Research Papers on Western Civilizalation

Click on any of the research paper to read a brief synopsis of the paper. The essay synopsis includes the number of pages and sources cited in the paper.


Research Papers on Western Civilizalation

Click on any of the term papers to read a brief synopsis of the research paper. The essay synopsis includes the number of pages and sources cited in the paper.

  • Disputes and Western Civilization History

    A 3 page paper which examines whether the disputes of Western Civilization were fought because of conflicts over territory or ideas. The works cited are Margaret L. Mead’s “Western Civilization: A Social and Cultural History” and Jackson J. Spielvogel’s “Western Civilization: A Brief History.” No additional sources cited.

  • Byzantium Emperor Justinian I

    This 10 page report discusses the Byzantine emperor, Justinian I. Justinian is known for expanding Byzantine rule in the Western world, developing and beautifying the city of Constantinople, and completing the codification of Roman law. It has been due, in great measure, to Justinian I’s efforts and determination that Western civilization and the law governing it have developed in the ways they have. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Integration of Alternative Medicine with Western Medicine

    7 pages in length. Concluding evidence points toward a growing trend of western medicine practitioners collaborating closely with alternative doctors. It is not without significant forethought that the two very separate entities have joined together to create a synergistic approach to health care. The writer discusses that prevention is the key for the alternative approach, where historically and typically, the western medicine practitioner has focused more upon treating the illness or disease after it has already been diagnosed. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Non-Western & Western Music

    A 3 page research paper that contrasts and compares Western and non-Western music. The writer also discusses how music preserves cultural identity and how it cross-pollinates to produce new genres. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Bhagavad Gita and Concepts of Good and Evil

    A 5 page research paper on the ancient religious text, the Bhagavad Gita. The writer argues that Western theology tends to see the world in terms of being strictly good or strictly evil, and that today the Western world is slowly catching up to the theological stance that was worked out in Eastern philosophy somewhere between the fifth and fourth century B.C. and expressed in the religious text the Bhagavad Gita. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Music and the Sexualization of Women

    This 14 page paper analyzes the way women are presented in commercialized western music. The author addresses the question of whether this presentation is more negative than positive. Bibliography lists 11 sources.

  • Music of Samoa

    A 5 page research paper that discusses Samoan music. Samoa, unlike many societies exposed to Western influences, as clung tenaciously to their own culture and their own ways. Samoan music is a vibrant entity that exists in two forms, traditional and contemporary. As the name suggests, traditional Samoan music draws on the ancient Samoan heritage while contemporary Samoan music represents the assimilation of Western influences, particularly in the introduction of Western instruments, such as the guitar. Both forms of Samoan music have contributed to maintaining the vibrancy of the Samoan language and culture. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Art and Healing

    The western medical establishment has come to recognize the value of dance, music, literature, painting and drama in preventing and treating illness. Techniques such as guided imagery, dance, art therapy and music have become the tools of health care professionals in all areas. These techniques have much in common with the Chinese practices of Qigong, yoga and acupressure. Eastern methods often integrate contemporary medical practices with ancient forms of healing. The western medical establishment is learning to give the Chinese practices the credit they deserve for the benefits they are able to bring to patients. This 6 page paper examines the use of both Eastern and Western therapies with a foundation of dance or music. Bibliography lists 15 sources.

  • The Divergence of Country and Folk Music? ?

    This? ?6? ?page paper traces the evolution of the American folk song from the so-called hillbilly music of the Appalachians to Country and Western.? ?The bibliography includes five sources.?

  • Composer Frederic Chopin's Life and Music

    This 5 page report discusses Frédéric François Chopin, (1810-49), Polish composer and pianist of the romantic school, regarded by some as the greatest of all composers of music for the piano. The music he provided the Western world has served as some of the most soulful of all piano music and while his mazurkas are some of the most joyful renditions of folk music in a classical framework. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • 1400 to 1700 Japanese Relations with the West

    This is a 5 page paper discussing Japanese foreign relations with the West between the years 1400 and 1700. The years from 1400 to 1700 in Japan covered three Japanese historical periods: the Muromachi Period (1333-1573); the Azuchi-Momoyama Period (1573-1603); and, the Edo Period (1603-1867) which also included the great eras of the Shogun. While these centuries are generally not known for their great developments in international trade for Japan, there were certain instances in which Chinese and Western trade and influences and relations were introduced into Japan. During the mid 16th century, the Japanese greatly valued Portuguese weaponry which played a large factor in the ongoing warlord conflicts. By the late 16th century, foreign relations and trade had also been established with Britain, Spain and the Dutch who were as interested in the Japanese artisan goods as were the Japanese interested in goods imported from the Americas such as tobacco and sweet potatoes among other goods. Through the relations established with the English, Western shipbuilding and navigation tools were also of great value. During the mid-17th century however, shogun Iemitsu wanted to strengthen Japan by eliminating foreign influence which included further restrictions on Christianity, which had been introduced by the missionaries in the 1500s, a ban on travel outside of Japan, expulsion of foreign trade merchants and a ban on European literature among other restrictions thereby decreasing foreign trade and relations with the West. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Analysis of Two Poems by Sharon Olds

