 1854) and K Sprengel (1766 – 1833) all quietly contributed to the advancement of science in general - and botany in particular – during this time that would prove to provide preparation for rapidly-occurring advances in the future. Growing knowledge of what was ultimately led to speculation of what could be. By the end of the Romantic Period in 1830, the focus shifted toward work that could effect change, rather than merely explain why things existed as they did. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • 1400 to 1700 Japanese Relations with the West

    This is a 5 page paper discussing Japanese foreign relations with the West between the years 1400 and 1700. The years from 1400 to 1700 in Japan covered three Japanese historical periods: the Muromachi Period (1333-1573); the Azuchi-Momoyama Period (1573-1603); and, the Edo Period (1603-1867) which also included the great eras of the Shogun. While these centuries are generally not known for their great developments in international trade for Japan, there were certain instances in which Chinese and Western trade and influences and relations were introduced into Japan. During the mid 16th century, the Japanese greatly valued Portuguese weaponry which played a large factor in the ongoing warlord conflicts. By the late 16th century, foreign relations and trade had also been established with Britain, Spain and the Dutch who were as interested in the Japanese artisan goods as were the Japanese interested in goods imported from the Americas such as tobacco and sweet potatoes among other goods. Through the relations established with the English, Western shipbuilding and navigation tools were also of great value. During the mid-17th century however, shogun Iemitsu wanted to strengthen Japan by eliminating foreign influence which included further restrictions on Christianity, which had been introduced by the missionaries in the 1500s, a ban on travel outside of Japan, expulsion of foreign trade merchants and a ban on European literature among other restrictions thereby decreasing foreign trade and relations with the West. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • E.L. Doctorow's Ragtime and History

    A 5 page paper which discusses some of the historical perspectives, regarding the Progressive Era, presented in E.L. Doctorow’s novel “Ragtime.” Bibliography lists 5 additional sources.

  • Triage and its Medical and Military History

    This is a 5 page paper discussing the history of triage in medicine and its use in the military and civilian health care. Triage, a medical term to mean a sorting or classification of patients based on their levels of medical urgency was first developed as a military term and used in wartime. The French used “triage” to decide who would be taken from the battlefields to be treated and who would be left behind. Soon afterward, from World War II until present day, triage was not only used in Army field hospitals but is also now used in emergency departments to classify the large number of patients who enter each day. Nurses have been involved in the triage process from the beginning and recently the nursing associations have broadened the original three level triage classifications of emergent, urgent and non-urgent, to one of a four level priority system in the United States and one of five level priorities in Australia, Canada and Great Britain. Regardless of the number of levels, triage has become an important and efficient system to evaluate a patient’s urgency as well as analyze the effectiveness of the health care given in emergency departments. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • A Superpave Project Short History

    This 4 page paper defines Superpave and delves into the Superpave project. How Superpave has revolutionized an industry and changed the state of roads around America is the focus of this paper. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Australian History and Blight

    This 10 page paper looks at the period of time when Aboriginal children were stolen and placed into mainstream white culture. The paper uses singer Archie Roach as the primary focus. Roach was a victim and had been taken from his family in 1958. The paper looks at events in historical context and argues that this event is one in a larger chasm of global racism. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Balkan Ghosts A Journey Through History by Robert D. Kaplan

    A 5 page book report on Kaplan’s 1993 book, based on his decade-long experiences in the region as a journalist. No additional sources are used.

  • Higher Education and an Affirmative Action Short History

    This 11 page paper provides an overview of affirmative action in higher education with a focus on landmark cases. Hopwood, Bakke and more recent Michigan cases are discussed. The paper takes the position that affirmative action is necessary. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Education and its History

    This 13 page paper deals with the philosophies of education of several experts in the field, namely Barbara Thayer-Bacon, and Joe Kincheloe. Works cited include Philosophy Applied to Education, and Contextualizing Teaching. Constructivist and indivdualistic views are discussed as well as philosophies that impacted the modern development of the educational processes. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Social History and Sexuality

    A 6 page paper discussing the use of the study of sex and scandal in defining a society or culture of the past. The study of attitudes toward sex and scandal in any society can help inform social definition, but it also needs to be undertaken with some caveats. Using the study of sex and scandal to help further define any society of the past is a valid pursuit. However, those choosing that route must make allowances for the social and linguistic customs and patterns in which events not only occurred, but also in which they were recorded. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Basic Sauces and How They Are Used

    This 5 page paper focuses on the origin of the mother sauces and their uses. Sauces include Espagnole, Tomato, Hollandaise, Veloute, and Demi-glace. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Book II of the History of the Peloponnesian War by Thucydides

    A 5 page paper which offers biographical notes on the author, and analyzes why this work is important, with a critique of the material included. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Sauce Making and Stocks

    6 pages in length. Nature has not always been kind to humans with regard to food quality; ancient man often ate fetid morsels; as time progressed, the quality of meats did not necessarily improve. The British are some of history's favorite representations of how sauces were used as a means by which to cover up the taste of less-than-tasty meats. Then the French took things several steps further by perfecting the sauce making process and turning it into an art, with nineteenth century French chef, Antonin Crème credited with developing the technique into a system that boasted hundreds of sauces categorized into several major sauce groups. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • History of Egypt and the Early Egyptian Hyksos' Rise and Fall

    A 10 page overview of the entry of the Asiatic peoples known as the Hyksos into Egypt, their contributions to Egyptian history and technology, and their defeat at the hands of Kamose, his younger brother Ahmose, and their father Seqenenre, a Theban king. Emphasizes that while the Hyksos reign is often characterized as being one of hardship and cruelty, these peoples offered tremendous technological advancements to Egypt. These advancements, in part, included the horse and chariot, the introduction of copper and bronze, an improved version of the battle ax, and even the compound bow. Comments on Hyksos material culture and their similarities to ancient Egyptian/Mesopotamian cultures in general. Bibliography lists 11 sources.

  • The History and Operations of Alcoholic Anonymous

    A 15 page paper. Alcoholic Anonymous is a fellowship that operates differently than another kind of organization. It is truly democratic with only the steps, traditions and concepts to guide it. There are no laws, by-laws or governing persons. This paper offers a brief overview of the beginnings of this fellowship, reports the traditions that guide it, the dedication to service and corporate poverty and how it functions. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • History and Ecology of the Chimpanzee

    5 pages in length. When one considers the chimpanzee, the first thing that comes to mind for many is the effort put forth by wildlife observer Jane Goodall. The extent to which Goodall studied wild chimpanzees has provided both the scientific and lay communities with a significantly better understanding of their ecology, as well as a clearer picture of their historical evolution as a species. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Segregation History Since the 1980s

    This 7 page paper deals with the trends in segregation and desegregation during the period of 1980-2000. The paper utilizes recent data from a twenty year study by the University of Albany as well as current information from the US Census Bureau. Conclusions drawn from the data are supported with examples, quotes, all cited. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • History of U.S. Aviation and Terrorism

    This 15 page paper provides an overview of air disasters that were either tied to terrorism or possibly linked to terrorism. While of course the events of September 11, 2001 are relayed, other events such as the downing of Flight 103 over Lockerbie Scotland are included. The Flight 800 disaster that occurred near Long Island, New York is discussed in depth. Information about reaction by society and how these things affect the economy are also included along with data on what the FAA is doing about it all. Bibliography lists 11 sources.

  • Adult Literacy Since the 17th Century

    5 pages. This paper describes the major events that have occurred in adult education literacy from the seventeenth century up until the present time in the United States. Historically there are a number of factors involved in these events including race, class and gender which have served to impact the access of this aspect of education. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Capital Punishment and Michel Foucault's Discipline and Punish The Birth of the Prison

    A 6 page paper which provides a general overview and illustration of Michel Foucault's "Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison." Bibliography lists 1 additional source.

  • Seventeenth and Eighteenth Century British History and Authors

    A 5 page paper which discusses how the authors, as well as poets, of Britain during the 17th and 18th century not only reflected the time periods but also influenced them. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Web Design and Internet Technology

    This 6 page paper considers two aspects of new technology. The first part of the paper considers development and spread of the Internet. The second part of the paper considers web design, why it is important and how it has developed. The bibliography cites 4 sources.

  • A Civil War History of Devil's Den Action

    8 pages. The Union dispositions in Devil's Den including Ward's Brigade and Smith's Battery are explained fully in this paper as well as the breakdown of coordination as Hood attacked during the advance of Law's and Robertson's Brigades. Bennings arrival and the final outcome are included. The final section of the paper discusses the nine principles of war. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Africa's Cinematic History

    A 12 page overview of African cinema. This paper notes that African cinema is the product of a number of factors, one of the most important of these being colonial influence. Africa has, in fact, been a land of triple heritage, a heritage which balances between African, French, and British values and there are still perceptible differences in cinematic preferences generations after the end of colonialism. It can be contended in fact that African film culture has been acutely inhibited by postcolonial social and economic condition. At the same time, however, contemporary African cinema is making its way into our modern world. The evolution of this cinema, although it maintains a distinctive African flavor, parallels that which is occurring in European countries and the U.S.

  • Jane Tompkins' Indians Textualism, Morality, and the Problem of History

    This essay by Jane Tompkins is analyzed for thesis and the arguements that she utilizes in proving her main theme. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • History, Human Nature, and Psychology

    This is a 5 page paper discussing psychology and human nature over history. The development of psychology and the study of human nature evolved over two thousand years of philosophical theory. During the period of enlightenment scientific thought was beginning to be examined toward the field of the human mind in what was later termed the field of psychology. David Hume in the 1700s and his studies into human nature as a combination of sentimentalism and intellectualism were later revisited and refined by James and Wendt in the 1800s and discussed in relation to human will and conscious thought over actions by Dewey in the 1900s. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • The Urban Evolution of Paris

    A 14 page paper which examines how the city was transformed from Medieval Paris to the trademark infrastructure of a contemporary urban center by Baron Georges Haussmann. Specifically considered are the city’s urban evolution, what infrastructural strategies needed to be considered, and also its cross-cultural influence during the French Concession period and beyond. Bibliography lists 11 sources.

  • US Public Education

    This is a 10 page paper discussing the history of public education in the United States. Since the 17th century, the Americans have been concerned with the support of public education in the United States. Many public schools which opened, the first reported in Boston in 1642, were still mainly for the education of those in the middle and upper classes as the lower classes were dependent upon the income brought in by their children. Through the support of advocates for the importance of public education, such Horace Mann and later, the Philadelphia Working Men’s Committee, the idea of public education funded by the state became more of a reality with stipulations which would allow for children to work and attend school at the same time. Many discriminatory aspects were still to be overcome however as the education of women, racial minorities and Catholics were highly restricted. Several innovators and centuries later, the development of public education was expanded to include women, African Americans and other minorities aided by laws of desegregation in the Fourteenth Amendment. Today, public education is still a controversial issue since the voucher system has been introduced to allow individuals to apply their public education taxes to tuition to private institutions which may provide more suitable and specific educational needs for those who do not wish to educate their children in the state and federal based curriculum. Regardless of the results of this latest controversial issue, public education will always remain an important part of the American society in their efforts to educate all Americans without fear of financial loss or discrimination. Bibliography lists 20 sources.

  • Chapters Two and Three of Vietnam A History by Stanley Karnov

    6 pages in length. The writer provides outlines for 1/3 of each chapter. No additional sources cited.

