Research Papers on European History

Click on any of the term papers to read a brief synopsis of the research paper. The essay synopsis includes the number of pages and sources cited in the paper.

  • Democracy in Europe

    A 9 page paper discussing points and implications of Larry Siedentop's "Democracy in Europe," which calls for and encourages the development of a constitutional republic of Western European nations. A separate PowerPoint® presentation also is available. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Do Western Ukrainians Have A Different Sense Of National Identity In Comparison To Eastern Ukrainians? A Research Proposal

    This 13 page paper is a research proposal to study the perception of national identity in Western Ukraine in the context of the current difficulties in the country. The paper has the aim of determining if the majority of the present days Western Ukrainians do not see themselves as one nation with Eastern Ukrainians due to differences in the perception of 'national' identities that have been formed. The paper presents an introduction, hypothesis, literature review looking at the history of the county and its impact on national identity as well as concepts concerning the way national identity is formed. The paper also presents a methodology including primary research. The bibliography cites 60 sources.

  • Soviet Union Under Josef Stalin and Jewish Culture's Decline

    This 10 page paper considers the plight of Jews in the Soviet Union under the rule of Stalin. Topics covered include the anti-Semitic movement, the Jewish Anti-Fascist Committee and the doctors plot. The bibliography cites 8sources.

  • 'The Tables Turned' by William Wordsworth and Romanticism

    A 2 page paper that defines Romanticism as expressed in William Wordsworth's 1798 poem The Tables Turned. Also briefly discussed is the influence Romanticism exerted on the political and religious thinking of the early nineteenth century. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • A Nervous Splendor Vienna 1888/1889 by Frederic Morton

    A 5 page analysis of historian Frederic Morton's book, A Nervous Splendor: Vienna 1888/1889. The writer discusses how Morton pictures the Viennese society of that period as basically flawed with problems in both classes, the aristocracy and the bourgeoisie. The suicide of Crown Prince Rudolf is also discussed. No other sources listed.

  • World War II A Chronological History

    This 10 page paper provides a history from beginning to end of the Second World War. Causes of the war are discussed and how the war ends is also noted. Major events are highlighted such as the Holocaust and the dropping of the bomb on Hiroshima. A timeline is included. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • World War I A Chronological History

    This 8 page paper provides a history from beginning to end of the First World War. Causes of the war are discussed and how the war ends is also noted. Major battles are highlighted. A timeline is included. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • European History and Religion from the Sixteenth Century to Today

    This 6 page paper provides three sections with timelines of significant events in European history as it relates to religion. A summary section is also included. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • English Countryside in 'Odour Of Chrysanthemums' by D.H. Lawrence

    5 pages in length. In assessing D.H Lawrence's 'Odour of Chrysanthemums,' the reader is able to clearly distinguish how the author's use of English countryside is divided between industrial and rural landscapes. The manner in which Lawrence utilizes these landscapes as a means by which to shape the main characters in his short story illustrates the author's inherent ability to successfully differentiate between industrial and rural characterization. That one of the two main theme's of 'Odour of Chrysanthemums' addresses the accurate depiction of mining district working-class life, the concept of English countryside incorporated throughout the story helps the reader gain a significant understanding of just how diverse the two entities were represented. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • English Law and the Norman Conquest

    A paper which looks at the impact which the Norman Conquest had on the development of the English legal system, taking into account the many other historical and social factors which influenced the growth of common law both before and after the Norman invasion. Bibliography lists 4 sources

  • 1979's Sale of Goods Act and British Law

    A 5 page paper which examines the British law, Sale of Goods Act of 1979. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Consumer Culture and British Fashion Magazine Influence

    This is a 27 page paper discussing the influence of British fashion magazines on the British consumer society and their influences throughout history up and including the 1990s. The history of the fashion industry in relation to cultural influences, consumerism and the projected images of women and men in today’s society has led to a great deal of research in the fields of sociology, psychology and economics. While fashion magazines have changed their format a great deal in the past century as today their pages contain over one third in advertisements, their content has also changed a great deal. While researching the development of British fashion magazines within the last century, magazines such as Vogue, Elle and InStyle, initially showed that the focus of fashion magazines was women’s clothing and the models were portrayed as older elite women who replaced the dolls previously used. The influence of the fashion magazine on the female consumer at the beginning of the 20th century reflected the expectations of society in regards to conservative or opulent looks depending on the decade. Today, British fashion magazines tend to reflect the standards, or lack of standards, as now seen in the music and media industries. A recent study of focus groups’ opinions of images found in Vogue magazine found that most women and men feel that they can discern from the images presented in fashion magazines those images which are more “realistic” than others. In addition, it appears that in regards to consumer choice, fashion magazines are considered one of the less reliable sources available to consumers who prefer peer, family and local store recommendations over that of fashion magazines which appear as unreliable and unrealistic in regards to most situations and events. Nevertheless, the continued popularity of fashion magazines and their continued focus on the Western and/or American entertainment industries as a source for fashion is considered as a reflection of societal cues and consumer behavior. Bibliography lists 26 sources.

  • Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Irish Tensions

    A 5 page paper which examines Ireland’s tumultuous history and considers the political, economic and social struggles including the potato famine, religious unrest, rebellion and independence movements and the role of women. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • Analyzing A History of the World in 10 1/2 Chapters by Julian Barnes

    This 4 page paper presents an analysis of this unique and startling fictional account of the history of the world, illuminating its commentary on spirituality and human nature. Furthermore, this paper examines this work in light of other great works of literature, such as the book of Genesis, Augustine's "Confessions", Freud's "Civilization and its Discontents", and others. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • History, Development, and Geography's Influence

    This is a 5 page paper discussing geography’s influence on history. Geography has a great impact on history, development, and social, cultural, religious and political affiliations. Historically, regions with geographical advantageous positions, such as those with access to navigable waterways have led other areas in regards to exploration, market economy and development. Geographically, Britain provides an excellent example of the advantages of a land with fertile soil, navigable waterways and a long coastline with natural harbors. This led England to exploration and navigation which in turn led them to other lands which they could develop. Other regions with water access also gained a great deal in trade and exploration. New lands which were developed were also those which were easily accessible, had irritable soil, and navigable waterways. Lands which did not have these geographically preferred features were largely neglected unless they were geophysically blessed with natural resources such as oil or gold. Today geography still plays an essential influence on the historical affiliations of many peoples who despite political, religious or international alliances are still mostly affected with their geographical locale. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Europeas an Outgrowth of Its Geographical Features

    This 4 page paper discusses the way in which geography impacted the development of Europe. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Egypt and Mesopotamia Comparison

    A 3 page research paper that compares and contrasts the geography, society and laws of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Department Store and its History

    A 6 page discussion of the advent of the department store in consumer culture. Making their advent in the mid 1800s these stores would change the way stores marketed goods and the way consumers shopped for them. This paper discusses store geography, design, and labor considerations, particularly in regard to women. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • European Historical Signficance of Herder's Outlines of A Philosophy of the History of Man and Burke's Reflections on the Revolution in France

    7 pages in length. The writer discusses the opposing perspectives of both writers and how each one influenced European history. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • History of Russia in a Combination of 4 Papers

    This 22- page paper is comprised of four shorter papers dealing with Russia. The first is a 17-page paper that traces the history of Russia from ancient rulers, through the Romanov dynasty, the Decembrist revolution, the revolution of 1905 and the Revolution of 1917. It discusses the Communist period, and the post-Communist period, and touches on economic problems today as well as ethnic conflicts. Bibliography lists 6 sources. The second paper, which is incorporated into the whole, is a 3-page essay describing some of Russia's cultural icons. Bibliography lists 1 source. The third paper, which is incorporated into the whole, is a 3-page essay describing Russian and Soviet geography. Bibliography lists 2 sources. The fourth paper, which is incorporated into the whole, is a 2-page essay describing Russian demographics. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • The European Miracle by E.L. Jones