    A 3 page essay that analyzes two of Olds' poems, "Indictment of Senior Officers" and the "The Death of Marilyn Monroe." In these poems, Sharon Olds addresses violence perpetuated toward women and arrives at conclusions that suggests that, in both cases, society must bear some of the responsibility for the women's pain. Her verse causes the reader to contemplate the challenges facing women and how they are prepared for those challenges. Evocative and thought provoking, both poems compel the reader to consider women's place in Western society, as these poems are essentially critiques against the manner in which women are treated in Western society. No additional sources cited.

  • Analysis of Two Poems by Sharon Olds

    A 3 page essay that analyzes two of Olds' poems, "Indictment of Senior Officers" and the "The Death of Marilyn Monroe." In these poems, Sharon Olds addresses violence perpetuated toward women and arrives at conclusions that suggests that, in both cases, society must bear some of the responsibility for the women's pain. Her verse causes the reader to contemplate the challenges facing women and how they are prepared for those challenges. Evocative and thought provoking, both poems compel the reader to consider women's place in Western society, as these poems are essentially critiques against the manner in which women are treated in Western society. No additional sources cited.

  • Contemporary Nursing's History

    This 5 page report briefly discusses the development and history of modern nursing in the Western world. “Modern” nursing, just as other aspects of modern medicine, began to come into its own in the mid- to late-19th century in the Western world. Between war, scientific advancement, and the onslaught of the Industrial Age, humans were becoming aware of certain physical truths regarding their physical bodies, good health, and what constituted beneficial care and treatment. It has continued to advance along with technology and human knowledge. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Geishas

    A 7 page research paper that takes the form of a study. This study consists of a literature review to ascertain the legitimacy of the Western perception that geishas are prostitutes. This examination of literature is based on the hypothesis that this prevalent Western assumption pertaining to geishas is false. While sexuality is undoubtedly a part of the lives of these women, this private part of their lives in not a part of their role as geisha. This study explores what does constitute the appeal of the geisha, the history of the profession and why the West has this fundamental misconception about the geisha’s art. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Impact of the Great War on Western Literature

    A 4 page essay that discusses the impact of the “Great War,” that is, World War I on Western literature. World War I is known for its “mindless squandering of human life with negligible results” (Hull 17). During its era, it was known as the Great War, the war to end all wars, as well as the war that would make the world “safe” for democracy. The Great War accomplished none of these purposes and, when it was over, the survivors were gripped by grief, guilt, rage and, in the case of one German lance corporal, a young man named Adolf Hitler, by the desire for revenge (Hull 17). The Great War had another significant effect in that it had a tremendous impact on the course of modern Western literature. The collective consciousness of both Europe and America was forever changed by World War I and this change was reflected in the literature produced both during the Great War and in the decades afterward. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Ludwig von Beethoven and His Influence

    A 5 page research paper that examines the influence that Beethoven and his music had on his own contemporaries and on modern society. The writer argues that Beethoven's music has become virtually synonymous with everything that epitomizes musical excellence in Western culture, and that it continues to inspire and motivate. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Auricular Acupuncture As Adjunctive Treatment To Ameliorate Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms, Depression, Anxiety And Insomnia: Literature Review

    21 pages in length. The path to well being could not be more different between Eastern and Western philosophies; through man's successes in technological advancement, allopathic methods have virtually overshadowed consumer knowledge of or interest in ancient Eastern holism. That Western health care is based within a foundation of surgery and pharmacology while Eastern approaches it from an unadulterated, holistic approach speaks to a tremendous rift in how both entities perceive the path to wellness. This is not to say, however, that allopathic medicine is either inappropriate as a treatment method but rather that it is unsuitable as the only option when Eastern medicine is rooted in proven healing for the past 2,500 years. Taking a pill to ride the body and mind of anxiety, depression and insomnia of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is merely treating the symptom rather than addressing the issues that have ultimately manifested in these ailments. Utilizing such holistic modalities as auricular acupuncture serves to unblock the trapped energy inherent to trauma response so it begins to channel through the body and mind continuum restoring both mental and physical well being. Bibliography lists 18 sources.