  • Abused Foster Children and Coping Strategies

    This 5 page paper examines a study that indicated foster children that have suffered from sexual or physical abuse use divergent coping strategies that are non productive and make successful placements more difficult due to the way they are more self reliant. The bibliography cites 1 source.

  • Chapter Four Outline of Vietnam A History by Stanley Karnow

    2 pages in length. Writer offers outline on the first several pages of Chapter 4. No additional sources cited.

  • Brief History of Vietnam

    6 pages in length. Vietnam has long struggled against the unwanted influence of various nationals; without adequate ability to defend themselves, the Vietnamese have grappled to uphold their very cultural importance, as well as defend their right as an independent people. This long and arduous process served to develop traditions and establish historical benchmarks that have identified Vietnam as a defiant cultural and political entity. No bibliography.

  • Link Between Death Theme in His Poems and the Personal History of John Keats

    A 5 page paper which examines how Keats’ short life and deaths of those closest to him shaped his poetic works. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • History of the Italian Carnival During the Renaissance

    20 pages. This fascinating paper is a look at the history of the Carnival in Italy, especially in Florence, during the 14th and 15th centuries. People's lives changed from ordinary to the wild and mysterious during Carnival. People gained a sense of power during Carnival; how did the Carnival affect the ruling families of the time period? Many fascinating topics are covered in this account of the bizarre and riotous period of Carnival during the Renaissance period. Bibliography lists 13 sources.

  • A History of Transportation in Iowa and Its Impact on Iowans

    This 4 page paper examines the development of transportation in this state. Rail transportation in addtion to the devleopment of the Interstate are aspects included. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Baseball History: The 1919 White Sox Fix

    This 3 page paper focuses on the infamous 1919 incident where the White Sox threw the game and eight players were banned from the sport. This scandal involves a variety of stakeholders, inclusive of the players, the fans, the team owners, the gamblers, and the coaches. Stakeholders, their roles, and how they are aligned with the integrity of the game are issues discussed. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Modernity and History

    A 5 page essay/research paper that looks at modernity. The writer addresses the question of when modernity began (which is debatable), why it began and how, but also discusses whether this was a good or bad development. The writer argues in favor of modernity. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • The Great Depression History Firsthand by Dennis Nishi Summary and Review of Dennis Nishi's “The Great Depression (History Firsthand)”

    A 3 page paper which provides a general overview and review of this historical textbook aimed at students grades 6 through 12. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Central Banking in England

    AThis 38 page paper considers how central banks developed and their original purpose. The general history and development is examined through the use of a case study which examines the creation of the Bank of England. The original purpose of central banks were as bankers to the government, with a principle task of funding wars. The responsibilities such as printing legal tender, monetary stability and lender of last resort all emerge following the success as a funding source for war. An initial benefit of a central bank was also the creation of a credit economy, allowing economic growth to take place at an unprecedented rate. The looks at the development of the Bank of England and tools used such as the Gold Standard and then applies the lessons to more recent central bank developments such as the creation and success of the Bundesbank, looking for commonalities that may be indicators of success. This is then applied to the current position of the European Central Bank, (ECB) in order to assess how successful the ECB will be in the future. The bibliography cites 59 sources.

  • The History of States vs. Federal Rights.

    This 4 page paper provides an overview of the tug of war between states rights and the rights of the federal government. The Federalist Papers are used in the analysis. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • English Hooliganism and its History

    A 10 page paper which examines why hooliganism is regarded as distinctly English, considers the social landscape that produces and perpetuates it, and explores the role of the media in the development of its perception. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Islamic History Questions

    A 6 page question/answer address of the volatility that has characterized the Middle East. The author addresses four specific questions: 1. List and explain three types of Islamic renewal or reform. 2. In what ways did the decline of the Ottoman Empire set the stage for increased American involvement in the Middle East? 3. What broad political strategy did the Eisenhower administration use to meet the challenges of Arab nationalism? 4. To what extent was the deterioration of US-Egyptian relations a result of a personal conflict between Lyndon Johnson and Nasser? Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • U.S. Voting Behavior

    A 5 page paper which examines the voting behavior of United States citizens from the 1950s till present day. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Pacific Northwest Immigration of Blacks and History Lessons

    A 5 page discussion of the problems black immigrants to the Pacific Northwest have faced. The author asserts that the deep societal prejudice and the discrimination that resulted has had long term impacts for black immigrants and their descendants. A complimentary annotated bibliography is included. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • History and Immigration of Blacks to the Pacific Northwest

    An 11 page discussion of the problems black immigrants to the Pacific Northwest have faced. The author asserts that the deep societal prejudice and the discrimination that resulted has had long term impacts for black immigrants and their descendants. A complimentary annotated bibliography is included. Bibliography lists 14 sources.

  • A Dentistry History

    An 8 page overview of some of the major steps taken in dentistry. Starting in ancient times and continuing to the present, the author concentrates on the various approaches and materials that have been used in the production of fillings. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Post Second World War Business History of Japan

    A 7 page paper tracing the changes in Japanese business following World War II. Today, the keiretsu structure that allowed massive accumulation of nonperforming corporate debt has been dismantled, at least in that portion discouraging appropriate corporate governance. Economic consequences of past actions appear to be the limiting factor in Japan’s attempts to move past the effects of the bursting of its bubble economy and then the Asian currency crisis. Its foray into Western management styles discounted the value of its workers’ dedication to their companies. That dedication is grounded in centuries-old culture, however, and likely still exists beneath the layers of policy-imposed constraints. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Moral Attributes and History of Balzac's Colonel Chabert

    This 3-page paper discusses Balzac's Colonel Chabert, notes the story based on its times (post-Napoleonic France) and discusses whether virtue or evil survived the day. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • 20th Century British Theatre History

    This 28 page paper examines the development of the theatre in England during the twentieth century. The paper considers the different styles seen, looking at realism, abstract, suggestive and interventionist theatre. This is considered in time order and also incluides elements such as the ay staging took place, lighting and general technology impacted on production. The paper then examines the way in which social constraints impacted on the way the theatre developed including the censorship laws and the reaction to those censorship laws. The final paper of the paper speculates the cycle is turning full circle with the rebuilding of the old Globe theatre in London. The bibliography cites 15 sources.

  • Anti Semitism History in the United States

    A 4 page research paper that explores the topic of anti-Semitism in the US and elsewhere prior to World War II and how this might have shaped public policy concerning Jewish immigration quotas, which, of course, facilitated Nazi extermination policies. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Text Analysis of 'Evil in Modern Thought An Alternative History of Philosophy' by Susan Neiman

    A 10 page paper which examines the various philosophical inquiries into evil as scrutinized by thinkers since the sixteenth-century Enlightenment. Specifically discussed are how the author goes about tackling this way subject, what is meant by “fire from heaven” in Chapter 1, and who it has in mind, the identity of the ‘architect’ being condemned in Chapter 2 and how philosophers deal with Him, ponders who the thinkers are that brought an ‘end to our illusions’ as referenced in Chapter 3, and contemplates the ‘prophets of homelessness’ described in Chapter 4. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Philosophy Through the Ages

    A 3 page research paper that offers a brief survey of how a variety of major philosophers have addressed the basic questions of philosophy. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • 120 Years of American History

    This 6 page paper discusses five specific issues and how they've changed American society since 1885.

  • Early American History Law Contradictions

    This is a 10 page paper which discuss the Revolutionary War and the contradictions of the ideals that the war was fought for and the real affects of the war on African Americans and Native American Indians. The bibliography has 12 sources.

  • A Sport Scandals History

    This 10 page paper details sports scandals involving gambling throughout the years. Baseball, in addition to the NCAA, NBA, and NFL are discussed. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Accurate History Model of the Historical Materialism Developed by Karl Marx

    This 6 page paper examines The Communist Manifesto and argues that historical materialism could be a reality. There is evidence to show that the model has only been partially realized but that the future may see it fully materialize. No additional sources cited.

  • Researching Family History

    A 5 page paper describing the family history of an American family of Irish and British heritage. The living Conners know that their paternal grandfather's grandfather, Michael O'Connor, arrived in New York from Ireland some time shortly after the end of the Civil War; they know that the root of their mother's side of the family already was in Tennessee before the land came to be known as Tennessee. The family is as firmly rooted in East Tennessee as are the Great Smoky Mountains that lend their shadow to the valley where the Conner family grew and developed. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Spy Satellites and Their History

    A 7 page informational overview which examines when and why they were created, what they looked at, how they were launched, orbit life expectancy from the beginning until the present. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • 1066 The Year of the Conquest by David Howarth

    A 5 page paper that examines which historical figures the author likes and why. No additional sources are used.

  • History, Etiology, and Treatment of Antibiotic Resistance

    A 9 page discussion of antibiotic resistance, diagnosis, and treatment. Correlations have been reported by numerous researchers regarding increased antibiotic resistance in microbial populations with high usage of antibiotic drugs. Unfortunately, however, recent evidence demonstrates that even the reduction of this utilization is not an effective means of preventing antibiotic resistance. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Islam, A History

    A 4 page overview of the origin of Islam among the Arab peoples. This paper comments of the linguistic connection of these peoples and of the early role of Mohammed. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Defining Prostitution

    An 16 page review of the many faces of prostitution. This article defines the phenomena and frames it in a sociological context. Bibliography lists 12 sources.

  • Medieval Culture and its History

    This 6 page paper provides an overview of the skills needed for nurses to be effective in the modern healthcare enviornment. In particular, this paper integrates a view of leadership skills and their role in shaping the focus for nurses, particularly in the hospital setting. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • The History of Turkish Higher Education

    A 6 page overview of the many changes that have occurred in Turkish tertiary education. This paper traces these changes from the mid twentieth century to the present and explains the various factors that have contributed to the move from centralization to decentralization and back again. Bibliography lists 11 sources.

  • The History of Judaism in China

    This 10 page report discusses the history of the Jews in China. Approximately 1,000 years ago, of Jewish traders from the Middle East who settled in the Sung dynasty's imperial capital of Kaifeng along the Yellow River in east central China. They openly prayed in Hebrew, observed Jewish dietary laws, circumcised their newborn sons and built a synagogue facing Jerusalem in which to worship. They lived in peace for centuries, eventually establishing a Jewish society and culture that has been estimated to range in numbers between 5,000 to 9,000 people. In the 1930s and 1940’s, there were an estimated 30,000-40,000 Jews in China. Most of whom left after the end of World War II or during the Cultural Revolution. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • History of American Currency

    A 5 page paper discussing the development of the current US system of currency and legal tender. In Colonial days, the formal currency was that of Britain and was based on silver. The shortage of silver combined with the need to trade with the native Americans who preferred wampum resulted in wampum being the currency of choice for decades until a New Jersey factory became so efficient in its production that it became hyperinflated. The paper discusses the influences of greenbacks and the role filled by the 1848 California gold rush in directing the US away from bimetallism and toward a gold standard, which eventually was abandoned in the 1930s. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Parallel Computing and its Evolution

    An 11 page paper discussing the evolution of parallel computing. The path of the quest for workable parallel computing configurations is littered with far more failures than successes. Despite the failures of the past, the concept of parallel computing remains one worth pursuing and in fact represents the next logical step in the evolution of computing in general. The paper begins with Gene Amdahl in 1955, progresses through the trial and error of the 1960s and 1970s, and relays many of the successes and strides of the 1980s and 1990s. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Ronald Takaki's Reflections on A Different Mirror A History of Multicultural America

    A 10 page paper discussing concepts of the 19th century raised by the book by Ronald Takaki. Jews, Blacks, Irish Catholics, Hispanics, Orientals and Native Americans have all been marginalized in US history, and the paper concludes that materialism, rather than race or ethnicity, has been the determining factor in the ability of these groups to succeed despite the discrimination levied toward them. Takaki in many instances is shallow and fails to think through his pontifications, but there is no debate possible in his charge that all of these groups were ill-treated. The paradox is that even though they were the ones ill-treated, it was the rest of us who bore the greater cost. They have always been assured within themselves of their own worth and did not depend on our ability to recognize that worth. In the process, it was the Euro-centered ones who missed out. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • American History and the Place of Anne Hutchinson

    A 10 page paper discussing the troublesome maverick of the religious community of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Anne Hutchinson (1591-1643) was outspoken and opinionated at a time when such attitudes were unseemly (if not outright scandalous) and when women were paid little more respect than were children. She was excommunicated from the church and banished from the colony, but she never relinquished her convictions or determination. Recognized early on as America’s first female preacher, it has been only in relatively recent years that she also has been recognized as a champion not only of women’s rights, but of human rights as well. Bibliography lists 10 sources in 19 footnotes.