    A 6 page book review of E.L. Jones' The European Miracle. In this text, Jones endeavors to answer the following question, which is "How to account for the ascendancy...of the First World" (Kellas 330). In his search for answers, Jones looks at European history and geography and contrasts and compares its development with the history of Asia, which he pictures as taking a different socio/economic path. Jones characterizes the Ottoman empire as "intellectual backward" and speaks of India's "total lack of political inspiration," pointing out the social structure in India "impaired political stability and the resulting instability impaired development (Kellas 330). As this suggests, in answer to the questions that the text poses, Jones presents a multitude of elements as contributing to the miracle of European development. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Second World War and Casablanca Film

    A 5 page paper which compares and contrasts the film’s relationship with World War II. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Blood Oath (Film Analysis)

    This 10 page paper reviews this Australian film. Does the film depict events accurately. This question is explored as well as others in the context of this comprehensive review. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Cinematic Perspectives of Society and Race

    A 6 page discussion of how our race and social perspective influences our interaction with others. The author uses six films set in the early twentieth century to illustrate this phenomena. These films are "Out of Africa", "Harem Suare", "Nowhere in Africa", "King of the Khyber Rifles", "The Charge of the Light Brigade", and "A Passage to India". Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • History's Origin According to Ernst Breisach

    This 2 page paper provides an overview of the central perspectives of Ernst Breisach in his Historiography: Ancient, Medieval & Modern as they relate to the origins of history. This paper demonstrates the link between the perspectives of the earliest known historians, Herodotus and Thucydides, also known as the father and grandfather of history, and the modern views of the process through which history is conveyed. No additional sources cited.

  • Spain's Economic History

    This 8 page report discusses the economy of Spain in terms of: historical precedent; relationship with its European neighbors; its movement toward European integration; problems it faced becoming a part of the European Union; and, its current economic and diplomatic status with Europe. The report also provides a brief comparison of the economies of Spain and Germany that illustrates both Spain’s relationship to Germany and how far the nation has come in the past several decades of determination. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Guillotine History

    This 5 page paper presents a description and overview of this item once used as the primary means of execution. Its origin, which was in revolutionary France, is the focus of the paper. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Wig and its History

    This 5 page paper delves into the history of the wig from Ancient times through modernity, and looks at a variety of aspects. A focal point is when Louis XIII re-ignited a trend for males to wear wigs. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Balkan Ghosts A Journey Through History by Robert D. Kaplan

    A 5 page book report on Kaplan’s 1993 book, based on his decade-long experiences in the region as a journalist. No additional sources are used.

  • German History and the Contributions of Helmut Kohl

    This 10 page paper looks at Kohl's contributions and legacy, but really centers on other leaders such as Brandt and Adenauer. Kohl's rule is evaluated in light of policies implemented by his predecessors. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Social History and Sexuality

    A 6 page paper discussing the use of the study of sex and scandal in defining a society or culture of the past. The study of attitudes toward sex and scandal in any society can help inform social definition, but it also needs to be undertaken with some caveats. Using the study of sex and scandal to help further define any society of the past is a valid pursuit. However, those choosing that route must make allowances for the social and linguistic customs and patterns in which events not only occurred, but also in which they were recorded. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • London's Early History

    A 5 page overview of some of the formative periods of London’s history. In short, the history of London occurred in leaps and bounds but it also included many years of slow, gradual change. Over her history London progressed from a people whose subsistence was meager and relationships with the rest of the world were essentially non-existent, to a people whose city serves as one of the foremost cultural, economic, and political capitals of the world. This rise included influence from a diversity of peoples ranging from the Romans, to the Saxons, to the Vikings, and to the Normans.

  • History and Impact of the Cold War

    This is a 10 page paper discussing the events that led up to the Cold War. Major causes and issues are included and the overall effect of the war is discussed. The gradual build up of forces on both the capitalist Western side and the communist Eastern side are included. The paper focuses on the major countries involved. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Capitalism and Europe in the 20th Century

    8 pages in length. There exist several reasons why the history of European twentieth century can be summed up as the triumph of capitalism, including two world wars, Fascism, Nazism, Stalinist Totalitarianism and the Depression. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Islamic History in Spain

    This essay examines the period of time in Spain during which the land was under Islam rule. The paper examines the impact that the Muslims had on Spanish architecture, art and music. Bibliograpy lists 4 sources.

  • Analyzing a History of Yugoslavia from 1918 until 1991

    This is an 8 page paper analyzing the history of Yugoslavia and its divisions of nation states and provinces within the years 1918 to 1991. After World War I, Yugoslavia was formed and over the course of the next 70 years underwent radical changes in its national borders. Up until the socialist republic in 1946, historical and national alliances had been divided only to be reunited again by the socialists. However, the nations did not get independence or international recognition until the break-up of Yugoslavia in 1991. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Definition and Role of European Feudalism

    This is a 6 page paper discussing the development and purpose of feudalism in Europe from the 9th to 13th centuries. Originating out of the chaos which resulted from the breakdown of the Roman institutional system, the feudal system consisted of lords and kings which controlled fiefs across Europe. Through the development of the agricultural revolution and the expansion of textiles and export goods, the lords and kings became more established and the Orders of Knighthood developed during this time. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • London's Finance and Trade History

    This is an 8 page paper discussing the developmental of London as an international center for trade and finance. Since the invasions of the Romans until the international commerce market which stands today, London has long been considered the center of international trade and finance. The strategic location on the Thames River and the early establishment of the wool industry in Britain, allowed for London to become a major trade centre in Northern Europe with trade alliances with the Dutch, Germans, Danish and Italians initially. The period of colonization and the trade of the raw commodities from the colonies further increased London’s hold on the manufactured goods coming out of England, shipping, and the redistribution of products throughout the world. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • 1066 The Year of the Conquest by David Howarth

    A 5 page paper that examines which historical figures the author likes and why. No additional sources are used.

  • Second World War and Its Chronological History

    An 8 page paper which examines the chronological history of WWII. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Studying the Terroist Groups the Red Army Fraction/Baader Meinhof Group, the Dashmesh Regiment, the Islamic Jamiat-i-Talaba, the North Korean Communist Group, and the Action Directe

    This is a 30 page paper studying five terrorist groups: their history, ideology, acts of terrorism and current status. The study of five terrorist groups, the Action Directe (AD), the North Korean Communist Group, the Islamic Jamiat-i-Talaba (IJT), the Dashmesh Regiment, and the Red Army Fraction (RAF) shows the extent extremists will go to further their causes in both the domestic and international arena. The Action Directe (AD) in France and the Red Army Fraction (RAF) in Germany were mostly active in the 1970s and 1980s when many of their leading members were imprisoned. Although not directly linked with any recent terrorist actions, the members of the AD and RAF are still actively associated with radical or political groups today. The North Korean Communist Group is considered one of the most viable terrorist threats of today as they are large, well-funded, still torture political prisoners and are believed to still manufacture nuclear, chemical and biological weaponry contrary to international agreements. The Islamic Jamiat-i-Talaba (IJT) as the student based affiliated of the political party Jamiat-i-Islami (JI) in Pakistan wish for the education of Islamic youth and for the formation of an Islamic state free of all Western deviant and capitalist influences and continue violent protests to promote this ideal. The recent war on terrorism against the Taliban in Afghanistan has led the IJT to believe that the increase in martyrs for their cause will only increase their recruitment for their group. Finally, the Dashmesh Regiment or 10th Regiment in Pakistan and India wish for a separate Sikh state called Khalistan which is currently on land in India. They have formed alliances with other national and international terrorist groups with the intent of getting their cause well known and have been responsible for several international acts of terrorism. Although their group was diminished when the Indian forces captured many of their leaders, international Sikh supported organizations have been formed in their place to continue their cause. Bibliography lists 18 sources.

