Research Papers on Western Civilizalation

Click on any of the research paper to read a brief synopsis of the paper. The essay synopsis includes the number of pages and sources cited in the paper.


Research Papers on Western Civilizalation

Click on any of the term papers to read a brief synopsis of the research paper. The essay synopsis includes the number of pages and sources cited in the paper.

  • Western Civilization and Its Ancient Influences

    Ancient Influences on Western Civilization : A 5 page discussion of the influence of Greece and Rome on western civilization. Discusses the impact on these cultures by Mesopotamia and Egypt and how Greece and Rome in turn influenced other world cultures and ultimately shaped Western Civilization. Bibliography lists 4 sources. PPwstCiv.wps

  • History of Western Civilization

    A 14 page paper which discusses 5 different aspects of the history of Western civilization. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Non-Western & Western Music

    A 3 page research paper that contrasts and compares Western and non-Western music. The writer also discusses how music preserves cultural identity and how it cross-pollinates to produce new genres. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Bhagavad Gita and Concepts of Good and Evil

    A 5 page research paper on the ancient religious text, the Bhagavad Gita. The writer argues that Western theology tends to see the world in terms of being strictly good or strictly evil, and that today the Western world is slowly catching up to the theological stance that was worked out in Eastern philosophy somewhere between the fifth and fourth century B.C. and expressed in the religious text the Bhagavad Gita. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Water Temple Design of Tadao Ando

    An 8 page consideration of one of Hyogo Japan's most notable structure. The author explores the design elements incorporated into this structure and contends that the Temple is distinct not just because it exemplifies the difference between Eastern and Western ideas of architecture, but because it blends the eastern and western perspectives. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Integration of Alternative Medicine with Western Medicine

    7 pages in length. Concluding evidence points toward a growing trend of western medicine practitioners collaborating closely with alternative doctors. It is not without significant forethought that the two very separate entities have joined together to create a synergistic approach to health care. The writer discusses that prevention is the key for the alternative approach, where historically and typically, the western medicine practitioner has focused more upon treating the illness or disease after it has already been diagnosed. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Peace is Every Step by Hanh

    This 5 page paper provides an overview of this philosophical book. The premise that this work, which embraces Buddhism, is at odds with mainstream western religion is contemplated. The fact that this work is in fact bringing eastern religious practices to the western world is emphasized. No additional sources cited.

  • West's Rise

    A 5 page research paper that examines some of the causes that resulted in the predominance of Western civilization. The writer argues that this was largely due to a military technological superiority being combined with capitalistic goals that eventually resulted in the spreading of Western concepts to all parts of t he world. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Bhagavad Gita and Concepts of Good and Evil

    A 5 page research paper on the ancient religious text, the Bhagavad Gita. The writer argues that Western theology tends to see the world in terms of being strictly good or strictly evil, and that today the Western world is slowly catching up to the theological stance that was worked out in Eastern philosophy somewhere between the fifth and fourth century B.C. and expressed in the religious text the Bhagavad Gita. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Integration of Alternative Medicine with Western Medicine

    7 pages in length. Concluding evidence points toward a growing trend of western medicine practitioners collaborating closely with alternative doctors. It is not without significant forethought that the two very separate entities have joined together to create a synergistic approach to health care. The writer discusses that prevention is the key for the alternative approach, where historically and typically, the western medicine practitioner has focused more upon treating the illness or disease after it has already been diagnosed. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Ice-Fili and Russia's Ice Cream Market

    A 7 page paper discussing conditions at Russia's leading domestic ice cream producer, Ice-Fili, as of 2002. Russian ice cream is unique in that it is much higher in fat and contains less sugar than Western ice cream, and by 2002 Ice-Fili was facing significant competition from Western companies including Baskin-Robbins, Ben & Jerry's, Nestlé and Unilever. The paper discusses the Russian market (Russians are devoted to their ice cream) and recommends that Ice-Fili open stores in urban areas. Based on Harvard Case 9-703-516. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Nietzsche's The Collapse of Western Metaphysics in the Areas of Reason, Morality, and Religion and Underground Man of Fyodor Dostoevsky