  • Mexican Americans' Culture and History

    This 6 page paper provides an overview of some of the historical points relative to the culture and identification of Mexican Americans and asserts that while recent immigration concerns have sparked controversies over the largess of Mexican American communities, Mexican Americans have been a significant segment of the American culture since they first settled regions of the West in the 16th century. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Overview of GTE

    This 10 page report discusses GTE, one of the world's largest telecommunications companies. In the United States, GTE provides local service in 28 states and wireless service in 17 states; nationwide long-distance and internetworking services ranging from dial-up Internet access for residential and small-business consumers to Web-based applications. Outside the United States, the company serves more than 7 million telecommunications customers. Current merger issues with Bell Atlantic are also discussed. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Dell Computer's Corporate History

    5 pages in length. The year 1984 marked the beginning for the country's largest direct seller of personal computers. Michael Dell first began constructing his company from his dorm room at the University of Texas-Austin, often taking drastic measures -- such as hiding his computers in the bathtub -- to make sure that no one suspected his sideline. The business that emanated from this dorm room eventually became known as Dell Computer Corporation in May of 1984. The writer chronicles the growth and development of Dell Computer Corporation. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Spain's Economic History

    This 8 page report discusses the economy of Spain in terms of: historical precedent; relationship with its European neighbors; its movement toward European integration; problems it faced becoming a part of the European Union; and, its current economic and diplomatic status with Europe. The report also provides a brief comparison of the economies of Spain and Germany that illustrates both Spain’s relationship to Germany and how far the nation has come in the past several decades of determination. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Theme Parks and Their History

    This 7 page paper explores the evolution of theme parks from Disneyland to Universal Studios' Jurassic Park. Specifically discussed are the economic benefits provided by theme parks, the ever-growing number of theme parks throughout the United States, and the changes theme parks have undergone over the years. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • History and Structure of the WTO

    A 10 page research paper tracing the origins of the WTO from it's GATT beginnings and including critical views of the organization's strengths, weaknesses and direction. The paper examines the structure of the WTO, briefly including decision/appeal procedures and how the WTO could affect the sovereignty of member nations. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • Holy Grail's History

    A 7 page paper discussing the sources from which the theme of the Holy Grail was gathered, and how the theme has changed over time. Sources discussed include the Mabinogion, Chrétien de Troyes, Robert de Boron, the Perlesvaus, the Queste del Saint Graal, and Thomas Malory. Bibliography lists six sources.

  • Holy Qur'an History

    5 pages in length. A deeply religious man who loathed his society's decadence, Muhammad found that meditation was successful at easing his distress. From the time when he saw the vision in the Cave of Mt. Hira, the prophet continued his duty as God's messenger for another twenty-three years; all his prolific teachings are found in the Qur'an. The writer discusses the historical impact of the Qur'an. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Linda Gordon's Single Mothers and the History of Welfare - Pitied But Not Entitled

    A 15 page review of Linda Gordon's book in which the writer analyzes how reformers view poor single mothers and welfare. Three of its chapters are about the views of the white women's social welfare network, the black women's social welfare network (excluded from the white women's groups mostly by raw segregation), and the white male social insurance reformer network. Gordon argues that contemporary welfare programs for single mothers were shaped by the ideas and the decisions that went into state aid programs created between 1910 and 1920, programs that were variously called mothers' pensions, widows' pensions and mothers' aid. Various sociopolitical points and arguments presented by Gordon are analytically presented. No other sources cited.

  • A Dictionary History

    This 6 page paper provides an overview of the "invention" of dictionaries, their evolution over time, and their role in the development of human communication. Bibliography lists four sources.

  • U.S. History, Labor, and Equality Questions

    This 5 page paper answers four questions posed by a student regarding labor and the treatment of women and minorities in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Topics include free agriculture labor, the impact of industrialization, and the impact of the World Wars. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • The American Museum of Natural History and its Rose Center Exhibits

    (6pp). The Rose Center's permanent exhibits, detailing the size, scope and growth of the universe as well as the earth's place within it, were unveiled in February (2000) inside the new structure of steel and glass. The seven-story orb appears to hover next to the museum, and at night glows with a soft blue light. The center replaces the old Hayden Planetarium, a New York City landmark that introduced millions of city kids to the night sky between 1935 and 1997. Kids of all ages are still thrilled with the spectrum of choices: design and exhibits are spectacular.

  • The Mongols And Ming China : Customs And History by Henry Serruys

    7 pages in length. Henry Serruys' account of the Hung-Wu period (1386-1398) in "The Mongols and Ming China : Customs and History" draws upon the author's literary talents, as well as the sordid historical events that revolve around China's Mongols during this period. This detailed analysis provides the reader with a scope of knowledge both vast and explicit, with the book's aim being that of a comprehensive critical overview of how China's Mongols managed to rule for the better part of a century. Indeed, the sources upon which Serruys draw are instrumental in his ability to portray this era as one of China's most powerful. Clearly, the method by which the author assembles the work, as well as his complementary writing style, brings forth the underlying reasons that such a forceful period existed in China's past and what its people have learned from such events, which represent the book's larger issues. No additional sources cited.

  • Egypt's Early History from 3100 until 1200 B.C.

    (3 pp). Archaeological evidence suggests that, Egypt was inhabited by hunters over 250,000 years ago when the region was a green grassland. The Paleolithic period around 25,000BC brought climatic changes, which turned Egypt into a desert. Desertification of Egypt was halted by rains, which allowed communities of cultivators to settle in Middle Egypt and the Nile Delta. Throughout most of its pre-dynastic history Egypt encompassed a multiplicity of settlements, which gradually became small tribal kingdoms. These kingdoms evolved into two loosely confederated states: one encompassed the Nile valley up to the Delta (with the Naqada dominating) with Hierakonpolis as capital, represented by the deities Seth and White Crown; the other encompassed the Delta, with Buto as its capital and represented by the deities Horus and Red Crown. The two kingdoms vied for power over all the land of Egypt. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Rap Music's Culture and History

    This 10 page paper starts with the consideration of RAP music as a development in the late 1980’s in the Bronx related to the post-civil rights era. The evolution of RAP is then discussed including the way in which it is market and the collaboration of RAP with ‘metal’ music. The relationship with violence is also considered. The bibliography cites 7 sources.

  • The Course of African Americans Through the History of the United States

    7 pages in length. Examines major contributions made by African Americans, leaders and heroes in the African American community and the immigration treatments received by the African Americans including how they came to the United States, their treatment and major events experienced by this group. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Color Photography History

    (9pp) Ever since the advent of the daguerreotype and the calotype in 1839, photographers began to search for a way to reproduce their subject matter in color. Indeed, color photographs became available practically as soon as photography itself. But these early attempts at color photography were nothing more than hand tinted black & white photographs of the area. Color theory was still relatively primitive at this time, and the photographic materials available were blind to almost half of the visible spectrum Almost a hundred years would pass, before the necessary film is available to the public. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Wireless Communication's History

    This 5 page paper presents an overview of wireless communication from Marconi to the Internet. Spanning a century, the paper explains how the new technology evolved. Safety is discussed as well. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • History and 'The Iliad' by Homer

    A 7 page analytical essay that examines Homer's Iliad in terms of how the details of the poem reflect the culture and beliefs of Homer's era. The writer argues that the works of Homer, regardless of whether or not Homer actually existed or if his account of the Trojan War is historical accurate, definitely reflect the cultural concepts, beliefs, and worldview of the time in which these epic poems were composed. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • History and 'The Iliad' by Homer

    A 7 page analytical essay that examines Homer's Iliad in terms of how the details of the poem reflect the culture and beliefs of Homer's era. The writer argues that the works of Homer, regardless of whether or not Homer actually existed or if his account of the Trojan War is historical accurate, definitely reflect the cultural concepts, beliefs, and worldview of the time in which these epic poems were composed. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • THE RISE OF NOKIA -- HISTORY

    This 3-page paper analyzes the case study entitled "The Rise of Finland's Nokia."

  • Jewish History and Spain's 'Golden Age'

    7 pages in length. Major changes occurred in the 11th century when the Umayyads steadily lost power as the Berbers rose in influence after capturing Cordoba in 1013 CE; the passing decades served as their barometer of progressing power. Cultural and commercial prominence became their focus as capitals and other cities were transformed into Meccas for the two very important elements. As these significant changes were taking place, one more addition would serve to establish an entire population as being both welcomed and honored: the Jews. Indeed, these individuals did not come empty-handed into their newfound environment; rather, they brought with them such important endowments as financial aptitude, politics, economic advisory, as well as a vast amount of humanities-related knowledge in the form of literature, academia and science. The blending of art, linguistics, philosophy, science and medicine rounded out a society that was heretofore underdeveloped in many of these areas. As such, the influence of so many learned Jews soon saw intellectuals and doctors alike holding some of the most important social/legal/political positions in the land. No bibliography.

  • David Hume's 'Miraculous' Philosophy

    A 4 page paper which focuses on Hume’s disbelief in miracles. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Nonfiction and Fiction's Portrayal of History

    This 5 page paper discusses the work of James Welch in his novel, The Heartsong of Charging Elk and the documentary with Paul Stekler called, Killing Custer. The use of various literary vehicles are explored. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • History, Development, and Geography's Influence

    This is a 5 page paper discussing geography’s influence on history. Geography has a great impact on history, development, and social, cultural, religious and political affiliations. Historically, regions with geographical advantageous positions, such as those with access to navigable waterways have led other areas in regards to exploration, market economy and development. Geographically, Britain provides an excellent example of the advantages of a land with fertile soil, navigable waterways and a long coastline with natural harbors. This led England to exploration and navigation which in turn led them to other lands which they could develop. Other regions with water access also gained a great deal in trade and exploration. New lands which were developed were also those which were easily accessible, had irritable soil, and navigable waterways. Lands which did not have these geographically preferred features were largely neglected unless they were geophysically blessed with natural resources such as oil or gold. Today geography still plays an essential influence on the historical affiliations of many peoples who despite political, religious or international alliances are still mostly affected with their geographical locale. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • History and the Impact of Physical Geography

    This 4 page paper briefly explores the effect of physical geography on the early American colonies. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Europeas an Outgrowth of Its Geographical Features

    This 4 page paper discusses the way in which geography impacted the development of Europe. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Nineteenth and Twentieth Century History of American Public Education

    This 6 page paper discusses some of the major movements in public education beginning in about 1850. Some topics discussed include the common school crusade and Horace Mann's and Elwood Cubberly's parts in that movement, the attempt of the NEA to change the administrative structure from local to centralized. The reforms of the 1950s and 1960s and what caused them are discussed along with comments from authors like Ravitch. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • A History of Law Enforcement in the US

    This 15 page paper discusses the development of the police force in the United States. Bibliography lists 17 sources.