  • Lessons Learned From The Napoleonic Era

    An 8 page overview of the many lessons of the Napoleonic Era. The author contends that the most important of these lessons is Napoleon's efforts to dominate others left a legacy of resistance by those that have been dominated. That legacy has been reflected around the world as one nation after another sought independence from domination. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Drug Ionization, Absorption, Excretion

    A 4 page overview of the relation of drug ionization, specifically of whether the drug is a weak acid or a weak base, to its absorption into the body and consequent excretion from the body. Notes a differential absorption and excretion, according to physiological pH, as to where the drug is absorbed and when it is excreted. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Social History and Sexuality

    A 6 page paper discussing the use of the study of sex and scandal in defining a society or culture of the past. The study of attitudes toward sex and scandal in any society can help inform social definition, but it also needs to be undertaken with some caveats. Using the study of sex and scandal to help further define any society of the past is a valid pursuit. However, those choosing that route must make allowances for the social and linguistic customs and patterns in which events not only occurred, but also in which they were recorded. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Orchestral, Opera, and Dance Versions of William Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet

    This 4 page report discusses three different versions of Shakespeare’s classic “Romeo and Juliet.” Charles Gounod’s opera. Prokofiev’s ballet, and Tchaikovsky’s “Fantasy Overture on Romeo and Juliet” are compared in terms of their portrayal of two of the characters of the play. In this case, the couple chosen to be examined are also one of the most well-known literary couples in the world. No bibliography.

  • Hitler and the Holocaust

    This 6 page paper provides a great deal of information about the Holocaust as well as specific information about Hitler and his life. Whether it can happen again is discussed as well. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Comparative Analysis of the 1908 and 1909 Bosnian Crisis and 1912 and 1913 Balkan Wars

    This 5 page paper looks at why the Bosnian Crisis of 1908-1909 and the Balkan Wars of 1912 and 1913 did not develop into a general European conflict. The reasons for World War I are noted and the conflicts listed are discussed in depth. The idea of an East versus West mentality is explored Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • War: Civil War, Iraq, Yugoslavia

    This 3 page paper discusses the similarities among the American Civil War, the Iraq War and the Yugoslavian Civil War. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Islamic Militarism Since 600 A.D.

    A 5 page research paper that discusses the history of Islamic militarism. One hears a great deal, in this age of Islamic terrorism, about how the Muslim instigators of indiscriminant violence are not true "Muslims." However, an overview of Islamic militarism shows that, as with Christianity, violence and aggression are integral to Islamic history and that this history very much pertains to the current situation. The writer first discusses Islamic militarism, beginning in 600 A.D. and continuing to the Crusades and then relates this militaristic tradition to Islamic belief and current terrorism. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Slavery Abolition in England

    This 5 page paper discusses the involvement of various British citizens in the anti-slavery movment. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Anti Semitism and Origins of Totalitarianism by Hannah Arendt

    This 3-page paper discusses the main argument put forth in Hannah Arendt's book Origins of Totalitarianism, tying antisemitism along with it.

  • Armenia, Genocide & Meaning

    A 30 page research paper that discusses genocide, focusing primarily on the details of the Armenian Genocide of 1915 and Peter Balakian's book on this subject, The Burning Tigris (2003). Balakian's analysis of the Armenian Genocide addresses several pertinent themes that are applicable to the overall topic of genocide. Therefore, this examination of the Armenian Genocide, concentrating on the history and analysis offered by Balakian, also extends his points, where applicable, to the topic of genocide in general. It attempts to discern the pattern of genocide and how this has been replicated in other genocidal campaigns, as well as the fundamental causes behind genocide and tragedy, which relate the discussion to the causes of human aggression and violence. Bibliography lists 19 sources.

  • 1915 to 1917 Armenian Genocide

    This 5 page paper argues that the Armenian Genocide (1915-1917) may have served as a model for the Nazi extermination of the Jews three decades later. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Ottoman Empire, the Armenians, and Genocide

    A 7 page research paper that examines what various historians say about the history of Armenians in the Ottoman Empire. Many historians say that the events of 1915-16 constitute deliberate genocide, but Turkish historians assert that Armenian deaths were the consequence of justifiable defensive actions and are a result of war. The writer argues in favor of considering this genocide. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Industrial Revolution

    A 3 page paper which examines the innovations of the Industrial Revolution. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • German Elections of 1932 and 1933

    This is a 9 page paper discussing the campaigns of Hitler and the Nazi party in regards to the party holding the majority in the 1932 and 1933 elections. Were the Germans aware of his eventual intentions? Adolph Hitler (1889-1945) was the Nazi party leader in Germany from 1919-1945, eventually becoming Chancellor from 1933-1945. The history of the events which happened under the Hitler regime before and during World War II in regards to his occupation and declaration of war on the countries in Europe and his mass murder of the Jews among others have become well known and have horrified many around the globe. One of the most common questions in regards to Hitler’s rise to fame is “how did free and fair democratic elections lead to the extraordinarily anti-democratic Nazi Party winning control of the Weimar Republic” and did the Germans voting for Hitler realize his future plans for war and mass murder during the time of the elections? (King, Rosen, Tanner & Wagner, 2002). In retrospect it seems unbelievable that the Nazi Party could have gained power in a democratic regime, however based on the momentum of the popularity of the Nazi Party from 1919 to 1930, and the dire economic conditions of Germany at the time, it is quite possible that the Germans who voted for Hitler and the Nazi Party were doing so more for the future of the economy and strength of Germany without realizing the extent to which Hitler would push the limits of his own power and that of the Nazi Party. While some may argue that his intentions were well documented in his book “Mein Kampf” published in 1925, the book was not popular nor well read until after Hitler became Chancellor of Germany and Hitler’s final push in the 1932 and 1933 elections centered on unity, economic stability, employment, business opportunities, expansion of the military in addition to the promotion of nationalism; factors more so prominent in the minds of the Germans during the Depression. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Post Unification Germany Political Party Competition and Voting Behavior

    5 pages in length. The voting behavior has most certainly been on the decline since the unification of Germany; as well, party competition has generated more apathy than interest, which speaks volumes about the significant disillusionment the Germans have felt toward its politicians and political parties in post-unification Germany. This outright disdain, which ultimately infiltrates society and affects the outermost regions with its diversity, is well chronicled in both Gordon Smith's Developments in German Politics and Jurgen Winkler and Siegfried Schumann's "Radical Right-Wing Parties in Contemporary Germany" in Hans-Georg Betz' The New Politics of the Right : Neo-Populist Parties and Movements in Established Democracies. In determining what guides people to lose or gain interest in the overall political process, opinion polls are frequently administered as a means by which to test the political climate. Their overall effectiveness, along with their tremendous influence, help to establish exactly where Germany has been in post-unification. No additional sources cited.

  • European Union, Economic and Cultural Development

    This 5 page paper considers the question: What does European federalism indicate about the relationship between culture, political development, and economic development? The question is based on the fact that culture plays a key role in political and economic development. The writer first addresses the issue of whether or not the EU can be considered a federation and then discusses the inclusion of culture in EU documents since the beginning but these statements suggest a shared culture unique to Europe. Turkey's push to join the EU is used as an example of how a vastly different culture could upset the EU. The writer also discusses the topic of culture and economic development, in general, concluding there is no distinct answer to the original question. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Holocaust Literature and the Portrayal of Children

    A paper which looks at the way in which children are depicted in literature which deals with the Holocaust, in both autobiographical works and fiction, the importance of such works as a resource in Holocaust studies, and the way in which contemporary children respond to such accounts of their forebears’ experiences.