  • Excess Achievement in the Entertainment Industry

    An 8 page paper discussing the influence that the entertainment industry has had on development of life in the Western part of the United States. As New York draws those who aspire to theatre and Nashville those who seek fame in country music, so do Los Angeles and Las Vegas attract those seeking excess in their lives, with or without the fame of a movie or music career to finance it. The entertainment industry has encouraged this movement, which in turn has influenced the entertainment industry. Ultimately, the relationship has influenced development of life in the Western part of the United States. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Concept of Spirituality

    A 20 page research paper that investigates the topic of spirituality. The philosophical perspective of postmodernism has left people feeling adrift and rudderless in a world that has no meaning or purpose. In answer to this situation, many people, including scholars, have turned to the topic of spirituality and religion as a means for charting a new and purposeful course into the future. Examining this sociological trend reveals that it has evolved organically out of Western culture's history and also relates to specific features that are characteristic of human religious expression as a whole, that is, encompassing Eastern religious orientations. This examination attempts to find common threads between the thrust of Western spirituality, which is primarily Christian spirituality, and how this aspect of religiosity relates to theology, mysticism and fits within the legacy of postmodernism. Bibliography lists 15 sources.

  • Cultural Understanding of Chinese Women Through Literature and Art

    This 8 page paper examines how women in the Chinese culture are expected to adhere to a far more traditional role than Western women. This paper examines the literature of Ha Jin as well as artwork by Zhou Fang and Chen Yifei in order to provide evidence of this thesis. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • Female Sexuality and Racial Differences

    A 10 page research paper/essay that examines the topic of female sexuality. The writer argues that white women must come to understand the experience of women of color and discusses how poor and non-Western women are targeted for reproductive rights discrimination. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Literary Self Determination in Women and Sexuality

    A 9 page paper showing the connection between these two issues, as demonstrated in the works of Aristophanes, Plato, Dante, and Shakespeare (Lysistrata, The Apology, The Inferno, and The Tempest, respectively). The paper asserts that Western literature first mocked or dismissed the sexual expression of female self-determination, later turned it into a sin, and finally transformed it into a social gaffe, but until recently still continued to maintain that its suppression was not wrong. Bibliography lists five sources.

  • Music of Japan

    A 5 page research paper that examines the surprising prominence that Western music has gained over traditional Japanese forms since World War II, and shows that this pattern of appropriating the musical forms of other cultures is actually typical of the Japanese. The writer demonstrates that Japan has frequently borrowed from other cultures as the traditional forms of Japanese music are discussed. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Overview of Ethnomusicology

    This 4 page paper looks at what is meant by the term ethnomusicology and how it is studied along with the way it has developed. The paper then looks at the difficulties and challenges that might exist for a western student studying the music of the Tibetan monks, using an interpreter. The bibliography cites 5 sources.

  • World Music of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

    This paper supports the thesis that with infiltrations of Western missionaries into various parts of the world during the 19th and 20th centuries, the world's music has become homogenized. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Female Genital Mutilation

    A 3 page paper which examines if female sexual mutiliation is a western perspective or whether it is a universal reality aimed at women in a male dominated world. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Thinking About Music, An Introduction to the Philosophy of Music by Lewis Rowell

    A 10 page book review that summarizes and critiques Lewis Rowell's Thinking About Music, An Introduction to the Philosophy of Music (1983). The writer points out that a careful reading of the title suggests that the author does not limit himself to music, but rather places music within a philosophical framework that encompasses the entirety of Western art and culture. No additional sources cited.

  • A Short History of Franco-Flemish and Venetian Schools of Art and Music

    In five pages this paper examines these important Western schools of art and music, which flourished from approximately 1125 to 1575, and how the Franco-Flemish school influence the Venetian school. Seven sources are listed in the bibliography.