  • FRB's History

    This 10 page paper takes a look at the much discussed FRB headed by Alan Greenspan. Its origin and reason for existence are explored along with opinions on how it has fared. Opinions from both sides are discussed. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • A History of the US' Federal Reserve System

    This 5-page paper discusses what 20th century events led to formation of the Federal Reserve System. Also discussed is the struggles that Americans had when it came to monetary supply control and the idea of a "central banking" system. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Historians Phillips and Woodson and Slave History Recording

    This 5 page paper compares and contrasts these two historians. Their personal lives are looked at to try to decipher just why their views are so vastly different. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Chicago History and Organized Crime

    A 6 page research paper which looks specifically at the Prohibition era and how Chicago was ruled by gangsters, bootleggers, and corrupt politicians at that time. This era ended when mobster Al Capone was finally arrested for tax evasion by 'Untouchable' leader Elliott Ness. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Freedom Bound A History of the Civil Rights Movement by Robert Weisbrot

    This 3 page report is an overview of Weisbrot's chronicle of the major events of America's civil rights movement. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • Tokugawa's Fall

    A 5 page researching the reasons for the fall of the Tokugawa Bakufu. The Tokugawa brought two centuries of peace to Japan and then became obsolete. The demands of other nations and the demands within the country led to the 15th Tokugawa Shogun turning the power back to the Emperor. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • History of China, the Introduction of Buddhism and its Impact

    This 8 page paper provides a basic overview of the introduction and adoption of Buddhism in China. No bibliography.

  • U.S. History and the Impact of Roy Cohn

    This 3 page paper presents a biographical account of this attorney who became famous during the 1950's. Cohn's role in the McCarthy era is noted as well as one event that led to his ultimate disbarment. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Credit Cards and Their History

    This 4 page report discusses the history and development of credit cards. The use of retail store cards and oil company cards was wide-spread by the 1950s. The development of bank issued cards took off in the 1960s led, of course, by Bank of America and BankAmericard. Since that time, credit cards have become an integral part of daily life for the American consumer and are more than likely to remain as such. Competition is fierce among issuers to get their cards and its unique benefits or offers in the wallets of as many Americans as is possible. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Department Store and its History

    A 6 page discussion of the advent of the department store in consumer culture. Making their advent in the mid 1800s these stores would change the way stores marketed goods and the way consumers shopped for them. This paper discusses store geography, design, and labor considerations, particularly in regard to women. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • History of Russia in a Combination of 4 Papers

    This 22- page paper is comprised of four shorter papers dealing with Russia. The first is a 17-page paper that traces the history of Russia from ancient rulers, through the Romanov dynasty, the Decembrist revolution, the revolution of 1905 and the Revolution of 1917. It discusses the Communist period, and the post-Communist period, and touches on economic problems today as well as ethnic conflicts. Bibliography lists 6 sources. The second paper, which is incorporated into the whole, is a 3-page essay describing some of Russia's cultural icons. Bibliography lists 1 source. The third paper, which is incorporated into the whole, is a 3-page essay describing Russian and Soviet geography. Bibliography lists 2 sources. The fourth paper, which is incorporated into the whole, is a 2-page essay describing Russian demographics. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • Predator Film and Fantasy Rewriting of History

    A 2.5 page critique of this 1987 action-adventure film. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Labor History and Its Problems

    A 3 page essay that, first of all, summarizes an essay by labor historian Elizabeth Faue, which criticizes the orientation of traditional labor historians. Then, the writer summarizes two additional essays that support Faue's contentions. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • History and Contemporary Issues of African Americans

    This 5 page paper discussed the types of discrimination and segregation faced by African-Americans in the United States. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Truth and History

    This 6 page paper considers the question of truth with regard to one historical incident, the Triangle Shirtwaist Company Fire of 1911. It also discusses ways in which an examination of this incident is relevant to our understanding of the present, and whether it illuminates any contemporary incident. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • A Short History of Franco-Flemish and Venetian Schools of Art and Music

    In five pages this paper examines these important Western schools of art and music, which flourished from approximately 1125 to 1575, and how the Franco-Flemish school influence the Venetian school. Seven sources are listed in the bibliography.

  • World History, Religions, Psychology

    This 5 page paper responds to three disparate issues. The first discusses some of the issues that should be included in a new World Civilizations textbook, the second reports the origins of five major world religions and the last, comments on whether psychology is the only way to truly understand ourselves. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • History of Rasselas by Samuel Johnson

    This 5 page paper examines this work and looks at it in light of Aristotle's ideas. The concept of happiness is explored. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Arab Seafaring by George Hourani

    7 pages in length. The vastness of George Hourani's "Arab Seafaring" explores well beyond the standardized version of sea trade history and its eventual impact upon the world; rather, this particular historic rendering takes myriad other elements into account when describing one of the most important episodes in commerce. While the author does, indeed, address the fundamental aspects of sea trade history as it relates to the time before Christ, the Arabs, the Indian Ocean and ultimately to China and East Africa, one might readily argue that the much more interesting components of Hourani's account stem from his detailed descriptions of other heretofore undisclosed content, such as travel particulars, geographic interests, meteorology and highly illustrative visual images of the very vessels that made these seafaring journeys over and over again. Also integral to the overall comprehensiveness of Hourani's book is the impact of lighthouses, maritime handbooks and other invaluable guiding instruments, as well as that of piracy and everyday sea life upon the sailors. Unquestionably, Arab Seafaring is one of the most exhaustive accounts of its kind that paints a complete and detailed literary picture of what it meant to be involved with seafaring commerce during these centuries. No additional sources cited.

  • Geishas

    A 7 page research paper that takes the form of a study. This study consists of a literature review to ascertain the legitimacy of the Western perception that geishas are prostitutes. This examination of literature is based on the hypothesis that this prevalent Western assumption pertaining to geishas is false. While sexuality is undoubtedly a part of the lives of these women, this private part of their lives in not a part of their role as geisha. This study explores what does constitute the appeal of the geisha, the history of the profession and why the West has this fundamental misconception about the geisha’s art. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • A look at C.K. Barrett's The New Testament Background

    A 5 page book review of C.K. Barrett's The New Testament Background: Selected Documents (1956). For the theology student, the study of New Testament scriptures also involves consideration of the wealth of collected wisdom and experience that is recorded in ancient literature, as these works describe the "history and thought of the world in which the Church was born" (Barrett xvii). Theology students hear constant references to this compendium of knowledge from their professors without usually encountering these works first hand, as most students never read these works themselves. Considering these facts, C.K. Barrett concluded that theology students need a guide to ancient world literature that aids them in regards to New Testament studies. Consequently, Barrett compiled such a text, which cites a variety of ancient documents that--collectively--offer a comprehensive picture for the modern student of the ancient world. No additional sources cited.

  • 1990s' Consumer Influence of Fashion Magazines

    This is a 27 page paper discussing the influence of fashion magazines throughout history on consumer society, culture and their status in the 1990s. The history of the fashion industry in relation to cultural influences, consumerism and the projected images of women and men in today’s society has led to a great deal of research in the fields of sociology, psychology and economics. While fashion magazines have changed their format a great deal in the past century as today their pages contain over one third in advertisements, their content has also changed a great deal. Initially the focus of fashion magazines was women’s clothing and the models were portrayed as older elite women who replaced the dolls previously used. Although women models replaced the dolls, there was no emphasis on the body of the woman. Men did not appear in advertisements and no close-ups were taken of the models. The influence of the fashion magazine on the female consumer at the beginning of the 20th century reflected the expectations of society in regards to conservative or opulent looks depending on the decade. Today, fashion magazines tend to reflect the standards, or lack of standards, as now seen in the music and media industries. Models within fashions magazines, both men and women, are seen as the disturbingly images that continuously reflect not necessarily the expectations of society but the unreal and artificial world of the media. Studies in focus groups have found that most women and men feel that they can discern from the images presented in fashion magazines those images which are more “realistic” than others. In addition, it appears that in regards to consumer choice, fashion magazines are considered one of the less reliable sources available to consumers who prefer peer, family and local store recommendations over that of fashion magazines which appear as unreliable and unrealistic in regards to most situations and events. Bibliography lists 17 sources.

  • Captivity of Women in A True History of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson and The Last of the Mohicans by James Fenimore Cooper

    This is a 6 page paper on a comparison of Cooper’s “The Last of the Mohicans” and Rowlandson’s “A True History of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson” in regards to strength, sexuality and purity. James Fenimore Cooper’s “The Last of the Mohicans” and Mary Rowlandson’s “A True History of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson” both tell stories of female captives during the Indian colonial wars in the Eastern U.S. In Cooper’s work of fiction, he tells the story of Cora Munro and how she provides the strength needed to allow her pure sister to survive their captivity. Cora is of mixed blood but still finds the idea of marrying Magua the Huron “morally repugnant”. Cooper was also criticized after the publication of the work in his insinuation of doubting the purity of the colonists. Rowlandson’s true account of her own captivity stressed that she found her strength to survive her ordeal through the purity of the Psalms of the Puritan religion. Rowlandson’s strength came from her religion whereas Cora’s came from within herself and her use of her powerful sexuality: the colonist ideals remain intact however as Rowlandson survived and the impure Cora dies. These ideals of the importance of pure blood lines are still seen today in the rapes which are reported during wartime in Joanne Barkan’s article on the Serbian rape camps of Yugoslavia which were meant to bring impurity to the blood lines of the Muslims. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Overview of Munchausen by Proxy Syndrome

    A 10 page research paper that offers an overview of Munchausen by Proxy Syndrome. The paper defines the disorder; describes its history and incidence statistics; research; implications/impacts on health; psychological and social implications; treatment; and the role of nurses and nurse practitioners in management, concluding with a section that addresses the feeling of the NP on the topic. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Boston Museum of Fine Arts' Oceania

    ( 5 pp.) The challenge presented to us in this discussion is twofold: first to be an "art critic" from the period when the art was first exhibited, assuming that it had just been completed by the artist; the second is to take a negative stance to the work that I have just seen. The theories that correspondingly present themselves from this type of construction is to realize that any type of artwork may be perceived differently from the time it is first made until later perceptions in its history. Obviously the work has not changed, but the attitudes towards if may have. The second idea is that in order to talk about something in a negative way, I will in fact have to know something about it first in a positive way. 4 visuals

  • Consumer Culture and British Fashion Magazine Influence

    This is a 27 page paper discussing the influence of British fashion magazines on the British consumer society and their influences throughout history up and including the 1990s. The history of the fashion industry in relation to cultural influences, consumerism and the projected images of women and men in today’s society has led to a great deal of research in the fields of sociology, psychology and economics. While fashion magazines have changed their format a great deal in the past century as today their pages contain over one third in advertisements, their content has also changed a great deal. While researching the development of British fashion magazines within the last century, magazines such as Vogue, Elle and InStyle, initially showed that the focus of fashion magazines was women’s clothing and the models were portrayed as older elite women who replaced the dolls previously used. The influence of the fashion magazine on the female consumer at the beginning of the 20th century reflected the expectations of society in regards to conservative or opulent looks depending on the decade. Today, British fashion magazines tend to reflect the standards, or lack of standards, as now seen in the music and media industries. A recent study of focus groups’ opinions of images found in Vogue magazine found that most women and men feel that they can discern from the images presented in fashion magazines those images which are more “realistic” than others. In addition, it appears that in regards to consumer choice, fashion magazines are considered one of the less reliable sources available to consumers who prefer peer, family and local store recommendations over that of fashion magazines which appear as unreliable and unrealistic in regards to most situations and events. Nevertheless, the continued popularity of fashion magazines and their continued focus on the Western and/or American entertainment industries as a source for fashion is considered as a reflection of societal cues and consumer behavior. Bibliography lists 26 sources.