  • Anti Semitism and Adolf Hitler

    A 5 page paper which examines Hitler’s anti-Semitism as seen in John Lukacs’ “The Hitler of History,” and the films “The Pianist” and “Schindler’s List.” No additional sources cited.

  • King Philip II of Spain

    This 3 page paper discusses King Philip II of Spain and whether he was really as he is portrayed in the history books. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • 'The Golden Age' of the Austrian Empire

    A five page paper which looks at the Golden Age of the Austrian empire, as described in Zweig's The World of Yesterday, and considers the effect which Nazism and the World Wars had on Austrian culture, and the Jews in particular.

  • Historical Aspects of Russia, Austria, and France Between 1815 and 1919

    A five page paper which looks at some elements of the history of Austria, France and Russia between 1815 and 1919, with particular reference to state terrorism as a means of controlling dissent.

  • Comparing the Empire of Ancient Rome with Ancient Greece

    This 4 page paper compares Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome, looking at the different cultures comparing social structure, politics, religion, economies and terrain. The bibliography cites 2 sources.

  • Russia and Georgia

    A 3 page paper which examines relationships between Russia and Georgia. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Sharon Kay Penman When Christ and His Saints Slept

    This is a 5 page book review of Sharon Kay Penman’s novel “When Christ and His Saints Slept”. Sharon Kay Penman’s novel “When Christ and His Saints Slept” (1995) tells the story of the struggle for the English crown upon the death of Henry I during the 12th century. The novel is considered excellent on many accounts by the critics. Firstly, the novel is accurate in its detail in revealing the political turmoil and its horrific effects on the citizens of Britain at the time. Secondly, by the in-depth characterizations used in the novel and in some cases the introduction of fictional characters in order to obtain this, Penman managed to find a way to humanize that era in history which had previously been untold in such a manner. By doing this Penman not only creates an intensely interesting novel of history but also hopes to inspire her readers to further their education in the history of the Middle Ages, an area she considers still dark and undiscovered in its previous depictions. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Procopius/The Secret History

    A 6 page book review that examines Procopius’ The Secret History.The writer argues that examination of this text shows that Procopius felt that the most pressing problem of his generation was the tyrannical and amoral nature of its ruling class. In other words, Procopius’ Secret History offers a far different picture of early Byzantium than one gained by simply considering its artistic accomplishments, which characterize it as a “golden age.” Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • France's King Louis the Fourteenth

    This 5 page paper gives a brief overview of the accomplishments of King Louis XIV of France. Reasons for his successes are discussed using the text by William Beik, King Louis XIV and Absolutism. Quotes given from text and cited chicago style. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • Nazi Germany's White Rose Movement of Student Resistance

    A paper which looks at the student resistance movement, the White Rose group, which was active in Nazi Germany during the Second World War. Bibliography lists 6 sources

  • Nazi Germany and Fascism

    This 5-page paper explores a few of the reasons why the average German citizen in Nazi Germany accepted fascism so readily. The paper discusses the definition of fascism as well as other factors toward the acceptance of fascism. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Article Critique: Adrian Karatnycky, "The Orange Revolution"

    This 3 page paper is a critic of the article "The Orange Revolution" by Adrian Karatnycky, that appeared in "Foreign Affairs." Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • Behind the Attack on Pearl Harbor

    This 3 page paper argues that President Roosevelt knew about the Pearl Harbor attack in advance, and actually encouraged it. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • Great Britain, Pearl Harbor, and Prior Knowledge of the Japanese Attack

    This 20 page paper examines the role of Britain in regards to Pearl Harbor, and explores the idea that they had intelligence which informed them about Pearl Harbor before it happened, and that they did not warn the U.S. This paper presents the evidence against Britain as well as their motivations. Bibliography lists 13 sources.

  • Bonaparte and France

    This 20 page paper considers Napoleon and his military career, his political aspirations and his psychological make up. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Europe During the Renaissance and Perceptions of Fortune

    This 5 page paper discusses writers from Renaissance Europe and their perceptions of fortune. Specifically, this paper examines the writings of Boccaccio, Machiavelli, Cabeza de Vaca and More. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Portugal Economics and Providing Healthcare

    This 5 page paper provides a brief history of this country and relates how this history has impacted current day healthcare. The country’s attempts to provide free healthcare has been structured around long lasting economic troubles. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Bulimia Struggles of Diana, Princess of Wales

    This three-page-paper discusses the eating disorder bulimia. The emotional abuse that Princess Diana suffered in her marriage to Charles coupled with the stress of trying to fit into the royal family triggered the disorder that was not made public until the divorce was underway. The things that caused her to develop bulimia are discussed in detail. Bibliography lists four sources.

  • Tragedies Like That of Princess Diana

    This 3 page paper discusses the relationship among Diana's death, Oedipus Rex and the assassination of JFK. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • London's Development History

    This is an 8 page paper discussing the development of London through the time of the Romans, Saxons, Vikings and Normans. From the first established settlement north of the Thames River by the Romans in AD 43, the building of the bridge and the naming of Londinium, London developed substantially over the next 1200 years through the Romans, Saxons, Vikings and Normans. While it can be said that the Romans first established trade and the development in London, the Saxons and the Normans were largely responsible for the model of the city as it now stands today in regards to architecture, commerce, politics and civil liberties. Although the arrival of the Vikings caused a certain amount of turmoil, it did cause England to eventually unite under King Alfred of Wessex and establish London as the capital of Britain. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • A View of Alternative History or What Might Have Happened if Adolf Hitler's Invasion of Great Britain Had Been Successful

    This 5 page paper takes an alternative approach to history and considers what may have occurred had Hitler and the Nazi's been successful in invading Great Britain. The writer considers the German policies of the time and evidence from other countries in order to reach some conclusions. The bibliography cites 5 sources.

  • Mass Media and Entertainment

    This is a 5 page paper discussing mass media for pleasure and entertainment with examples from British history. Mass media in relation to today’s society has a great many formats in which to give the public information, promotion of new merchandise, news, entertainment and various forms of pleasure in the world of television, journalism, films, computer games and the internet to name a few. Traditionally, media was thought to be a source of viable information to the masses yet history shows that media was also used as much for the pleasure and entertainment of the masses as it was to provide information about current, world or political events. In today’s newspapers, although seemingly filled with violent news, they are also filled with “feel good” stories, entertainment sections, film and literary reviews as well as the classic comic, jumble and crossword features. In the Victorian era, the mass media were the providers of scandals and serial novels highly popular in that time. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Post Second World War and Global History

    7 pages in length. The changes that have occurred since the end of World War II have been both grand and far-reaching; from a global standpoint, myriad events have taken place to completely alter the direction in which the world has progressed. Choosing but a handful of these incidents is weighty indeed, however, it can readily be argued that two issues served to transform the world in significant ways: The Cuban Missile Crisis and technology/globalization. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • History of the Italian Carnival During the Renaissance

    20 pages. This fascinating paper is a look at the history of the Carnival in Italy, especially in Florence, during the 14th and 15th centuries. People's lives changed from ordinary to the wild and mysterious during Carnival. People gained a sense of power during Carnival; how did the Carnival affect the ruling families of the time period? Many fascinating topics are covered in this account of the bizarre and riotous period of Carnival during the Renaissance period. Bibliography lists 13 sources.