  • The Western Tradition of Psychology

    This 4 page paper traces the western tradition of this discipline. The contributions of notable philosophers like Aristotle, Thomas Hobbes, Descartes, Spinoza and Leibniz are discussed alongside those of Freud. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Film, Theater, and Rhetoric

    Rhetoric in Theatre and Film: This 8-page essay examines the ways in which rhetoric functions within the constructs of theatre and film, while also contrasting the relationship between Eastern and Western mentalities relevant to rhetorical expression. By way of example, two divergent films will be used: “The Emperor and the Assassin” and “The Godfather.” Bibliography lists 6 sources. SNThefil.doc

  • History and Impact of the Cold War

    This is a 10 page paper discussing the events that led up to the Cold War. Major causes and issues are included and the overall effect of the war is discussed. The gradual build up of forces on both the capitalist Western side and the communist Eastern side are included. The paper focuses on the major countries involved. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • History, Revolution, and Karl Marx's The Communist Manifesto

    This 5 page report discusses The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Karl Marx’s declaration, in the most simplistic terms, was that all events are determined by economic forces. The Manifesto was much more than a “literary and philosophical work,” -- it was also a revolutionary document, a plan to battle and a call to arms, and a reflection of the history of humanity in the Western world. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • The Balkans A Short History by Mark Mazower

    5 pages in length. Mazower works diligently to teach his readers to differentiate between the Balkans as a geographical entity and the Balkans as the epitome of violence amidst chaos. Author and professor of history at Princeton, Mazower illustrates the source of such strife as being two important points: 1) nationalism and 2) the perpetual imbalance between cultural and religious existence forced upon them by Eastern and Western Europe. No additional sources cited.

  • Western Civilization Historical Periods

    A 3 page paper which defines and examines Renaissance, Reformation, Enlightenment, and Scientific Revolution as they influenced the development of Western civilization. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • West Misperceptions of the History of East Asia

    A 5 page research paper that argues that the traditional orientation of Western historians toward East Asian history is deceptive and inadequate. The writer then argues that thesis of Edward Said in Orientalism can be applied to the Far East and examples are drawn from Chinese history to support this argument. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • History of Western Civilization

    A 14 page paper which discusses 5 different aspects of the history of Western civilization. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Wedding Dress History

    A 7 page paper which examines the history of the wedding dress. The focus is predominantly on the history of the Western wedding dress. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Differences in Silence in Poetry of the East and West

    A 5 page essay that analyzes the differences between Eastern and Western poetry, using the work of Matsuo Basho for the east and Walt Whitman for the West. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • 4 Brief Literature Essays

    A 10 page research paper that is composed of 4 short essays (roughly 2.5 pages each) on works by J.D. Salinger, Kate Chopin, Thomas Hardy, Saul Bellow and Annie Proulx. Works discussed include: Chopin, The Awakening; J.D. Salinger, For Esme with Love and Squalor, De Daumier-Smith's Blue Period, A Perfect Day for Bananafish; Hardy's On the Western Circuit; Proulx's The Shipping News, and Bellow's Something to Remember Me By. No additional sources cited.

  • The Dark Side of Country Music

    A 5 page paper that argues the point that country and western music does not express the noble and pure American spirit as has been claimed. Discussed is the inherent depression and violence that has come to mark contemporary country music. Also disused is recent research aimed at linking country music with depression and high suicide rates. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Comparing poems by Atwood and Smith

    A 3 pages paper that explicates "The Dead" by A.J.M. Smith and in "It is Dangerous to Read Newspapers" by Margaret Atwood. The writer argues that both of these poets address the horror of war, while arguing the same theme. In both poems, strikingly descriptive imagery is used within free verse to emphasize the idea that Western apathy towards war and the atrocities of war is not neutral, but, in fact, promotes war. No additional sources cited.

  • Cyber Cafe Life and Media Imperialism

    This 6 page report discusses the concept of media imperialism is the idea that Western media exerts considerable influence over the cultures of countless nations around the world and how the “imperialism” of the media is reminiscent of the behavior of the European colonizers. The report then moves on to discuss the ways in which online life has become a common reality for millions of Americans. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • 'A Family Supper' by Kazuo Ishiguro

    A 5 page analysis of Kazuo Ishiguro's short story that deals with a "family supper" that highlights the differences between the generation that fought World War II and their children, who have come under Western influences. The writer argue that this "generation gap" is particularly evident in regards to how the characters view suicide. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • 'Recipe' by Janice Mirikitani

    A 5 page research paper that discusses Janice Mirikitani's poem 'Recipe,' which concerns the desire of some Asian women to have 'round' eyes. The wrier discusses the poem and relates this issue to problems of identity and appearance that are common to all Western Women. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Western Films and the Themes of Loss and Regret

    A 5 page paper which analyzes film historian Thomas Schatz's contention that, "The Western is always about regret and it's always about loss" to determine whether or not Schatz's conclusions are correct. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Western Thought and Universal Law

    This 8 page paper presents the idea that Western thought is quite different from ideas found in the rest of the world. Hinduism is discussed in depth. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Women's Roles in Western and Hindi Cinema