  • Beowulf, Tempest, Don Quixote/Their Lasting Appeal

    A 7 page essay that examines 3 works of great literature. “Beowulf,” the Anglo-Saxon epic poem by an unknown poet; Shakespeare’s “The Tempest”; and “The History of Don Quixote de la Mancha” by Miguel de Cervantes illustrate the characteristics of a great work of literature that cause it to endure. Examination of these three great literary works demonstrates that each one continues to resonant with modern readers because they accurately reflect human nature. Additionally, each work demonstrates expert use of such features as characterization and plot construction. Also, each author’s use of language is lyrically beautiful and expertly executed. No additional sources cited.

  • "Golf Is Not A Game Of Perfect" - Overview And Message

    3 pages in length. The game of golf is fraught with more opportunities to fail than virtually any other sport. Coupled with the fact it is considered an independent activity despite being played with others makes golf a particularly valuable vehicle for improving one's character, patience and positive outlook. Through the eyes, ears and thoughts of some of history's most celebrated golfers, Rotella (1994) illustrates how every single shot made - or missed - evokes myriad emotions that ultimately help them better their respective games, a reality one can readily equate with the learning curve inherent to life and the ongoing quest for personal development. No additional sources cited.

  • Following Watson's Example/Personal Philosophy of Nursing

    A 10 page research paper/essay that offers a guide for contrasting and comparing a student nurse's personal nursing philosophy to that of nursing theorist Jean Watson. The writer argues that each individual nurse brings personal perception to the act of interpreting Watson's theory. This interpretation is necessarily influenced by that nurse's personal history, knowledge level, and understanding. The purpose of this discussion of Watson's theory is to compare and contrast it with the personal nursing philosophy of a particular nursing student. The paradigms of person, environment, health and nursing are addressed. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • Society, Power, Gender and Sexuality

    22 pages in length. Termed the battle of the sexes, struggles between the male and female gender have existed since the time of man. Neanderthal populations were segregated by gender no differently than contemporary society is today, with the only appreciable distinction between the two eras being that of a chink in the patriarchal armor that occurred during the twentieth century. Indeed, the issues pertaining to the history of sexuality are grand and far-reaching, having been hashed and rehashed for centuries, only to encompass a new and growing crop of issues such content as homosexuality and gender oppression. Bibliography lists 27 sources.

  • Tulving/Episodic Memory

    A 3 page article review that summarizes the main points of “Episodic Memory: from mind to brain” by Endel Tulving (2002), published in the Annual Review of Psychology, which presents a thorough discussion of this neurocognitive system that includes the history of this concept; what is known today; criticism of the concept; its biological reality and the current state functional neuroimaging in regards to memory. In so doing, Tulving proves his hypothesis, which is that “episodic memory is a true, even if as yet generally unappreciated, marvel of nature” (Tulving, 2002, p. 1). No additional sources cited.

  • American Hotel Industry Changes

    A 21 page research paper that is divided into two distinct parts: Part 1 discusses a history of American Labor Law and Part 2 discusses the Changes in the Labor Market. An overview of the major labor laws that would be applicable to the hotel and hospitality industry is provided beginning with the Fair Labor Standards Act and going through the Electronic Communications Privacy Act. The most often filed complaints in the hotel industry are those related to sex discrimination and sexual harassment. There have also been legal problems with the child labor laws. The second part includes, among other topics, the median ages in specific job categories, current employment and expected changes by 2008, changing labor market, and how to hire and retain good employees in the hotel industry. Significant amount of data included. 4 tables included. Bibliography lists 14 sources.

  • Pharmacists and the Issue of Prescriptive Authority

    A 9 page overview of the issues surrounding the needs, justifications, and objections to allowing pharmacists to write prescriptions for medication and to intervene in medication regimes when they determine that regime may be dangerous or ineffective. Emphasizes that prescriptive authority for pharmacists has been perceived by physicians as an infringement into an area in which doctors have previously held an almost uncontested monopoly. Presents the argument that pharmacists may be more capable of monitoring and prescribing drugs than are doctors themselves. Outlines the legislative history of prescriptive authority in several states which have already enacted the authority and the limitations on that authority. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • History of U.S. Sexual Harassment Legislation

    This 8 page paper provides a comprehensive history and background of the sexual harassment laws in the United States. The essay begins by reporting how and when the term sexual harassment was coined and the fact that the issue is not a new one. At least one author has traced serious incidents of sexual harassment to the 1800s. A chronology of the most important acts and laws regarding sexual harassment is included, beginning with the 1964 Title VII of the Civil Rights Act that also created the EEOC. The legal definition of sexual harassment is included along with the evolution of the concept over the years. The two specific types of sexual harassment are explained. An overview of two specific cases, Ford Motor Company and Lutheran Medical Center in New York is included. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Concept of Spirituality

    A 20 page research paper that investigates the topic of spirituality. The philosophical perspective of postmodernism has left people feeling adrift and rudderless in a world that has no meaning or purpose. In answer to this situation, many people, including scholars, have turned to the topic of spirituality and religion as a means for charting a new and purposeful course into the future. Examining this sociological trend reveals that it has evolved organically out of Western culture's history and also relates to specific features that are characteristic of human religious expression as a whole, that is, encompassing Eastern religious orientations. This examination attempts to find common threads between the thrust of Western spirituality, which is primarily Christian spirituality, and how this aspect of religiosity relates to theology, mysticism and fits within the legacy of postmodernism. Bibliography lists 15 sources.

  • Preparation for Baptism and Confirmation in the Roman Catholic Church

    A 16 page paper that begins by discussing sacramental theology with an emphasis on the Sacraments of Initiation. The Sacraments of Baptism and Confirmation are explained separately, including origin, brief history, purpose, benefits, need, matter and form. The writer then turns to a discussion about why these Sacraments are beginnings and not ends in themselves. The last section offers an outlined list of topics to be discussed for two audiences - parents who are having their infants baptized and adults who are preparing for confirmation. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Airbus Case Study

    This 24 page paper is written in two parts. The first part is a case study looking at the Airbus Company, which is an EADS company. The case study looks at the history of the company, its products including be A380, the structure of the company and it is facilities, the competition it faces from Boeing, the management and leadership. The second part of the paper answer questions regarding some of the challenges faced by Airbus including the pressure for innovation, the accusations of insider trading in 2006, the dual CEO structure, the policy of compensating for currency changes as well is other influencing factors such as US government influences on Boeing and the potential of new entrants into the aircraft manufacturing business. The bibliography cites 12 sources.

  • Stress Reduction and Music Therapy

    A 6 page paper discussing how music helps reduce stress. Introduction describes some of the history, as well as common facts, relating to music and its therapeutic ability. A review of current research is offered in order to evaluate which type of stress is most benefited by music therapy. Research involves the elderly, the young, and individuals suffering from stress as a result of pain. Ideas are provided which address the question of why music therapy works. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Information and Knowledge in the Age of Cyberspace

    6 pages in length. Knowledge and information have become synonymous in the cybernetic age, but not necessarily to the benefit of understanding. The power of this statement illustrates that while technology might improve man's progress in some areas, it also fails to do so in a holistic manner. The global community is bombarded with information from myriad sources unlike any other time in history, which would lead one to presume this generation to be more knowledgeable than their parents or grandparents. This is, indeed, a logical deduction to make considering this age group was quite literally brought up in the midst of the technological revolution. However, the barrage of information today's younger generation receives on a daily basis via the Internet, television, radio, newspapers and magazines serves more to clog the assimilation into understanding than to allow for it. In short, the information is dispensed but the receivers have not been adequately taught how to decipher and retain what is important. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • Spinal Tuberculosis Management and Prevention Literature Review

    This 15 page paper delves into the history of the disease, its manifestation and treatment options. Attention is paid to infection control throughout as information about the disease and quality patient care is relayed. The paper concludes that successful treatment is usually in the form of chemotherapy or surgery or a combination of both. Infection control is highlighted and noted as a priority for schools, prisons and hospitals. How infection control efforts, along with treatment options, impacts the patient psychologically is also addressed. Bibliography lists 21 sources.

  • Postwar Settlement Consequences in War And Peace in The Middle East A Concise History by Avi Shlaim

    5 pages in length. According to Avi Shlaim's "War and Peace in the Middle East: A Concise History," ignorance of human rights and a tendency toward political oppression were the consequences of the post-war settlement of 1918-1922, clearly reflecting the consequential elements of imperialism for American policy in the Middle East. At the turn of the twentieth century, the United States was on the verge of becoming one of the world's most important imperial powers. The combination of public pressure, foreign policy elite and agricultural/industrial capitalism clearly signaled a massive global change of significant proportions. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man, Reservation Blues

    A 14 page essay that discusses James W. Johnson's The Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man and in Sherman Alexie's Reservation Blues, which are novels in which these authors address issues of race and identity as these subjects pertain to the identities of the main characters and also to the nature of racism, which is interwoven within the warp and weave of current American culture and within its history. In each novel, the authors relate these issues to music and musical expression by exploring the theme that music is both indicative of personal identity, but also an expression of culture, and, therefore, a possible means for bridging the chasms that exist between races. No additional sources cited.

  • John Philip Sousa, Jean Sibelius, and Nationalistic Music

    A 4 page research paper that discusses nationalistic music and specifically Sibelius and Sousa. In expressing his own personal view of life, the artist necessarily also expresses the "hopes and dreams" of a cultural heritage. In the nineteenth century, political conditions encouraged the growth of nationalism and this occurred to such a degree that it became a driving force within the context of the Romantic movement in music history. National tensions, "the pride of conquering nations" set against the "struggle for freedom" of the subjected countries, game rise to emotions that their most perfect expression in music. Two composers that are associated with nationalism are Jean Sibelius, who personifies his homeland of Finland, and John Philip Sousa, whose rousing marches personify American nationalism. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Poetry, Art, and Music Creativity

    A 9 page research paper that investigates the topic of artistic creativity. The standard cultural myth about creativity is that "Only artists have creativity and creativity is rare" (Epstein, 1996, p. 41). Creativity is part of human existence. Rather than being rare, creativity seems innate to human experience as every human culture, throughout history, has devised its own art, music and storytelling traditions, either oral or written. Empirical research verifies what insightful people appear to have realized throughout the ages, which is that creativity is the result of education and work, learning and building on the creations of others, and then filtering that knowledge through the prism of personal experience and individuality. In short, this discussion proposes that creativity is a distinct cognitive process that is common to all endeavors, which includes music, art and poetry. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • British Airways and Organizational v. Self Interest

    This 15 page paper considers how poor organisational culture can lead to individual preferring to act in their own self interests and not that of their employer. This is illustrated with an in-depth case study. British Airways has a record of poor employee relations and a history of numbers industrial disputes. The case study shows how a low trust culture developed more then twenty year ago, and how subsequent changes have failed to redress this situation. The paper argues that this, when combined with increased emphasis on individualism, and the bias use of emotional labour where it is only the façade that matters, employees have become insular and the preference for self interest is the result of a culture with poor management, a low trust. The bibliography cites 18 sources.