    A 5 page contention that we are currently experiencing the retributions of a general crisis in Western Thought, a crisis that has resulted from the collapse of western metaphysics in the areas of reason, morality, and religion. This crisis has serious implications for culture and the image of man alike. The author of this paper illustrates it with an examination of the views of the so-called "underground man" and Nietzsche. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Art and Healing

    The western medical establishment has come to recognize the value of dance, music, literature, painting and drama in preventing and treating illness. Techniques such as guided imagery, dance, art therapy and music have become the tools of health care professionals in all areas. These techniques have much in common with the Chinese practices of Qigong, yoga and acupressure. Eastern methods often integrate contemporary medical practices with ancient forms of healing. The western medical establishment is learning to give the Chinese practices the credit they deserve for the benefits they are able to bring to patients. This 6 page paper examines the use of both Eastern and Western therapies with a foundation of dance or music. Bibliography lists 15 sources.

  • Music of Samoa

    A 5 page research paper that discusses Samoan music. Samoa, unlike many societies exposed to Western influences, as clung tenaciously to their own culture and their own ways. Samoan music is a vibrant entity that exists in two forms, traditional and contemporary. As the name suggests, traditional Samoan music draws on the ancient Samoan heritage while contemporary Samoan music represents the assimilation of Western influences, particularly in the introduction of Western instruments, such as the guitar. Both forms of Samoan music have contributed to maintaining the vibrancy of the Samoan language and culture. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Excess Achievement in the Entertainment Industry

    An 8 page paper discussing the influence that the entertainment industry has had on development of life in the Western part of the United States. As New York draws those who aspire to theatre and Nashville those who seek fame in country music, so do Los Angeles and Las Vegas attract those seeking excess in their lives, with or without the fame of a movie or music career to finance it. The entertainment industry has encouraged this movement, which in turn has influenced the entertainment industry. Ultimately, the relationship has influenced development of life in the Western part of the United States. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Concept of Spirituality

    A 20 page research paper that investigates the topic of spirituality. The philosophical perspective of postmodernism has left people feeling adrift and rudderless in a world that has no meaning or purpose. In answer to this situation, many people, including scholars, have turned to the topic of spirituality and religion as a means for charting a new and purposeful course into the future. Examining this sociological trend reveals that it has evolved organically out of Western culture's history and also relates to specific features that are characteristic of human religious expression as a whole, that is, encompassing Eastern religious orientations. This examination attempts to find common threads between the thrust of Western spirituality, which is primarily Christian spirituality, and how this aspect of religiosity relates to theology, mysticism and fits within the legacy of postmodernism. Bibliography lists 15 sources.

  • Impact of the Great War on Western Literature

    A 4 page essay that discusses the impact of the “Great War,” that is, World War I on Western literature. World War I is known for its “mindless squandering of human life with negligible results” (Hull 17). During its era, it was known as the Great War, the war to end all wars, as well as the war that would make the world “safe” for democracy. The Great War accomplished none of these purposes and, when it was over, the survivors were gripped by grief, guilt, rage and, in the case of one German lance corporal, a young man named Adolf Hitler, by the desire for revenge (Hull 17). The Great War had another significant effect in that it had a tremendous impact on the course of modern Western literature. The collective consciousness of both Europe and America was forever changed by World War I and this change was reflected in the literature produced both during the Great War and in the decades afterward. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Auricular Acupuncture As Adjunctive Treatment To Ameliorate Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms, Depression, Anxiety And Insomnia: Literature Review