    This is an 8 page paper discussing the different roles of women as portrayed in contemporary Hindi and Western film. Comparisons of the movies “Kuch Kuch Hota Hai” and “Sleepless in Seattle” are made. Both movies were based on the same story but were treated differently in the roles the women played. “Kuch Kuch” had to maintain the male-dominated features from Indian society but the women still were strong, independent yet respectful of tradition and the story touched on several social issues. “Sleepless” portrayed women as independent in their work and lives, but were pathetic in their pursuit of men and the story remained simple and predictable. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Sexual Culture of the West and Christianity's Impact

    This 15 page paper provides an overview of the topic and relates it to the findings in the current literature. The role of women, the understanding of marital relationships and even the value placed on men and women have been based on Christian belief systems and the integration of religious values into the dominant culture. The sexual identities and sexual beliefs, then, in the modern era can be traced to historical elements influenced by Christianity. Bibliography lists 25 sources.

  • Post 1950 West and Marijuana

    An 11 page discussion of the history of marijuana usage in countries like Great Britain, Canada, and the U.S. since the mid part of the twentieth century. The author reviews some of the critical laws regarding marijuana usage, inclusive of the 2002 decision by Great Britain to lessen the criminal penalties for possession of marijuana and to in effect look the other way, to conclude that while countries like Great Britain and Canada are slowly preparing for the leap toward legalization, the U.S. is holding back and looking at the edge. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • Political Institutions Shaped by the History of Western Europe

    This 6 page paper looks at European history and how it has affected Europe as it is known today. An emphasis is placed on politics. Communism is discussed. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Eastern versus Western Management

    A 5 page paper discussing adaptations that East and West have made in business management over the past several decades. Organizations in the East and the West have altered details to fit their own needs, but in the end, West has adopted some of the best of the East; the East has relieved itself of many of the inhibitions of responsibility for other separate companies. The result is a convergence of approaches to management. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Tragic Themes in Erich Maria Remarque's All Quiet on the Western Front, Sophocles' Antigone and William Shakespeare's Macbeth

    This 5 page report discusses the common themes that exist in these three works of literature. Great tragic literature carries with it certain common themes that define it as tragedy and which then allows the reader to understand that there is a greater story being outlined than just the one of the characters presented in a single story. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • How Baumer and Kantorek in All Quiet On The Western FrontWould Respond to the poem The Next War by Robert Graves

    4 pages in length. The writer briefly discusses how Baumer and Kantorek would respond to Robert Graves' poem "The Next War." Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • Contemporary Chinese Poetry's Thematic and Linguistic Structure

    An 11 page discussion of the linguistic and thematic structure of modern Chinese poetry. Analyzes the poem “Into the Mountains” by Yang Mu to present examples of metaphor, simile, comparison, and personification. This paper emphasizes that essentially modern Chinese poetry relies on the same use of semantics as do Western forms of poetry. Other considerations enter the picture, however, when these poems are translated into English. In this instance, the translator has essentially as much power as the poet in changing subtle components of a poem with the manipulation of the English words which he uses to convey the meaning. While it is useful to analyze the semantics of modern Chinese poetry from an operative structure standpoint therefore, it is perhaps even more useful to analyze this poetry from a thematic standpoint. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Review of Homer's 'The Iliad'

    A 6 page book review that summarizes and analyzes aspects of this classic epic poem. The Iliad, by the ancient Greek poet Homer, is one of the greatest poetic epics in history. This poem has held readers in thrall for millennia as there is it is a grand tale of heroic adventure. As time has past, its allure has increased due to the fact that Homer's storytelling prowess opens a window for the modern reader that reveals another time, an ancient era, with its mores, customs, traditions, beliefs and lifestyle illustrated in the lives of the Greek and Trojan heroes. In accomplishing this, the Iliad reveals a pagan world whose orientation is quite different from the Western world known to the reader. Thematic content is also discussed. No additional sources cited.