  • 'Cinderella' by Anne Sexton

    (5 pp) At a turning point in art history, Marcel Duchamp turned a porcelain urinal, upside down and hung it on the wall, labeling it art, after he signed it "R. Mutt." The supposed sophisticated community at large took that to mean - "whatever I say is art, is art." The same argument could be made for a poet. If the poet says it is a poem. Is it then a poem, or does it have to follow certain structure, form or meaning to get that title? In this discussion we will examine the poem, Cinderella by Anne Sexton, within two categories, meaning and mechanics, and see how it stands on its own.

  • Arguing in Support of Marijuana Legalization

    8 pages in length. Although the writer of this essay does not necessarily endorse the use of marijuana, (s)he agrees with the argument that it is politically-incorrect to outlaw it in the United States. Very good points are made from the history of marijuana's existence in the country as well as the similar case of alcohol prohibition during the 1920's. The writer feels that the FDA should regulate the drug so that smokers do not risk using pot that is sneakily mixed with other substances. Medical evidence of marijuana's comparatively mild effects is presented and the report concludes that the negative impacts of marijuana's ban are far worse than those that would prevail if it were allowed to be sold openly and legally. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Overview of the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award

    This is a 5 page paper discussing the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA): its history and application in a health care setting. The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award (MBNQA) was first introduced in 1987 as a national award for quality in manufacturing in the United States. In 1998, the award was extended to include the health care and education industries. The award is not only meant to award industries for their current quality but to also provide support and guidance for future quality. Regardless of discipline, the award includes certain categories which must be met in regards to establishing and maintaining industry quality which include leadership, strategic planning, human resource development, information analysis, process quality, operational results and customer satisfaction. In physician offices as part of the health care system, a patient-centered focus also creates more of a concentration on patient satisfaction, staff education, and innovation in regards to constant communication with the rest of the health care community. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Literary Analysis of Existentialism

    A 12 page overview of the literary classification of existentialism. Parallels the major components of this style with the existentialism approach in psychology, an approach which delves into our innermost characteristics to bring us to a comfortable relationship both internally and with those around us. Analyzes “The Innocents Abroad” by Mark Twain, “Endurance: Shackleton's Incredible Voyage” by Alfred Lansing, and “Cold Mountain” by Charles Frazier to identify existentialist components and provides a further comparison of the style to the Greek tragedy “The Odyssey” as a reiteration of the common elements which have been at play throughout history, not just in the nineteenth century. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • Human Resource Management and Total Quality Management

    A 31 page paper. What is the relationship between total quality management (TQM) and human resource management (HRM)? That is the question this research paper addresses. First, a brief history of each TQM and HRM is presented. The writer then describes, outlines and discusses: the integration of TQM and HRM; implementing TQM in HR departments; why TQM fails; more tips of do's and don'ts when trying to implement TQM; conclusions. The paper includes discussion of a vast array of issues related to the main topic. Bibliography lists 14 sources.

  • Literature and Violence

    A 4 page essay that analyzes three literary works in regards to their use of violence. Throughout the history of Western literature, violence has been frequently used as an integral element of narrative. While unpleasant, often horrific, violence is nevertheless a commonality of human experience and often constitutes the defining element of individual lives. This factor is clearly evident in ancient literature as well as contemporary, as demonstrated in this examination of Sophocles' Oedipus the King, Tim O'Brien's The Things They Carried, and Anne Tyler's Dinner at the Homesick Restaurant. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Literature of the Medieval Period

    This 21 page paper addresses several different topics. The authors discussed are St. Paul (Romans and Galatians); Augustine (Confessions); Gospel of Mark; Boethius (Consolation); and Gregory of Tours (History of the Franks). The essay discusses: the education of each author; who may have rewritten their original document; defining evil; authors' perceptions of a heavenly kingdom; the authors' use of belief; why each of the authors considered himself a Roman; conflict. While most of the five authors are discussed under each topic heading, not all are. Bibliography lists 12 sources.

  • What Defines Americanness in American Literature

    A 4 page essay that discusses works by Chopin, Emerson, Twain, James and Irving in regards to what qualities or characteristics make American literature "American." The writer argues that in the early days of the United States as a free and independent nation, its culture was still largely derivitive of European cultures, particularly that of England. However, throughout the nineteenth century, U.S. writers successfully established a body of literature that was distinctly American, owing little to outside sources and signifying that the US possesses a literary tradition that reflects the experience of a unique people, their history and orientation toward life. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Classroom Management and Behavioral Conditioning

    10 pages in length. Just as people learn lessons pertaining to history or math, they also learn how to behave based upon the manner by which they are trained. Ivan Pavlov and B.F. Skinner introduced the world to an approach to conditioning behavior response without the need for negative reinforcement; rather, the application of positive reception proved a much more viable approach toward getting the wanted behavior. As such, employing the concept within the classroom provides for a much more effective management outcome. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Antigone and the Old Testament

    (5pp). The literature of the Hebrew Bible (the Old Testament), is the scripture that Jews and Christians share. This literature can be examined both in the historical context in which it was written and in some of the contexts in which it has been read (such as its religious, literary, psychological overtones). These biblical ideas that have had a profound impact on Western culture: creation, covenant, commandment, monotheism, idolatry, chosenness, history, kingship, sin, prophecy, wisdom. Ancient Greek literature such as Sophocles' Antigone also addresses some of these same ideas, morality and justice being two of the most important. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Perspective on Slavery

    This 5 page paper provides an overview of some basic questions regarding the literature of slavery, including: 1. What is/was one of the most enduring themes in African American literature? 2. Why did early African American anti-slavery advocates study the history of human slavery? and 3. Define fully the term social death. These questions are answered relative to works of African American literature. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Singapore Management Style

    A 15 page paper assessing Singapore’s readiness for participative management. This paper reviews views of business in terms of Asian culture and Singapore’s unique position to determine whether participative management is appropriate in Singapore. It concludes that not only is it appropriate, it also is very much in practice. The paper discusses management theory, management history, Singapore’s great progress over the past 40 years and gives examples of two leading Singapore companies already using business models most conducive to participatory management. One (SembCorp) has even adopted the philosophies of GE’s Jack Welch. Bibliography lists 15 sources.

  • Ford Motor Company CEO Alex Trotman and His Management Skills

    A 5 page paper evaluating the leadership and management abilities of Ford Motor Company's CEO. Ford has always been a solid performer but never spectacular until Trotman's programs took firm hold. The 1997 profits of $6.9 billion not only is the highest in Ford's history, it also is the highest of any automaker ever. Trotman absolutely is proactive, as evidenced by the bold steps he has led Ford in making in his time there. Of course, Ford was successful before Trotman assumed his role of CEO, but much of the spectacular performance of recent times can be attributed directly to his leadership and his efficient and systematic direction of Ford's current direction. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Issues Related to Management of Ecosystems

    A 15 page paper that reports, explains and/or discusses five issues based on specific readings. The first section explores the concept that indigenous peoples have a natural harmonious relationship with the environment. Events with the Cree, the Yuracare and other Indian groups are used as examples. The second topic has to do with ecosystem management. The third section compares the positions of Pinchot and Muir and suggests what each would think about the spotted owl issue. Next is a report of the history of community forestry in the U.S. Finally, the writer discusses Chase's opinion about humans playing God, using the Yellowstone National Park as the example. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • APN Leadership

    A 5 page paper. Advanced practice nursing has a long history dating back to the 1800s. It was not until the 1960s that this title was conferred, however. Today, APNs can specialize in any number of medical specialties. They are leaders wherever they are working. Their knowledge and skill give them influence over others. To further their leadership career, they would do well to obtain some specific leadership training. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Operant Conditioning, B.F. Skinner, and Criminal Behavior

    A 5 page review of Skinner's theories and their application to criminology. This work has applications in many arenas. These include such diverse facets of our lives as learning and distinguishing right from wrong. Although Skinner has had many critics over the years, much of this criticism revolved a misunderstanding of the man and his theories. His work is, in fact, supported by many that both preceded and followed him in history and has many applications in criminal psychology in particular. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • World War I and the East African Conflict Between the British and the Germans

    The "WWI Bush Ghost" of German East Africa. (10 pp) This discussion will look at an amazing period of World War One history concerning the conflict between the Germans and the British in East Africa. (German East Africa encompassed all of present-day Tanzania, Rwanda and Burundi. Its 384,180 square miles exceeded the size of Germany and France combined. Its borders ranged from Kenya-Uganda and Lake Victoria in the north; to the Congo, Rhodesia and Lake Tanganyika in the west; to Nyasaland (with Lake Nyasa) and Portuguese Mozambique in the south. The Indian Ocean presented a natural border in the east.) Paul Von Lettow-Vorbeck was the consistent German player, with about 300 German officers and 11,000 black colonial troops, during this conflict, and we will see much of the information from his point of view, concerning this seldom reported period. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Nicaragua State Analysis

    11 pages in length. Nicaragua, which borders the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, has long struggled to obtain its own significant notion of existence, a quest that has been fraught with revolution, political upheaval and economic turmoil. The concepts found in relation to Nicaragua's revolution are based upon the fundamental aspects of economics, politics and history; without these integral elements, such astute determinations with regard to humanity's struggles for democracy and socialism would not have been achieved. By addressing relevant issues from both the past and present, geopolitical historians are able to formulate impressions of Nicaragua's future that prove revolutionary. Analyzing the manner by which the state has overcome such overwhelming challenges leads the student to examine specific components of its composition, not the least of which include demographic considerations, economy, government and military. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Margaret Sanger

    3 pages in length. A true pioneer in the nursing field as well as a social reformer, Margaret Sanger upholds what some believe to be the dubious legacy of introducing birth control for the sole purpose of giving women a choice when it comes to their own bodies. Her nursing career was the catalyst for what ultimately became her life's work educating about and supplying birth control devices after watching with a heavy heart how not only patients but her own mother suffered under the physical and emotional toll of having many children; at a time in history when women were only just beginning to have a social voice, Sanger's contribution to nursing was both courageous and timely. She may have met with opposition every step of the way, but Sanger stood strong in her conviction so that women of today have a choice whether to birth babies or not. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • New Nursing Theory Formulation

    A 10 page paper constructing a new nursing theory. “Theory” is not merely some nebulous entity arising from ruminations far removed from nursing practice and patient outcome. Rather, it can be a tool for devising the optimal treatment plan for patients in a variety of areas. The one focused on here is the struggle against alcoholism. The patient used as example in this paper, Mr. Walker, is a 42-year-old man with a history of noncompliance recovering from alcohol hepatitis with jaundice. The relational statement providing a foundation for a new theory is that the greater number of variables contained in a system, the greater the chances that a patient can negotiate through them and maintain higher numbers of subsystems in equilibrium. Included in the discussion are the topics of the nature of theory; the central propositional statement and underlying assumptions; concepts on which to build the theory; and translating the new theory into practice. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Analysis of Al Qaeda's Strategy And Organization

    10 pages in length. The agenda typical of militant operations is that of complete anarchy; the fact that suicide missions are one of the most widely used tactics speaks to a mindset whereby no life is sacred, not even their own. The world-view of fundamentalists like Al Qaeda is unlike the rest of the civilized planet, with skewed perspectives, inflated self-importance and malicious agendas fueling the global mayhem. Al Qaeda's steadfast organization and extremist strategy resembles several who wreaked havoc throughout history with the same intent to isolate or abolition by way of fanaticism. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • 'Cinderella' by Anne Sexton

    (5 pp) At a turning point in art history, Marcel Duchamp turned a porcelain urinal, upside down and hung it on the wall, labeling it art, after he signed it 'R. Mutt.' The supposed sophisticated community at large took that to mean - 'whatever I say is art, is art.' The same argument could be made for a poet. If the poet claims it, a poem. Is it then a poem or does it have to follow certain structure, form or meaning to get that title? In this discussion we will examine the poem, Cinderella by Anne Sexton, within two categories, meaning and mechanics of, and see how it stands on its own.