    21 pages in length. The path to well being could not be more different between Eastern and Western philosophies; through man's successes in technological advancement, allopathic methods have virtually overshadowed consumer knowledge of or interest in ancient Eastern holism. That Western health care is based within a foundation of surgery and pharmacology while Eastern approaches it from an unadulterated, holistic approach speaks to a tremendous rift in how both entities perceive the path to wellness. This is not to say, however, that allopathic medicine is either inappropriate as a treatment method but rather that it is unsuitable as the only option when Eastern medicine is rooted in proven healing for the past 2,500 years. Taking a pill to ride the body and mind of anxiety, depression and insomnia of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is merely treating the symptom rather than addressing the issues that have ultimately manifested in these ailments. Utilizing such holistic modalities as auricular acupuncture serves to unblock the trapped energy inherent to trauma response so it begins to channel through the body and mind continuum restoring both mental and physical well being. Bibliography lists 18 sources.

  • Geishas

    A 7 page research paper that takes the form of a study. This study consists of a literature review to ascertain the legitimacy of the Western perception that geishas are prostitutes. This examination of literature is based on the hypothesis that this prevalent Western assumption pertaining to geishas is false. While sexuality is undoubtedly a part of the lives of these women, this private part of their lives in not a part of their role as geisha. This study explores what does constitute the appeal of the geisha, the history of the profession and why the West has this fundamental misconception about the geisha’s art. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • A Traditional Chinese Medicine Consideation

    An Overview of Traditional Chinese Medicine: This 11-page essay gives a comprehensive overview of Traditional Chinese Medicine. Its origin, common practices, success rate, treatment modalities, etc. are examined, along with a comparison of theories relevant to Western Medicine. Bibliography lists 6 sources. SNMedcin.doc

  • Complimentary Alternative Medicine

    An 8 page review of the state of knowledge regarding CAM. This paper addresses the question of "whether or not people who use complementary alternative medicine heal better and faster than people who use western medicine exclusively". Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Do Western Ukrainians Have A Different Sense Of National Identity In Comparison To Eastern Ukrainians? A Research Proposal

    This 13 page paper is a research proposal to study the perception of national identity in Western Ukraine in the context of the current difficulties in the country. The paper has the aim of determining if the majority of the present days Western Ukrainians do not see themselves as one nation with Eastern Ukrainians due to differences in the perception of 'national' identities that have been formed. The paper presents an introduction, hypothesis, literature review looking at the history of the county and its impact on national identity as well as concepts concerning the way national identity is formed. The paper also presents a methodology including primary research. The bibliography cites 60 sources.

  • Analysis of Two Poems by Sharon Olds

    A 3 page essay that analyzes two of Olds' poems, "Indictment of Senior Officers" and the "The Death of Marilyn Monroe." In these poems, Sharon Olds addresses violence perpetuated toward women and arrives at conclusions that suggests that, in both cases, society must bear some of the responsibility for the women's pain. Her verse causes the reader to contemplate the challenges facing women and how they are prepared for those challenges. Evocative and thought provoking, both poems compel the reader to consider women's place in Western society, as these poems are essentially critiques against the manner in which women are treated in Western society. No additional sources cited.

  • Analysis of Two Poems by Sharon Olds

    A 3 page essay that analyzes two of Olds' poems, "Indictment of Senior Officers" and the "The Death of Marilyn Monroe." In these poems, Sharon Olds addresses violence perpetuated toward women and arrives at conclusions that suggests that, in both cases, society must bear some of the responsibility for the women's pain. Her verse causes the reader to contemplate the challenges facing women and how they are prepared for those challenges. Evocative and thought provoking, both poems compel the reader to consider women's place in Western society, as these poems are essentially critiques against the manner in which women are treated in Western society. No additional sources cited.

  • The Chinese Banking System

    This 9 page paper examines the structure, regulation and operations of the Chinese banking system, including the types of bank that operate. The banking system is compared to developed western systems and Africa. The bibliography cites 4 sources.