  • Healthcare Administration Leadership

    A 3 page essay that justifies pursuing a doctorate degree in healthcare administration. Doctorate education in healthcare administration is formulated to aid in the creation of highly motivated, advanced healthcare leaders, who can effectively address the challenges of today's healthcare system, as well as shape effective public policy for the needs of the future (Doctor in HA). The challenges facing the U.S. healthcare system, as well as the healthcare systems in all Western, industrialized societies, are formidable. Effective leadership in healthcare administration is a crucial factor in meeting these challenges. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • US Women's Suffrage and its History

    This is a 3 page paper discussing the history of the women’s suffrage movement in the United States. The women’s suffrage movement within the United States began in earnest in 1848. Reflecting the sentiments of women around the world, organizers of a national convention that year began the process to fight for the right to vote (suffrage) and enfranchisement (the end of slavery) for women. The suffrage movement had two organizations, the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) headed by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the American Women Suffrage Association (AWSA) organized by Lucy Stone and others. The two organizations merged in 1890 which was also the year which also saw women’s rights to vote gradually being accepted across many of the Western states. After a long struggle and witnessing the enfranchisement of women occurring in many other countries, the Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution giving women the right to vote was finally passed in 1920. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Antigone and the Old Testament

    (5pp). The literature of the Hebrew Bible (the Old Testament), is the scripture that Jews and Christians share. This literature can be examined both in the historical context in which it was written and in some of the contexts in which it has been read (such as its religious, literary, psychological overtones). These biblical ideas that have had a profound impact on Western culture: creation, covenant, commandment, monotheism, idolatry, chosenness, history, kingship, sin, prophecy, wisdom. Ancient Greek literature such as Sophocles' Antigone also addresses some of these same ideas, morality and justice being two of the most important. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • The Ramayana Version by R.K. Narayana

    A 4 page discussion of this abbreviated version of classic tale from Indian culture. This paper presents the thesis that while R.K. Narayana's rendition of "The Ramayana" is too abbreviated to offer much scholarly use, it occupies a critical place in world literature in that it introduces the world (particularly the West) to one of the most important tales of Indian literature, a tale that would be too long and too complex to capture the attention of most western readers without the type of abridgment that Narayana has elicited. Narayana was in fact writing for a specific audience within a specific societal framework. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Southern Literature and Communication

    7 pages in length. There have been a number of influences that have shaped southern literature. From the time that Western Europeans founded the country to the inclusion of southern lore to the contributions of such literary giants as Eudora Welty and William Faulkner, the composition of southern literature has been both constant and ever changing. Indeed, as much as America, itself, is a melting pot of diversity within a cultural concern, so too has this considerable diversity represented a significant aspect of its stronghold in the literary world. However, the writer discusses how there is also a certain difficulty with southern literature, in that the communication factor is sometimes imperceptible and often troublesome to comprehend. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Western and Eastern Management

    A 10 page paper comparing management approaches in the East and West hemispheres. Management in the East and management in the West has been seen in the past as being two totally different concepts, similar only in the fact that they each are intended to result in effective management of the organization. The trend of globalization has done much to even out many of those differences, however, as has increased attention to transparency in management. Economic difficulties in both the East and West have obliged organizations in each to operate more efficiently, which in turn has led businesses of both origins to be more pragmatic in their operations. The result to date has been that Eastern management is less circumspect than in the past; Western management has begun to acknowledge more than only the bottom line and quarterly results. Management in the East and West has begun to converge into another form that has taken the best of both. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Retention/Recruitment & Canadian Nursing Shortage

    An 8 page research paper that discusses Canada’s nursing shortage. There is currently a severe nursing shortage in all of the industrialized countries of the Western world, including Canada. Experts predict that the nursing shortage in Canada will worse over the course of the next decade and this prediction appears to be accurate as the number of registered nurses (RNs) working the rural regions of Canada have already decreased from 65.2 per 10,000 in population in 1994 to 62.3 in 2000 (Belkus and MacLeod, 2004). This literature review focuses on strategies that are being implemented regarding the key issues of retention and recruitment of nurses, as these factors have a significant influence on how the nursing shortage impacts specific organizations. Bibliography lists 16 sources.

  • History Of Religious Orders and Monasticism

    A 7 page paper that begins by explaining the origin or the word monasticism and the types of lifestyles that may be adopted as a monk. The connection between monasticism and asceticism is explained. The writer then traces the history of the practice of monasticism before and after Christ and identifies the first Christian monastic orders that were founded. The differences between Eastern monastics and Western monastics are described. It was in the 6th century that the monastic way of life grew so much with the founding of the Franciscans and the Dominicans. The founding of more religious orders, including the Jesuits, was re-emphasized during the Reformation. The challenges to monasticism are discussed. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Perspective Comparisons of Western Civilization A Brief History by Marvin Perry and Ishmael by Daniel Quinn

    5 pages in length. Humankind's history has been filled with advancements; indeed, one can readily argue that since the very first time man realized he had the ability to formulate specific answers to problematic questions, he has been furthering the human race without so much as a reprieve. This unwavering progress has been recorded and taught in every classroom of every school all over the world. It would never occur to anyone who has spent his or her entire life believing such teachings that there could be something incredibly wrong with the manner by which humanity has furthered its own species. This is precisely the point of Daniel Quinn's Ishmael, which effectively characterizes the origins of civilization as nothing short of disastrous for both the planet and other species alike. When compared with the likes of Marvin Perry's Western Civilization: A Brief History, it becomes quite clear how mankind demonstrated the damaging characteristics of individualism from the beginning. No additional sources cited.