  • Romantic Era and History of Science

    A 5 page paper discussing the qualities of the period of 1770-1830 in scientific advancement. The age of enlightenment is associated with order and reason; progress and change belongs to the 19th century. A.L. DeJussieu (1748 – 1836), C.F. Mirbel (1776 – 1854) and K Sprengel (1766 – 1833) all quietly contributed to the advancement of science in general - and botany in particular – during this time that would prove to provide preparation for rapidly-occurring advances in the future. Growing knowledge of what was ultimately led to speculation of what could be. By the end of the Romantic Period in 1830, the focus shifted toward work that could effect change, rather than merely explain why things existed as they did. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • Early Europe, Scientific Theory Development, and Counterfactual History

    An 11 page exploration of the way society repressed scientific fact in Europe, between 1000 A.D and 1800 A.D. The toll this repression took was a delay in the development of muchmore advanced knowledge. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • 1400 to 1700 Japanese Relations with the West

    This is a 5 page paper discussing Japanese foreign relations with the West between the years 1400 and 1700. The years from 1400 to 1700 in Japan covered three Japanese historical periods: the Muromachi Period (1333-1573); the Azuchi-Momoyama Period (1573-1603); and, the Edo Period (1603-1867) which also included the great eras of the Shogun. While these centuries are generally not known for their great developments in international trade for Japan, there were certain instances in which Chinese and Western trade and influences and relations were introduced into Japan. During the mid 16th century, the Japanese greatly valued Portuguese weaponry which played a large factor in the ongoing warlord conflicts. By the late 16th century, foreign relations and trade had also been established with Britain, Spain and the Dutch who were as interested in the Japanese artisan goods as were the Japanese interested in goods imported from the Americas such as tobacco and sweet potatoes among other goods. Through the relations established with the English, Western shipbuilding and navigation tools were also of great value. During the mid-17th century however, shogun Iemitsu wanted to strengthen Japan by eliminating foreign influence which included further restrictions on Christianity, which had been introduced by the missionaries in the 1500s, a ban on travel outside of Japan, expulsion of foreign trade merchants and a ban on European literature among other restrictions thereby decreasing foreign trade and relations with the West. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • North America and the Immigration of the Scots

    This 28 page paper discusses the history of the immigration of Scotts to the United States and Canada. Specifically, this paper explores the reasons for their immigration, as well as settlement patterns, hardships they endured, ports of entry and so forth. Bibliography lists 15 sources.

  • Russian History's Inconsistencies and Dichotomies

    This 5 page paper looks at the history of Russia with a focus on the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The attitudes that created dichotomies and the nation's inconsistent policies are explored. The history of this nation is tied in to the state of affairs today. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • World History Changed by 3 Important Battles

    This 13-page paper describes the three battles commonly termed as the turning points in history: The Battle of Tsushima, the Battle at Stalingrad and the Battle at Dien Bien Phu. The paper disucsses the impact these fights had on both the players and the world. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Pivotal Historical Point of the 1789 French Revolution

    A 5 page research paper that argues the position that the French Revolution of 1789 was a pivotal point in history. In other words, everything that had occurred in recent world history led up to and influenced the coming of the French Revolution and then the Revolution influenced everything that came afterward. Examination of this topic shows that there is a great deal of validity to the position that the French Revolution was the most significant historical event of this era. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Calculus History

    Calculus provides methods to deal with varying quantities. O'Connor & Robertson (1996) state that it has been evolving since Zeno in 450 B.C.E, who was supposed to be the first to posit an equation based on the infinite. However, the first infinite equation is believed to have been introduced by Archimedes in 250 B.C.E., bringing with it leaps in logic from theorists like Barrow, Newton and Leibniz. Bibliography lists 4 sources. jvHisClc.rtf

  • United Kingdom and Developments in its Mass Media History

    A 5 page paper which examines the history of significant developments in mass media within the UK. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie's HIstory Writing

    A 3 page paper that begins by commenting on the changes in writing history, specifically, the change to the Annales school and Braudel's total history schema. The essay then discusses Ladurie's Montaillou: The Promised Land of Error. The writer discusses how Ladurie uses the total history approach as well as the scientific approach supported by von Ranke. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • Philip Sugden's 'The Complete History of Jack the Ripper'

    A 3 page paper which provides a summary and review of "The Complete History of Jack the Ripper" by Philip Sugden. No additional sources cited.

  • Medieval Culture and its History

    This 6 page paper provides an overview of the skills needed for nurses to be effective in the modern healthcare enviornment. In particular, this paper integrates a view of leadership skills and their role in shaping the focus for nurses, particularly in the hospital setting. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • UK Immigration History

    A paper which looks at the history of immigration to the UK, the history of London and its development as a multicultural city, and at Iraqi migration patterns, past and present, to the UK.

  • Holocaust Literature and the Portrayal of Children

    A paper which looks at the way in which children are depicted in literature which deals with the Holocaust, in both autobiographical works and fiction, the importance of such works as a resource in Holocaust studies, and the way in which contemporary children respond to such accounts of their forebears’ experiences.

  • Early Renaissance Literature, Architecture, Art, and Theology Integration

    This 5 page report discusses the Early Renaissance (1400-1494) is used as an example of the inter-relatedness that exists between very different human endeavors ranging from architecture to literature and philosophy to art but that still provide insight to how ideas were transmitted and interpreted in a multitude of ways. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Propaganda and Literature Relating to British Imperialism

    The literature of Imperialist England included themes based on social Darwinism, the crisis of faith, imperialism, poverty and progress. This 7 page paper explores the issues in Milton's Paradise Lost; Behn's Oroonoko and Swift's Gulliver's Travels that pertain to the cultural context of the British Empire. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • The United States in the Aftermath of WWII with Europe and Japan

    A 3 page paper which examines how the United States helped Europe and Japan following WWII. The paper also discusses how this differs from their lack of involvement following WWI. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • Aftermath of the Cold War

    A 5 page discussion of the primary ideologies which were at play during the Cold War years and how the aftermath of those years have shaped our current world environment. Uses the events which have unfolded in Afghanistan, and the current U.S. military action in Afghanistan, to underscore the contention that the Cold War was ineffective in ensuring long term peace. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Visionary Work Principia Mathematica by Isaac Newton

    A 10 page paper in which the writer discusses Isaac Newton’s masterwork Principia Mathematica (1687). Newton’s participation in the scientific revolution and catalytic role in the Age of Enlightenment are also examined. Principia Mathematica is shown to have relevance today in physics and mechanics. Newton’s initial foray into alchemy and it’s overtones for us today are also considered. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Women Viewed During the Enlightenment Era

    A 4 page research paper that addresses the question of gender inequality could be rationalized in an age (the Enlightenment) that held prized rationality. Examination of Enlightenment literature suggests that, first of all, there existed a body of thought that pictured women as either too delicate or cognitively deficit to benefit from education; and, secondly, there was an equally insidious argument that uses nature to justify gender inequality. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Marie Antoinette and Alexandra Feodorovna

    This 12 page paper discusses the way in which Marie Antoinette, Queen of France, and Alexandra Feodorovna, last czarina of Russia, were portrayed in literature. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • The Aftermath of the First World War

    (6 pp) Prior to World War I - The Great War, we, as a nation, felt that our cause was just and honorable, and for that people should be willing to sacrifice. People did so, and after four years when it was all over, their attitudes about the glory of war, were gone. A great disillusionment came over the United States and some even questioned whether the Allies had done as much to weaken democracy as to promote it. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Aftermath of the 1789 French Revolution

    5 pages in length. In the aftermath of the French Revolution of 1789, the problem of political and social authority was of central concern to European intellectuals. The author discusses this topic as it relates to Burke, Kant and Hegel. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Trade in the Aftermath of the World Wars: A Comparison of Post-WWI and Post-WWII

    This 14 page paper examines the periods after each of these wars. Information about WWI and WWII are provided. Politics and economics are discussed. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • First World War and its Aftermath