  • Concept of Spirituality

    A 20 page research paper that investigates the topic of spirituality. The philosophical perspective of postmodernism has left people feeling adrift and rudderless in a world that has no meaning or purpose. In answer to this situation, many people, including scholars, have turned to the topic of spirituality and religion as a means for charting a new and purposeful course into the future. Examining this sociological trend reveals that it has evolved organically out of Western culture's history and also relates to specific features that are characteristic of human religious expression as a whole, that is, encompassing Eastern religious orientations. This examination attempts to find common threads between the thrust of Western spirituality, which is primarily Christian spirituality, and how this aspect of religiosity relates to theology, mysticism and fits within the legacy of postmodernism. Bibliography lists 15 sources.

  • Sunscreen Marketing In The Caribbean

    A 10 page analysis of the market climate in Jamaica and the Bahamas for the introduction of a high-end sunscreen product. The tourist trade in the entire area is growing, and both countries are attracting visitors from areas that were formerly uncommon for the islands of the Caribbean, such as of the Western European nations of Great Britain and Germany. Aside from increased sales and increased exposure, the benefit of taking the product international via entry into the Caribbean market is the same growing numbers of Western European tourists and the likelihood of those tourists wanting our products available through other outlets closer to them. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Cocaine's Chemistry and its Impact

    This is a 10 page paper discussing the history, chemistry and effects of cocaine and its usage in Western society. Originating in 1860 in Western society, cocaine has been used extensively as a recreational drug. Synthetic cocaine is now produced because of the increased effort in the restrictions of obtaining drug from its natural source. Recently researchers have found that the dopamine hypothesis can account for the psychological effects of the drug while the physiological effects include tachycardia, hypertension and renal failure. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Asian Cultures and Business Management

    This 10 page paper provides an overview of research on Asian cultures and business management. This paper looks at the influence of Western culture on Eastern business management strategies. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Eastern and Western Mythology and Women

    6 pages in length. The treatment of women in Indian mythology compared with that of Greek and Roman mythology proves to be not all that different from one another. Women, in general mythological terms, are primarily in existence to act as man's servant, both menially and sexually. To go so far as to say their treatment is barbaric, particularly in Greek and Roman mythology, would not be making an extreme statement. Indian mythology, on the other hand, utilizes the poor treatment of women in a slightly more domestic manner without the severity of physical harm so prevalent in Western mythology. The writer compares the treatment of women as it relates to Eastern and Western mythology. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Link Between Depression and Creativity

    This 4 page report discusses the alleged link between creativity and depression. The idea of the suffering artist is part of the Western world’s cultural legacy but is there an actual biological link or connection? The question becomes whether it is the creativity that drives the depression or the depression that motivates the creativity. The issue of alcohol abuse and creativity is also briefly discussed. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Jerry Mander/The Indian Worldview

    A 4 page essay that summarizes and discusses a chapter from Jerry Mander’s 1991 text In the Absence of the Sacred, which is entitled “Indians are different from Americans.” In this chapter, Mander argues that the worldview of the native or aboriginal peoples of the world—that is, the so-called “Indians,” which is basically a misnomer coined by a lost European—is fundamentally different from the worldview of mainstream culture in industrialized Western society. The discussion of this chapter summarizes Mander’s principal points in making this argument. No additional sources cited.

  • West and Whether or Not Iran Poses a Legitimate Threat

    This 5 page paper provides an overview of the question of whether Iran poses a threat to the West. In particular, this paper relates the question that has been raised recently, especially in light of the continued spread of Islamic fundamentalism, whether countries like Iran pose an active threat to the countries of the Western world. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • 1100 to 1250 Western Europe and Processes of Metal Working

    This 6 page paper considers the main metalworking techniques used in Western Europe during the period c.1100-1250 AD including a discussion on metalwork techniques that also involve the use of other materials such as enamels. The bibliography cites 8 sources.

  • Scott Cook/Colonial Encounters

    A 3 page reaction paper that reviews Scott B. Cook's monograph Colonial Encounters in the Age of High Imperialism, which offers a comprehensive overview of the "last and most extensive phase of Western expansionism," which occurred between 1870 and 1914 (Cook xii). The author's stated intention is to "underscore the great variety of colonial experiences," as well as examine the "basic characteristics of imperialism" (Cook xii). This analytical examination of this text indicates that Cook succeeds admirably and achieves this goal. No additional sources cited.