  • Yousry Nasrallah's Film On Boys, Girls and the Veil

    A 6 page film review that explores the topics covered in the film from an anthropological viewpoint. Egyptian director Yousry Nasrallah's 1995 documentary On Boys, Girls and the Veil is a fascinating and intriguing film that will challenge Western viewers preconceptions of Islamic custom, particularly in regards to that most controversial of subjects--the veil. This examination of the film examines how the veil is portrayed in this documentary, relating this to other anthropological investigations of how the veil works in Middle Eastern gender relations and in the lives of Middle Eastern women. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Western Classical Literature and Women

    A five page look at the role women have played in Western literature from the Old Testament through the Greeks and Romans through the Middle Ages and early Renaissance to the Romantic era. Works discussed include the Bible: Homer's Iliad and Odyssey; Aeschylus' Agamemnon; Euripides' Medea; Virgil's Aeneid; Dante's Inferno; the works of Petrarch; Cervantes' Don Quixote; and Goethe's Faust. Bibliography lists two sources.

  • Literature and Violence

    A 4 page essay that analyzes three literary works in regards to their use of violence. Throughout the history of Western literature, violence has been frequently used as an integral element of narrative. While unpleasant, often horrific, violence is nevertheless a commonality of human experience and often constitutes the defining element of individual lives. This factor is clearly evident in ancient literature as well as contemporary, as demonstrated in this examination of Sophocles' Oedipus the King, Tim O'Brien's The Things They Carried, and Anne Tyler's Dinner at the Homesick Restaurant. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Post Second World War Business History of Japan

    A 7 page paper tracing the changes in Japanese business following World War II. Today, the keiretsu structure that allowed massive accumulation of nonperforming corporate debt has been dismantled, at least in that portion discouraging appropriate corporate governance. Economic consequences of past actions appear to be the limiting factor in Japan’s attempts to move past the effects of the bursting of its bubble economy and then the Asian currency crisis. Its foray into Western management styles discounted the value of its workers’ dedication to their companies. That dedication is grounded in centuries-old culture, however, and likely still exists beneath the layers of policy-imposed constraints. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Western History and the Divine Nature of God

    A 5 page research paper that examines the history of philosophy concerning the nature of God. Throughout the course of Western history, philosophers and theologians have sought to answer questions pertaining to the nature and existence of God. "What is the nature of God and how is he related to the universe? Is God a person, like man, but more ideal? …Can the human mind know God," these and other questions have plagued humanity from earliest history (Frost 100). This examination surveys concepts of God from Plato to Aquinas, showing how the conceptualization of the divine progressed during the millennia.

  • Overview of Family Health Nursing

    A 6 page research paper that discusses this area of nursing. The World Health Organization (WHO) in Europe introduced the concept of the Family Health Nurse (FHN) in 1998 as a possible means for promoting and strengthening health among families (Macduff and West, 2005). It was proposed that this new type of nurse would make a "key contribution within a multi-disciplinary team of health care professionals" (Macduff and West, 2005). This examination of family health nursing looks at its role in promoting family health, how it is defined and how it fits with the changing nature of the family in Western culture. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • 'Bearing Illness and Injury' Review

    A 6 page review of an article appearing in the December 2000 issue of Western Journal of Nursing Research. The authors describe a qualitative study seeking to gain information about patients' views of catastrophic illness and injury. The paper analyzes problem statement, study purpose, sample selection, data collection, data analysis and the conclusions that the researchers draw. The study is good as a preliminary one, but the authors fail to address the issue of bias at any point. They still arrive at conclusions valuable to nursing, however. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • Anthropology, the Western Pacific Trobriander Islanders, Bronislaw Malinowski and Male Bias

    A 6 page examination of the early twentieth century work of Bronislaw Malinowski among the Trobriander Islanders. While Malinowski recognized the importance of women in Trobriander society, he missed key relationships among the sexes which not only allowed the culture to thrive but which illustrated the economic and cultural importance of females. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Western English Society and Male and Female Suicidal Behavior