    A 14 page overview of the social and political environment that resulted after World War I ended. This paper illustrates the relationships between European nations in the 1920s, contending that probably even less chance of global peace existed in post-war Europe than existed prior to the war. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • Leisure and Sports in Victorian Age Great Britain

    A 9 page research paper investigating the development of leisure and sports activities among the working class in Britain towards the end of the Victorian era. Leisure activities had to meet very stringent ethical ideals by which the working class lives. Many games played in rural regions became national pastimes and most still exist today. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Psychology and Adolf Hitler

    An 8 page consideration of the psychological factors that went into making Adolf Hitler. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • The True Voyages of Christopher Columbus

    (5 pp) The date of Columbus landing on the Americas will probably always be stuck in my head due to some little ditty of childhood, "In 1492, Columbus sailed the ocean blue."That is about the only fact that is now agreed upon concerning Columbus and his voyages. This discussion will examine the landings of the disputed voyage, how the inhabitants were treated, and what might have been the reasons for such treatment by a supposedly civilized man, and representative of the Queen of Spain. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • San Marco, Venice's Artistic and Musical Humanism During the Renaissance

    A 12 page paper that provides a comprehensive overview of the significant features of the art and music of San Marco, Venice during the Renaissance era and considers the relationship between the art and the ideal of humanism. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • War and Escalation of Violence Such as Rape

    A 7 page discussion of the abhorrent trend or sexual violence in Bosnia and Rwanda during war. This paper examines that trend from the perspective of defining them as war crimes and acts of genocide. Bibliography lists sources.

  • Medieval Drama and Its Messages

    A 14 page paper discussing the means that medieval guilds used to promote political and religious ideology using plays as the medium. There was only a single church, and it sought to provide plays to act out important events described in the Bible. Plays grew in scope and size and were obliged to move outdoors where laymen took over the production duties, those laymen generally were members of the various guilds operational in local areas. Guilds were dedicated to business among the merchants and high quality among the craftsmen, and their leaders came to be highly involved in local politics. Bibliography lists 11 sources.

  • A Study of Anabaptist Reform

    A 12 page research paper that offers an examination of both primary and secondary sources offers an overview of Anabaptism, its background and history and then its theology. Through this discussion of sources, the focus will be on Anabaptist beliefs and why these beliefs resulted in brutal persecution of followers by both Protestant and Catholic authorities. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • The Master and Margarita by Mikhail Bulgakov

    A 4 page paper that offers a general discussion of The Master and Margarita by Mikhail Bulgakov. The essay includes discussions on the parallels found in the work as well as the different levels on which the novel can be read. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • The Purpose and Reason for the End of Communism

    This 5 page paper investigates some of the causes of the collapse of communism. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Red Storm Rising, The Hunt for Red October, and the Cold War

    A 5 page review of the Cold War years. The author of this paper emphasizes that the intent of the Cold War was to stabilize world politics and to maintain peace. In reality, it could be contended that the real outcome of this political approach was anything but a peaceful and secure world order. Indeed, the Cold War itself was a kind of warfare. Even in recognition of the fact that no actual warfare between the two main players, the Soviet Union and the United States erupted during the Cold War years, it was a period of intense hostility. This hostility is no better imprinted on the American psyche than through literature and movies. Two books in particular have added to our understanding of the Cold War. These books, both by author Tom Clancy, are “The Hunt for Red October” and “Red Storm Rising”. Each offers significant insight to the tensions which existed between the Soviet Union and the United States during the Cold War years. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Fallout of Terrorism and Arson, 2001 and 1933

    A 10 page paper reviewing the burning of the Reichstag building in 1933 and the events of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 for the purpose of looking for parallels between them. There are some coincidental similarities between the burning of the Reichstag building in 1933 and the September 11 terrorist attacks, but only highly superficial ones such as they both involved government action and they both resulted in the loss of personal freedoms that had existed before. Bibliography lists 19 sources.

  • The Cold War: Causes, Treaties, and Ongoing Tensions

    This 6 page paper traces the root causes of the Cold War all the way back to the Russian Civil War and discusses how the tensions between the US and Russia magnified during the middle war years and World War II. Incidents such as the Cuban Missile Crisis almost resulted in full-out war. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Impact of the Black Plague on Chivalry, Feudalism

    A 6 page research paper/essay that examines the context of the Black Plague and the tremendous impact that it had on feudal society. The writer also includes brief mention of a film, A Knight's Tale. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • The Cold War: Causes and Ongoing Tensions

    A 5 page overview of the Cold War. This paper discusses the causes of the Cold War, the tensions that existed during this time, and incidents such as the Cuban Missile Crisis that almost resulted in full-out war. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • The Columbian Exchange

    This 5 page paper discusses the Columbian Exchange and its effects on the people of the New World. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie's HIstory Writing

    A 3 page paper that begins by commenting on the changes in writing history, specifically, the change to the Annales school and Braudel's total history schema. The essay then discusses Ladurie's Montaillou: The Promised Land of Error. The writer discusses how Ladurie uses the total history approach as well as the scientific approach supported by von Ranke. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • Trademark Abuse and Economic Competition in Europe

    This 25 page paper outlines the competition that has resulted from the creation of the European Union and the monetary union under the Euro. This paper considers the issue of trademark abuse as it influences the competition of the EU. Bibliography lists 20 sources.

  • Urbanization in Dresden, Germany

    6 pages in length. Dresden, Germany, has experienced more urbanization than many other global communities; that the city was forced to reconstruct itself not once but twice speaks to the overwhelming internal fortitude of its people. The extent to which Dresden lost a significant part of its inward presence, however, is directly associated with the extent to which the city's original and distinctive architectural identity was destroyed in the process. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Western European Impact of the Vikings

    A 3 page overview of the impacts these warriors had on the world, particularly on Western Europe. The author emphasizes that while the Vikings are often remembered in a negative light they also had positive impacts on the regions they invaded. Bibliography lists two sources.

  • Napoleon and Kutuzov in War and Peace by Leo Tolstoy

    A paper which considers the different types of statecraft employed by Kutuzov and Napoleon in Tolstoy's War and Peace, and outlines the reasons why the Russian's methods were successful where the French general's were not. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Overview of the War of the Roses

    This 5 page paper lists the major causes of the War of the Roses, who the major players were, what their motivations were, and how it ended. Quotes cited from numerous sources. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • First World War's Origins

    This 3 page paper examines the First World War and controversies surrounding its origin. At least three possibilities are examined and critiqued. The paper concludes that the war began for a variety of reasons. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Holocaust Perspectives of Primo Levi and Elie Wiesel

    A 10 page research paper which analyzes the work of the two most preeminent witnesses to the Holocaust-Elie Wiesel and Primo Levi. The writer looks specifically at The Drowned and the Saved by Levi and the Night, Dawn, Day trilogy by Wiesel, and demonstrates that although these two men went through similar experiences, their ultimate orientation to those experiences are extremely different. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • The Making of the English Working Class by E.P. Thompson

    5 pages in length. A thorough analysis in which the writer offers descriptions of how the advent of mechanization impacted the nature of the society and the detrimental effects it had on much of the population. Specifically, the effect of the power loom is discussed. No additional sources cited.