  • Review of Homer's 'The Iliad'

    A 6 page book review that summarizes and analyzes aspects of this classic epic poem. The Iliad, by the ancient Greek poet Homer, is one of the greatest poetic epics in history. This poem has held readers in thrall for millennia as there is it is a grand tale of heroic adventure. As time has past, its allure has increased due to the fact that Homer's storytelling prowess opens a window for the modern reader that reveals another time, an ancient era, with its mores, customs, traditions, beliefs and lifestyle illustrated in the lives of the Greek and Trojan heroes. In accomplishing this, the Iliad reveals a pagan world whose orientation is quite different from the Western world known to the reader. Thematic content is also discussed. No additional sources cited.

  • Feminism of the Sixties and Nursing

    A 5 page examination of the manner in which nursing changed at the impetus of the feminist movement of the 1960s. Previously relegated to primarily a subservient role in the health care environment and restricted solely to the hospital or doctor’s office, nurses took their lead from the feminist movement to remold their view of themselves as competent professionals. No longer simply puppets of those who had previously held the power and prestige in health care, nurses banded together to make a difference both in the political aspects of healthcare and in nursing theory. Consequently, this time in nursing history was one of the most productive in terms of the degree to which nurses would add to healthcare practice.

  • Sadism And Masochism: A World In The Dark

    6 pages in length. The term sets jaws on edge and causes people to avert their eyes away from the person who has the audacity to give voice to such an unconventional activity. It is considered so integral to fringe society that few people want to admit knowing many details for fear they will be labeled as being abnormal. The entire topic of sex, after all, is still taboo for a considerable portion of society, with people conversing about it in very finite social boundaries. When the discussion changes direction to incorporate sadism and masochism, however, the involuntary reaction many people have illustrates the extent to which sexual subcultures are not readily socially acceptable. Unconventionality notwithstanding, the S&M community represents a sexual subculture whereby the giving and receiving of pain is the primary focus, a concept that is both rich in history and quite prevalent in contemporary society. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Banned Books In California: K-12

    5 pages in length. Contemporaries and classics alike, such titles as Grapes of Wrath (unflattering to the state), The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (use of the word 'nigger'), Catcher in the Rye (perceived inappropriateness of violence, sexual content, occultism and vulgarity), The Chocolate War, The Color Purple (issues pertaining to race relations, God, human sexuality and African history), Cujo (sexual content and profanity), It's Okay if You Don't Love Me (allegedly depicts sex as the primary objective for people) and Silas Marner (American Library Association, 2007) illustrate how the value of broad-scoped literary exposure and inherent constitutional rights in California's K-12 are disregarded by short-sighted censors. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Monster Networking Case Study

    A 15 page paper. Monster.com is the best known job search e-business in the world. In 2003, the company launched Monster Networking, a work-related social networking site. This essay begins with an overview of the history of Monster.com, its sale to TMP, its growth and competitors and the issues surrounding the Monster Networking site and its disappointing results. The problem is identified and discussed, alternative solutions are analyzed and discussed and a recommendation is made. This is based on a Harvard case study. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Project Management Problems; A Case Study

    This 14 page paper looks at a case study provided by the student. The CAA do not have a history of successful project management. In a case supplied by the student and external companies brought in and a range of issues arise when they seek to implement a project. This paper looks at the problems which arise, and considers them from a project management perspective, including areas which may have been lacking including definitions and documentation and the holistic approach to project management by the organization. The bibliography cites 13 sources.

  • Client Therapy and Alcohol Abuse of 3 Generations

    This is a 7 page study of multi-generation alcohol abuse in relation to a client case study. The client in this case study is affected by many stress agents which have been consistent throughout her 28 years of life. The single female client still lives at home with her family in a conservative religious household which has been dominated by her overbearing father who is a second generation alcoholic within his own history. The father smokes excessively with little consideration to others in the household. The client who is affected by second hand smoke nevertheless smokes marijuana herself and in a sense is the third generation of substance abuse. The family home remains cluttered and although they are aware of their daughter’s problems handling the home environment and her stress levels, they are not likely to change their situation. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Time Perceptions in Poetry

    A 4 page explication of four poems dealing with the passage of time: "Sonnet 18"/Shakespare, "Sonnet 75"/Spencer, "The Soote Season"/Howard, and "My Galley"/Wyatt, the Elder. The writer argues that human beings are the only creatures aware of their morality and that this has influenced artistic expression since the dawn of history. This examination of four sixteenth and seventeenth century poets demonstrates that while the topic is universal, the artistic slant of individuals can vary considerably, as the tone of these poems ranges from the morose to the hopeful. No additional sources cited.

  • Law Enforcement and Cyber Crime

    This 5 page paper begins with comments from two FBI Cyber Agents about their typical day. Although all law enforcement agencies know cyber crime is the fastest-growing crime in the history of the country, officials do not know exactly how extensive it is because only about 5 percent of the crimes committed are ever reported. The writer discusses the difficulties obtaining statistical data. The writer provides examples of specific crimes and how the FBI, working with other agencies, was involved in solving them. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Cinematography in “Hero”

    A 6 page research paper that discusses the elements of cinematography in “Hero,” directed by Zhang Yimou, 2002, which is an epic film and its $30 million production budget makes it one of the most expensive films in the history of China’s film industry (Heilman). The film’s narrative is similar to any one of numerous films that are set in an ancient era and involves numerous scenes of action-packed sword play. Rather than the narrative, it is the cinematography that makes this movie extraordinary, as there is scene after scene of breathtaking beauty. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Conventional Theology and The Passion of the Christ Film by Mel Gibson

    A 7 page research paper that discusses the controversy surround the film The Passion of the Christ, produced and directed by Mel Gibson. This movie presents the last twelve hours of Jesus' life, that is, his suffering and crucifixion in a manner that demonizes Jewish authorities of the time. Particularly since all dialogue in the movie is spoken in either Latin or Aramaic (with English subtitles), the film has the "feel" of a documentary and it is likely that many viewers will regard it as an accurate dramatization of the gospel story of Christ's death. This paper compares Gibson's film to accounts of the crucifixion recorded in the Gospels. This comparison shows that Gibson added a great deal more violence than is actually portrayed in the Bible. The theological and racial implications of Gibson's film are then discussed in light of his personal history and background. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • The Middle Passage/Deslauriers

    A 3 page research paper that describes French director Guy Deslauriers’ 2000 film “The Middle Passage” endeavors to portray the horrors endured by Africans abducted from their homes and forcibly transported to the New World. The film is a “stylistic gamble” as it is “without dialogue, individualized characters or conventional narrative arc” (Harvey 26). In other words, the film attempts to offer a contemporary audience the illusion that they are looking directly at history and the atrocities perpetuated on captured Africans. The main question, therefore, in evaluating this film is whether or not this depiction is accurate. The writer discusses this question, drawing on the narrative of Olaudah Equiano. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Practice of Psychology

    A 3 page research paper that discusses psychology. Psychology has been defined as "the study of human behavior." However, even a brief examination of the science and practice of psychology demonstrates that this social science discipline encompasses a broad expanse of territory and that the practice of psychology is continually evolving as it changes to meet the needs of contemporary society, both now and in the future. An overview of psychology's history that this factor is particularly true in terms of psychology's purposes and goals. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Comparing 3 paintings & painting/music

    A 6 page essay that discusses three paintings and Beethoven’s Fifth Symphony. “The Abduction of the Sabine Women” by Nicolas Poussin (1634), “The Death of General Wolfe” by Benjamin West (1770), and “The Raft of the Medusa” by Theodore Gericault” (1818) are each representative of a specific period in art history. Comparing the three works illustrates the way in which the Romantic era reconnected with the emotionality and vibrancy of the Baroque. However, it should be noted that Neoclassical works were not without emotion, as Beethoven’s striking Fifth Symphony exemplifies, rather it indicates that comparison between the periods illustrates that in the Neoclassical era, emotion was controlled within the confines of rationality. A bibliography is not offered.

  • Behavior Modification & Stopping Procrastination

    A 10 page research paper on behavior modification. This examination of behavior modification examines the history of this branch of psychology, describing the ideas that are intrinsic to understanding the principles that form the foundation of this body of psychological knowledge. This discussion of sources also describes the work of B.F. Skinner, including his text Walden Two, as Skinner is the psychologist who was instrumental in popularizing the field of behaviorism. Finally, the writer looks at how behavior modification can be used in overcome a personal behavioral problem, such as procrastination. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Musical Representations of Various Eras

    A 6 page research paper that consists of 2 separate 3-page papers. The first paper discusses how Andrew Lloyd Webber's Phantom fits within the context of the history of Broadway music. Bibliography lists 3 sources. The second 3-page investigation briefly looks at 3 different works and relates them to the era's in which they were composed and how the composer expressed emotion. These are Beethoven's Fifth Symphony (classical); Tchaikovsky's Romeo and Juliet (romantic) and Schoenberg's Five pieces for Orchestra (contemporary). Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • Genesis/An Overview

    A 3 page research paper/essay that offers a brief overview of the Book of Genesis, which is the first book of the Christian Bible and the Jewish Torah. This is an ancient document that relates a considerable amount of Jewish history. The writer argues that there are themes that bind it together. One of these themes is the entrance of evil into the world via the repercussions of human actions. However, countering evil is the possibility of redemption, as men such as Noah and Abraham each submit themselves to the will of God and thereby earn reward of God's favor. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Personality Development/Albert Einstein

    A 5 page research paper that examines Einstein's life and genius. Albert Einstein is "the icon of scientific genius," one of the "most recognizable faces in the history of mankind," and certainly the most influential scientists of the twentieth century (Khoon, 2007, p. 9). This examination of Einstein's life discusses his biography in terms of developmental psychology and the possible influences that may have shaped his genius for math and creative insight. The two personality development theories utilized for this purpose are those of Erik Erikson and Karen Horney. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • The Impact of Airport Security Measures on Management Operations

    7 pages in length. The extent to which the airport industry environment is different now than prior to September 11, 2001 illustrates the significant lengths to which the nation's security system has been augmented. This vast development in the wake of America's worst terrorist attack in history is, however, said to be just as inefficient and incapable of averting another 911 episode as what existed before the fateful day; that the airport industry has strategically bolstered itself has made all personnel more keenly aware of the potential for a repeat performance, yet the ultimate performance of these presidential instituted mandates and the Transportation Security Administration role continues to leave gapping holes in the overall objective toward national protection. On a smaller scale, however, advancement is being made in certain areas where tremendous sweeps are not expected to occur – such as onboard – where a smaller cluster of people is able to make a bigger, more immediately visible and overall impact. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • 3 Reviews on Religious Books

    An 18 page paper that consists of three separate 6 page book reviews. The first review refers to L. Russ Bush's The Advancement, which offers a Christian apologetic that defends the biblical account of creation against the position of Darwinian naturalism. The second book review addresses Norman Geisler and Ron Brooks' text When Skeptics Ask, which offers an apologetic that is useful to all Christians in defending their faith, as the objections that unbelievers raise regarding Christian dogma are frequently quite perceptive and cut to the heart of Christianity's basic principles. The final book review examines L. Russ Bush and Tom J. Nettles' Baptists and the Bible, which offers a comprehensive history of the Baptist church and its attitudes toward the doctrine of inerrancy and infallibility of the Bible. In each case, the writer summarizes every chapter in each book. No additional sources cited.