    15 pages in length. Suicide: The quest to end one's life by means other than natural death. That a person would want to commit suicide is clearly indicative of a severe mental disorder that leads to feelings of hopelessness and despair; that men are far and away more prone to taking their own lives is indicative of pressures inherent to the male gender in a civilized society. Indeed, living in today's world requires a strong mental and emotional stamina in order to deal with the myriad issues and concerns with which people are bombarded on a regular basis. For the most part, people deal with these periodic problems in typical fashion by addressing the issue and seeking resolution; for others, however, even seemingly insignificant problems are blown up into catastrophic circumstances where the individual is unable to cope. When things begin to reach a breaking point and the person believes there is no end in sight, the most attractive lure by which to escape this torment is suicide. Both Canada and the United States, two western English speaking societies, have high statistical findings in relation to national suicide that indicate a significantly higher rate among men than women. Bibliography lists 20 sources.

  • History and Linguistics of the Jamaican Creole Language

    This is an 8 page paper discussing the Jamaican Creole language. The Jamaican Creole language, also known as Western Caribbean English, has been a unique language since the beginning of the 19th century although is it still only officially linguistically classified along with Creole and Pidgin languages as “language isolate, unclassified” with the International Linguistics Center in Dallas, Texas. Because of its unique elements which differentiate it from Standard English in the areas of linguistic phonology, morphology, semantics and pragmatics, linguists believe that it should not be considered a “dialect” but should be reclassified as a “nation-language”. Not only spoken in Jamaica, Jamaican Creole is also spoken in Columbia, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Panama. Jamaican is also influencing cultures and societies around the globe as large communities of West Indians who reside in countries such as Canada and the United States not only bring their language to the culture but also elements of their music, mannerism and lifestyle which are being adopted by neighboring communities. The Jamaican language is considered an excellent example of the many languages which are participating in the “Latinization” of the English language and are important in the linguistic study of the evolution of language. Includes an outline. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Consumer Culture and British Fashion Magazine Influence

    This is a 27 page paper discussing the influence of British fashion magazines on the British consumer society and their influences throughout history up and including the 1990s. The history of the fashion industry in relation to cultural influences, consumerism and the projected images of women and men in today’s society has led to a great deal of research in the fields of sociology, psychology and economics. While fashion magazines have changed their format a great deal in the past century as today their pages contain over one third in advertisements, their content has also changed a great deal. While researching the development of British fashion magazines within the last century, magazines such as Vogue, Elle and InStyle, initially showed that the focus of fashion magazines was women’s clothing and the models were portrayed as older elite women who replaced the dolls previously used. The influence of the fashion magazine on the female consumer at the beginning of the 20th century reflected the expectations of society in regards to conservative or opulent looks depending on the decade. Today, British fashion magazines tend to reflect the standards, or lack of standards, as now seen in the music and media industries. A recent study of focus groups’ opinions of images found in Vogue magazine found that most women and men feel that they can discern from the images presented in fashion magazines those images which are more “realistic” than others. In addition, it appears that in regards to consumer choice, fashion magazines are considered one of the less reliable sources available to consumers who prefer peer, family and local store recommendations over that of fashion magazines which appear as unreliable and unrealistic in regards to most situations and events. Nevertheless, the continued popularity of fashion magazines and their continued focus on the Western and/or American entertainment industries as a source for fashion is considered as a reflection of societal cues and consumer behavior. Bibliography lists 26 sources.

  • Bolman and Deal's Theories as they relate to School Systems

    This is a 10 page paper discussing the primary management practices within the school system in the context of Bolman and Deal’s four organizational frames. Bolman and Deal’s text “Reframing Organizations” (2003) deals with the concepts of frames within the workplace which employs the “usable knowledge” available from a management perspective and also addresses the failures within organizations “due to lack of imagination”. Organizations are broken into the four conceptual “frames” of structural, human resources, political and symbolic which account for the various aspects of planning, staffing, organizing, directing and controlling within any organization. The management functions within school systems can also work within these frames as they include all of the same vital components which must be managed and maintained as within corporations. A study published by Souchet (2001) is used to show the management practices within the school system in regards to the role of a principal within a small urban setting in the Mid-Western United States. The school principal within the school setting is “also known as the middle manager and the site administrator” in organizational terms and is considered as the major managerial influence within the school as he or she must determine “whether the education is effective or ineffective, whether morale is high or low, whether the school climate is positive or negative; whether personnel are satisfied or dissatisfied; whether students achieve or don’t achieve; whether parents and the public are cooperative or uncooperative; and whether there is effective or ineffective management and leadership”. Bibliography lists 2 sources.


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