  • French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte

    A 10 page research paper that traces Napoleon Bonaparte's rise to power from a shaky beginning to becoming the military genius he is credited to be. The essay reviews some of the major battles that he won and lost, his reorganization of France and of a great part of Europe, his two exiles and his death. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Liberalism of the Early 19th Century

    This 6 page paper defines and provides an overview of liberalism in Europe during the early nineteenth century. The rising middle class is also discussed. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Ottoman Empire Roots of the Modern Turkish State

    A 12 page research paper that examines the development of the modern Turkish state and compares this to roots as part of the Ottoman Empire. The writer concludes that Turkey will have to address its human rights abuses before it can fully realize its dream of becoming a fully modernized part of the global community. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Governing Institutions of the EU

    This 10 page paper provides an overview of the governing institutions of the European Union. The European Council, Parliament and Commission are discussed in detail as are the three courts. The interrelationship between the six governing bodies are explored along with current events issues. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Nationalism, National Identity, and Political Culture

    A 9 page research paper that examines the terms political culture, national identity, and nationalism. The writer offers definitions of these terms and then turns to specific examples in various countries to illustrate their interrelationships. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • Global Finance and the Implications of the Euro Currency

    This 12 page report discusses the introduction of the Europe’s new Euro and its implications for the world’s financial systems. Although the Euro is undoubtedly changing the world market, for companies and investors in the United States the greatest impact will be more gradual and have its greatest impact in the future. Corporate hedging, impacts on multi-national companies, expansion and debt financing are also discussed. Bibliography lists 11 sources.

  • Is Patriotism a Byproduct of Fascism?

    5 pages in length. Is there any truth to the allegation that patriotism has become an offshoot of fascism? One can certainly argue that over the years, the direction of patriotism has taken on a decidedly fascist climate in that the promotion of patriotism and national greatness has reached such the pinnacle of existence, and the two concepts are slowly but surely incorporating within one another. Inasmuch as conservatives are toning down their anti-government rhetoric, there has been an even more significant move toward patriotism than ever before. However, associated with this rebirth in national allegiance is also an identifiable chauvinistic attitude that implies that no other country could possibly be as worthy of such devotion as one’s own nation. The writer discusses how this blurred line between patriotism and fascism is one that has been brewing for some time as the resurgence of national support continues to rise. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • A Nervous Splendor Vienna 1888/1889 by Frederic Morton

    A 5 page analysis of historian Frederic Morton's book, A Nervous Splendor: Vienna 1888/1889. The writer discusses how Morton pictures the Viennese society of that period as basically flawed with problems in both classes, the aristocracy and the bourgeoisie. The suicide of Crown Prince Rudolf is also discussed. No other sources listed.

  • Fascism and Individualism

    This 5 page report discusses the continuities between democratic and “counter-democratic” political codes and points out the fact that it is useful to rely on a multi-faceted comparison of fascism, communism, and socialism with those of liberal-democratic civil society. It is also extremely valuable to explore their relationships and commonalities in an analytical and objective fashion rather than politically reflexive response. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Comparison of Elie Wiesel's Night and Albert Camus's The Plague

    A 7 page analysis of The Plague by Albert Camus and Night by Elie Wiesel. At first glance, these two works appear to be very dissimilar; however, the writer argues that they actually have quite a few points in common. Wiesel's book concerns the Holocaust and Camus' work appear to be about a plague hitting the French town of Oran. However, Camus' work is intended to be read as an allegory and this story, also, deals with the ravages committed against the human soul by Nazism. No additional sources cited.

  • Spain's Economic History

    This 8 page report discusses the economy of Spain in terms of: historical precedent; relationship with its European neighbors; its movement toward European integration; problems it faced becoming a part of the European Union; and, its current economic and diplomatic status with Europe. The report also provides a brief comparison of the economies of Spain and Germany that illustrates both Spain’s relationship to Germany and how far the nation has come in the past several decades of determination. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • The Revolt of the Masses by Jose Ortega

    10 pages in length. The loss of freedom and reason was a concept that greatly worried Spanish philosopher and social theorist Jose Ortega y Gasset. At the time of World War I, totalitarianism was taking a stronghold upon Europe, while the Great Depression proved to threaten the nature and destiny of the Western civilization. The Enlightenment had begun to show signs of wear, directly affecting the manner by which freedom and reason were slowly but surely being cast aside. It can be argued that with the weakening influence of World War I, reason and freedom stood little chance of escaping the impact of totalitarianism. It was Ortega's contention that through the means of such barbarism, those who were intellectually undisciplined and culturally unrefined would soon serve as the new ambassadors to European existence. Asserting that such masses would prove fatal to the Europe's cultural, economic and political progress, Ortega was mightily concerned with the fascist and communist implications of such a trend, which he clearly addressed in his book entitled 'The Revolt of the Masses.' Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Colonization's Development and its Legacy

    A 10 page research paper that examines the topic of colonialism, in general, and focuses on the British Empire, in particular. The writer discusses the extent of the British Empire, some of the forces, which caused European imperialism, and some of the lasting effects of this era. The writer specifically focuses on the history and effect of a British presence in Ireland. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • America and Democracy

    This 5 page paper supports the notion that democracy is still alive and well in America today. The view is supported through a discussion on Herbert Marcuse’s One Dimensional Man and Alexis De Tocqueville’s Democracy in America. The two works are compared and contrasted and discussed in light of today’s political climate. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Climate and Political Culture of Norway

    A 5 page paper discussing the conviction of the people of Norway. The government is obliged to act as it is instructed by the people, which is all that has kept it outside the European Union until now. Governmental leaders have wanted it, but the working people of the nation have not. Norway remains independent of the EU, and boasts one of the most robust economies of the region. The Norwegian people have been unshakable for 50 years, and they have a history of self-reliance and a brand of obstinacy that has contributed to their long-term survival. It is unlikely that the voters will change their minds unless they can see sound reason for doing so. While Norway leads Europe in both economic indicators and social values, that change is not likely to occur. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Canada and Refugee Experiences

    A 6 page paper discussing the experiences of recent refugees to Canada, specifically how they arrive, how their journeys progress and what sort of events have occurred that turned these people from hard-working individuals into refugees fleeing for their very lives. Examples are Chinese refugees to British Columbia and several thousand Kosovo Albanians that have been settled across Canada. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • 2010 European Union

    This 6 page report discusses the European Union and its possible future. There are, of course, numerous critics around the world who are convinced that the entire process has only one logical outcome – disaster. Initially, both corporate and political leaders feared the creation of a “fortress” Europe. However, many are now convinced that the move toward regional integration will reduce the costs and risks of doing business, as well as furthering positive social policies. What the EU will look like in the next decade is debatable. However, this report highlights the many potentially positive outcomes. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • European Union Principles of Proportionality and Subsidiarity

    This 20 page paper considers the roles of the principles of subsidiarity and proportionality within the EU. A brief history is considered to put the discussion into context, and the meanings of their principles, the ways in which they are applied and enforced are considered, with some case histories quoted. The conclusion argues that they act as balances foe each other within European Government, which enables its role to be more effective and efficient. The bibliography cites 16 Sources.

  • Women of the Renaissance by Margaret L. King

    5 pages in length. Margaret L. King's 'Women of the Renaissance' is a celebration of gender, with particular emphasis upon issues of feminism and patriarchal control. Indeed, King portrays the early birth of feminism; not only are her writings a solid reflection of her sentiments but so is the manner in which she reflects renaissance life. It was while writing 'Woman of the Renaissance' that King gained significant insight as to the perceived value of class, gender and social stature, particularly from research about those who did not possess socially and individual freedom: renaissance women. No additional sources cited.

  • Economic Success, Developing Countries, and Authoritarian v. Democratic Governments

    This 7 page report discusses some of the questions related to the changes taking place throughout the world as nations once governed by authoritarianism make the transition to democracy and what impact that transition has had on their economies. In addition, the issue of industrialization in developing countries is addressed. Modern strategies for industrial advancement in developing nations are significantly different from those that presented themselves during the Western world’s industrial revolution. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Prime Ministerial Government and Cabinet Transformation of the British Government During the Late 1990s

    7 pages in length. The factors most important in the determination of how valid this form of government had come to be in the late 1990s have been characterized as being both visionary (Thatcher) and weak (Major). As well, some critics have contended that the concept of balance of power has been completely misconstrued, compelling the political alterations that ultimately took place; however, still others believe that a combination of personalities and political forces proved to undermine the existence of cabinet government. The writer discusses how British government has fared in the transition from cabinet to prime ministerial. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Europe and Fascism

    This 8 page paper considers Fascism in Europe. It traces the Fascist movement from its origins in Italy under Mussolini to its’ modern day manifestations. The commonalties between the different fascist organisations are considered in conjunction in the way that many of the organisations are now attempting to present themselves in a different light. The Bibliography cites 7 sources.