  • Henry James's 19th Century Critique of John S. Sargent's 'Lady with the Rose' Painting

    A 7 page paper which examines a chapter from American author and art critic Henry James’s 1893 volume, “Picture and Text,” in which he discusses the young Symbolist painter’s work and his critique of this early painting. Also considered is the context of this criticism to consider whether it was defending or attacking the object/artist and its intended audience in order to gain an art historical perspective. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Islamic World, the West, and the Relevance of Medieval History

    7 pages in length. It is a harsh reality that has reinvented itself over and over again during some of the most difficult times of global conflict. While at times it serves to unite people under the umbrella of solidarity, it also fuels aggression and hatred toward those who do not uphold the same tenets. This demon of such tremendous proportion seeks to unify but ultimately divides, which reflects the way in which religious fundamentalism of medieval times has perpetuated throughout the centuries to once again raise its ugly head where contemporary relations between the West and the Islam world are concerned. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Economic, Political, and Social History of West Africa and the Impacts of Slavery and the Slave Trade

    This 8 page paper discusses the impact on the African continent from the four centuries of slave trade and what the implications for the future may be. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Differential Treatment of Women Laborers in Canada

    This is a 12 page paper discussing wage and labor differentials for women in Canada. Within Canada today, women in the labor force generally make 70 to 80 cents for every dollar men make. This “wage gap” has actually decreased greatly over the years but still has a long way to go for total equity in the work place despite positive legislation in the 1970s and 1980s. Historically, women within Canada have been “crowded” into certain female-dominated professions such as clerical positions, nursing, teaching, domestic work, social work and sales and services. While clerical work once was comparable with male blue-collar jobs in regards to pay, the increase in unionization in many blue-collar trades left most of the female-dominated positions as those which were lower paid. As women shifted away from clerical positions and proceeded to attain degrees in higher education, the wage gap began to decrease but then women encountered the “glass ceiling” in which women held a disproportionate number of positions in the lowest quartile in large corporations. Today, women still have lower average salaries than men despite the gain in higher education. One of the reasons found within studies by Statistics Canada and others is that women who choose to have and raise children lose experience during their absence; experience men continue to gain which in turn leads to more promotions. Another reason believed for the continue wage gap is discrimination which still exists within employers, co-workers and the general population somewhat who still categorize some professions as “female” (such as teaching) and some as “male” (such as the trades) and in essence this restricts female workers from opportunities within the blue collar and higher executive markets. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Women's Rights Movement Pioneers

    A 14 page scholarly paper on the key leaders in the women rights movement. Highlighting the roles of Susan B. Anthony, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott and Sarah and Angelina Grimke, the author notes the factors at play necessitating that these women step outside of society’s clearly defined societal expectations to effect change. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • London's Development History

    This is an 8 page paper discussing the development of London through the time of the Romans, Saxons, Vikings and Normans. From the first established settlement north of the Thames River by the Romans in AD 43, the building of the bridge and the naming of Londinium, London developed substantially over the next 1200 years through the Romans, Saxons, Vikings and Normans. While it can be said that the Romans first established trade and the development in London, the Saxons and the Normans were largely responsible for the model of the city as it now stands today in regards to architecture, commerce, politics and civil liberties. Although the arrival of the Vikings caused a certain amount of turmoil, it did cause England to eventually unite under King Alfred of Wessex and establish London as the capital of Britain. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Emilio Zamora, Cynthia Orozco and Rodolfo Rocha's Mexican Americans in Texas History

    A 5 page paper which summarizes the text, identifies the authors’ purpose, theme of the book, considers its sources, and provides relevant information about each author. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • An 18 Year Old Male's Sexual History

    This is a 5 page paper discussing the sexual history of an eighteen year old boy. In the United States, by the time a teenage boy has reached the age of eighteen, he has had over a decade of sexual education. At about the age of 8 or 10, research has shown that boys and girls are aware of sexual intercourse and the other sexual options used such as anal or oral sex among others. In addition, at around this age, boys become aware of the sexual development and interest of others in their peer group. On average, teenage boys start being sexually active at the age of 13 or 14 after which they begin experimenting with the different options available in which they can obtain higher degrees of satisfaction from sex. By the time most teenagers reach grade twelve, they have had over six different sexual partners. Teenage boys also report having sex for pleasure and not necessarily intimacy; explore more sexual options; have more liberal sexual attitudes; and, are not as concerned as girls about protected sex despite their knowledge of the importance of protected sex. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • United States' and the European Union's 'Banana Dispute'

    This 9 page paper examines the trade dispute between the European Union and the Untied States regarding the preferential treatment that some African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) nations gained by being able to export bananas to the EU free of any duty. The paper traces the dispute and then analyses the motivation of the players and the impact that the resolutions which have been agreed may have on the ACP nations. The bibliography cites 10 sources.

  • Assassination of John F. Kennedy Portrayed in Libra by Don DeLillo

    7 pages in length. DeLillo, who represents the real in a way "many postmodernists argue is impossible" (Hutchinson 117), brings to the table an entirely unique interpretation of postmodernism; while his approach to the events surrounding the Kennedy assassination can be readily correlated with conventional postmodern thought, it nonetheless extends beyond such conventionality to the point where staunch postmodernists must stretch their own understanding of the concept to reach DeLillo's central theme. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Electricity and America

    (5 pp) Prior to the electric light bulb, illumination was by fire from candles, kerosene and oil lamps, and coal-gas jets. With the advent of electricity, the advantages of electric lamps for interior lighting over flickering, sooty, open flames were readily apparent, and demand for electricity skyrocketed. The excitement and enthusiasm over electricity's beginnings could be heard from one coast to the next. (Newspaper accounts are used as reporting tools) Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Cinematic Style, Influence, and Impact of Francis Ford Coppola

    This is a 5 page paper discussing Francis Ford Coppola: his life, influences and impact on the film industry. Francis Ford Coppola has attained a great place in the history of American film makers as one of the most innovative, dedicated and most of all independent directors of the second half of the 20th century. Inspired originally by directors such as Orson Welles and Jean-Luc Godard, Coppola and his colleagues from the late 1960s and early 1970s have managed to create a unique and committed independent film generation. The Italian operatic lighting and music throughout the film “The Godfather” and the painstakingly realistic “Apocalypse Now” have escalated Coppola higher than his original intention to “launch something independent and something American that was really related to cinema”. In the creation of his own studio, Zoetrope, Coppola has launched careers of other directors and writers with independent vision within his own and the subsequent generation. Rather than follow in the well structured footsteps of many of those who preceded him, Coppola’s vision is more that of the “concept of the auteur” where he is a creator of his work rather than one who just films the work. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • The Netherlands and the Law's Role in the Development of Social Attitudes Regarding Euthanasia and Gay Rights

    This is a 9 page paper discussing how the homosexual right laws and euthanasia laws in The Netherlands reflect society’s attitudes. Two basic perspectives are considered in regards to the role of the law in society. One is that the role of the law is to reflect society’s attitudes and throughout the process of social change through history, so too will the law reflect these changes. On the other hand, some governments or countries believe that the role of the law is to force or control social change. In the latter case, the law may or may not change through the process of social change. In today’s society, laws generally reflect society’s attitudes and social change as can be seen in the constantly changing, amending, updating and reversal of many of the laws which used to be enforced. These transitions in the law as a reflection of social change can be seen in some of the recent changes in laws pertaining to homosexual partnerships and euthanasia in The Netherlands. Changes in the law reflect societal attitudes to the extent where countries which have changed their laws to suit society’s changing attitudes are seen as more open and accepting of societal changes than those which do not. There are also some countries in which the law remains a controlling force for social change as seen in the one child policy in China. Bibliography lists 14 sources.

  • Scientific Management Theories, Motivation, and Theories

    This is a 5 page paper discussing various aspects of management including scientific management theories, the Hawthorne Experiments and other areas including an example of a social structure found within a work setting. Over the course of history, work, mainly manufactured work, has been studied in terms of the various elements required needed for the production of an item and the time it would take workers to complete this task. In addition, with the introduction of certain industrial technologies over time, manufacturing and the management of manufacturing systems and teams have been altered to accommodate new trends and technologies. Management, within an historical perspective, had little to do direct contact within the employees which was generally left to the foremen. However, Frederick Winslow Taylor in the 19th century began to think in terms of “scientific management” in which production management became important to improving the overall production of any manufacturing area. While scientific management looked mainly to efficiency in production, the Hawthorne experiments in the 1920s found that work places are very much social systems and workers reacted accordingly. Lastly, employee motivation need to be established by owners and managers in order to initiate recruitment for firms and retain employees once recruited. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Women with a Victimization History and Drug Abuse Treatment Management

    4 pages in length. The writer discusses potential research strategies, impact of victimization and the 20 most important points to the treatment process. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Commonwealth Caribbean Jurisprudence, Natural Justice, and Fairness

    This is a 10 page paper discussing the concept of fairness and natural justice in regards to the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth Caribbean. The concept of fairness adds to the law of natural justice especially in its application of the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth Caribbean. The Commonwealth Caribbean, comprised of over 15 island and mainland nations in the Caribbean, has a system of law based primarily on that of the United Kingdom and on each nation’s colonial history. Some nations have components of the colonial Dutch and French systems as well because of historical ties. Regardless of the nation however, the Commonwealth Caribbean was considered one of the areas of the world in which basic laws of human rights, natural justice and natural law, were not being followed in regards to fairness, justice and equality within the judicial system. Prisoners unable to afford representation were not always provided with legal aid and were therefore not offered fair trials, decisions or appeals. With an international push for fairness in judicial systems, organizations were formed providing representation for criminals in the Commonwealth Caribbean in the mid-1990s and more recently constitutional amendments have been included providing for legal aid representation in all cases. Several amendments have been enforced within the judicial system as well to follow constitutional law to provide fair and just representation in regards to decisions pertaining to court justices and despite the power of the Chief Justice within the judicial system, he must also follow the concept of fairness in his application of justice within the judicial system itself. Bibliography lists 12 sources.

  • Social Change and the Law

    This is an 8 page paper discussing the role of law in society. Two basic perspectives are considered in regards to the role of the law in society. One is that the role of the law is to reflect society’s attitudes and throughout the process of social change through history, so too will the law reflect these changes. On the other hand, some governments or countries believe that the role of the law is to force or control social change. In the latter case, the law may or may not change through the process of social change. In today’s society, laws generally reflect society’s attitudes and social change as can be seen in the constantly changing, amending, updating and reversal of many of the laws which used to be enforced. These transitions in the law as a reflection of social change can be seen in some of the recent changes in laws pertaining to homosexual partnerships and euthanasia in some countries. Changes in the law reflect societal attitudes to the extent where countries which have changed their laws to suit society’s changing attitudes are seen as more open and accepting of societal changes than those which do not. There are also some countries in which the law remains a controlling force for social change as seen in the one child policy in China. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

 

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