  • European Imperialism Argued in an Imaginary Dialogue

    5 pages in length. The writer engages in an imaginary conversation between two opposing sides of European Imperialism at the turn of the twentieth century. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Europe During the Seventeenth Century, Faith and Religion

    This 5 page report discusses the existence of religion in the Europe of the 1600s. Throughout all aspects of faith during the time, the element of transformation and religious heroism played a key role and also supported justifications of violent “Christian” intervention throughout the world. The 17th century also provided the foundation from which the philosophy of the Enlightenment was launched. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Assessing an Arab Nationalism Text

    This 10 page paper is an assessment of Bassam Tibi’s book Arab Nationalism: A Critical Enquiry. The book written in 1990 is a look at the historical aspect of Arab Nationalism and it’s evolution. The paper also makes comparisons between the Arab trading partnerships and the European Union. The bibliography cites 1 source.

  • Nation State Status and European Citizenship

    This 7 page paper considers the role citizenship will play in a unified Europe. The position of individuals is considered with judgements being made as to their most beneficial status; citizens of the European Union, or citizens of their current nation. Recent example of economic and social policy are quoted to give the reader a deeper insight to the subject. The bibliography cites 4 source.

  • Trade Partners France and Germany

    This 5 page report discusses the relationship between France and Germany as both independent nations and partners in the European Union. The relationship between Germany and France serves as an excellent example of the processes that must be dealt with as the two countries determine the areas in which they are allies and in which they agree to disagree. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • July 20, 1944 Assassination Attempt on German Dictator Adolf Hitler

    In 10 pages, the author discusses the assassination attempt of July 20, 1944 on Adolf Hitler and its affect on Germany. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Representation of Fascism in The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie by Muriel Spark

    A 12 page research paper that examines Muriel Spark's The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie. The writer argues that, ultimately, , the reader comes to see that Brodie is a romantic egotist who has a tendency to shape the world to fit her perceptions of how things ought to be. She is also a 'monster' because she endeavors to shape her students into appendages of her own personality, even leading their actions so she can live out experiences vicariously through them, experiences that express her own thwarted desires. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Southeast Asia and the Influence of the Portuguese

    This 5 page paper provides an overview of Portugal’s Empire over the past 600 years, with an emphasis on its influence in the southeast Asian region. The East Timor situation is discussed as well as the recent transfer of power of Macau. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Ideology of Nationalism

    A 6 page discussion of the concept of nationalism and how this concept centers around culture and sometimes race or ethnicity. Presents numerous examples of nationalism from the previous two centuries. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • England and the Letters of Voltaire

    This 5 page paper examines two of Voltaire's letters on England and takes a look at eighteenth century Europe. The Enlightenment, and Voltaire's possible motives for the writings, are discussed . Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Feudalism In Post Soviet Union Eastern-Bloc Countries

    8 pages in length. The writer discusses post-Soviet Union institutions as they relate to feudal Europe. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • 'The Axial Age' in the For the Love of Wisdom PBS Video Series

    A 3 page analysis/summation of a video 'The Axial Age,' which is part of the PBS series, 'For the Love of Wisdom.' Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Social Structure Reconstruction and Burial Statistics' Role

    In 8 pages, the author discusses the role of burial data in reconstructing the social structure and social organization of past societies. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Alexander the Great's Military Strategies

    A 12 page research paper that examine the military policies, strategies and tactics that contributed to the success of this ancient leader. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Napoleon I's Life and Times

    This 8 page paper looks at Napoleon Bonaparte's life and times with a focus on the battles he lost. His failed invasion of Russia and his defeat at Waterloo are highlighted. Napoleon's last will and testament is discussed as well as what happened in France shortly after his death. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Charlemagne's Reign and Peasant Life

    A 4 page research paper, with a one page outline, that examines the character of life for peasants during the reign of Charlemagne in the early Middle Ages. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • 'Song of Roland' and Medieval Epic Poetry

    A 7 page research paper that discusses the oral traditions associated with the performance of epic poetry, such as the Song of Roland, during the Middle Ages. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Outwitting the Gestapo by Lucie Aubrac

    A 3 page summation and analysis of Lucie Aubrac first-person account of her role in fighting the Nazi occupation of France as a member of the French Resistance. No additional sources cited.

  • Commercial Expansionism of Europe

    This 5 page thesis paper examines European commercial expansion through several centuries and concludes that the ramifications of such are broad. Some examples provided relate to France and the United States. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Overview and Description of the Silk Road

    A 7 page research paper that describes, first of all, what the 'Silk Road' was—an ancient and medieval overland route that encompassed the 4,000-mile journey between Europe and China—but then goes on to discuss the impact of the road and the various explorers, whose journals provide information about the culture and civilizations along these historic trade routes. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Historical Achievements of Man and Edward Gibbon

    5 pages in length. "History is little more than a register of crimes, follies and misfortunes of man" This famous quote from Edward Gibbons provides meaningful insight to what humanity's historical significance truly represents. When taken in its realistic context, one can readily support the validity of such a claim, inasmuch as the history books are chock full of war, strife, bungled peace efforts, political embarrassments, along with a whole host of other less-than-attractive accomplishments. That Gibbons sought to bring to light the reality of mankind's historical legacy concurs with his ability to see beyond the facade of dubious achievements. The writer compares this quote with real-life events. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Adolf Hitler's Rise to Power and How It Was Influenced by the Treaty of Versailles

    A 4 page research paper that examines how the reparations clause from the Treaty of Versailles facilitated the rise of Hitler. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Benito Mussolini's Rule of Italy

    A 5 page research paper that looks to William Bolitho's 1926 text on Mussolini for an explanation of how Fascism took over Italy, and then to a summation of Italian progress under Mussolini's rule. No additional sources cited.

  • The Atrocities of Auschwitz and Balancing Sanity and Survival

    A 7 page interpretive essay that strives to answer the question of how one would survive, both physically and emotionally, the atrocities of Auschwitz. Included is a discussion of accounts and emotions presented in Eyewitness Auschwitz: Three Years in the Gas Chamber, a book written by Auschwitz survivor Filip Muller. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • Renaissance Diversity

    This 5 page paper considers the argument that the renaissance period should be subdivided into two separate periods due to the differences between the early and later time in this era. Evidence is used to argue this case including evidence from the arts and science as well as social history. The bibliography cites 3 sources.

  • Migration of Eastern, Central, and Southern Europe

    5 pages in length. Southern, Central and Eastern European experiences during migration to the United States mirror those of others who, like this significant population, sought a better life than the one they left behind in their homelands. Marred by frequent struggles and frustration, the life of a European immigrant was also a source of happiness and celebration for those who found his or her ultimate dream in American. Indeed, expectations were high that America would allow the immigrants ample opportunity to finally flourish both economically and socially in a national climate where freedom was known to ring true. However, this accepting attitude was soon to change. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Colonial Roots of Iraq

    This 6 page paper explores the development of the Iraqi state and the impact that colonialism probably had in that context. Iraq is looked at in relationship to other world changes in the twentieth century. Saddam Hussein's behavior and motivations are discussed in depth. Bibliography lists 5 sources.


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