  • Intercultural Communication

    This 9 page paper examines the way that mistakes or misunderstanding may occur in intercultural communication. Using the example of a business meeting between western and Vietnamese business people the paper looks at examples of cultural differences, looking at the cultural barriers that exist and how they may be overcome. The bibliography cites 8 sources.

  • Western European Impact of the Vikings

    A 3 page overview of the impacts these warriors had on the world, particularly on Western Europe. The author emphasizes that while the Vikings are often remembered in a negative light they also had positive impacts on the regions they invaded. Bibliography lists two sources.

  • Startup Plan for a Real Estate Business

    A 12 page business plan, the sections of which include: Executive Summary, company description, services plan, marketing plan, management plan and financial plan. Financials include breakeven analysis, 6-month cash flow and a balance sheet. The realty company has an arrangement with Bal Harbor complex to maintain offices on site, offer sales of Bal Harbor units and act as property manager for short-term vacation rentals. The company will be located on north Miami Beach Island within the Bal Harbor complex, a high-end condominium complex attractive to vacationing families of means, recent retirees and western European tourists (primarily from Germany).

  • U.S. and Downsizing

    A 6 page paper discussing downsizng and its impact on the economy of the United States. Throughout much of the twentieth century, the American corporation has been considered to be a veritable bedrock of stability and security. Competition, globalization, and economic flux have all profoundly altered corporate America's relationship with employees, shareholders, communities, government, and society. The western half of the State of Michigan serves as an example of how downsizing has made employees, communities, and government agencies modify their approach to economic and workforce development. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Sir Thomas More's Trial

    A 10 page research paper that examines the trial of Sir Thomas More. The writer argues that this trial represents one of the first instances in Western culture where an individual stood up for personal liberty and freedom of religion against the overwhelming authority of the state. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Imperialism and Things Fall Apart by Chinua Achebe

    A 4 page paper that examines the manner in which African author Chinua Achebe challenges traditional ideas of imperialism in his novel entitled Things Fall Apart. A short synopsis of the novel's plot is included, with particular emphasis placed on the sections in which Achebe emphasizes the uneven trade of time honored tradition for Western cultural imperialism. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • Manufacturing Milk and Microbial Issues, Required Processing, and Storage

    This 12 page paper relates the issues around milk manufacturing, storage, processing and microbial issues. Milk is one of the most prevalent beverages in the Western diet, and communities throughout the world view milk as a form of basic sustenance. Over the course of the last century, the development of methods for manufacturing, storing and processing milk products has reduced health threats directly related to microbial issues. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Realigning Aid to Ethiopia

    A 4 page paper providing recommendation to the British government regarding additional financial aid to Ethiopia. The recommendation for the British government and for the governments of other Western "rich" countries giving aid to Ethiopia is to maintain historic levels of financial assistance, followed with increased financial assistance entrusted to NGOs to administer and use for the good of the Ethiopian people. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Function and Morphology of Eastern Dragons

    A 10 page overview of dragons. The author distinguishes between Eastern and Western dragons noting that while in the West dragons are typically regarded as evil and something to be eradicated, Eastern dragons are most often revered. Morphology and function differs radically, however, even among eastern dragons. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Western Perspectives on the Prophet Muhammad

    This 5 page paper discusses the prophet Muhammad and how he has been viewed by the Western World since the Middle Ages. The crusades are discussed as is the present day situation. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • The Journey to the West Sixteenth Century Novel by Wu Cheng'en

    This 12 page report discusses “The Journey to the West,” a novel of China written approximately four hundred years ago. As a religious pilgrim, Tripitaka, makes his way to the Western Paradise, he is accompanied by the Monkey King, Pigsy, sandy and the dragon horse. Together, they encounter numerous calamities and adventures. While the story may appear to simply be a Chinese fairytale, it is, in reality, a report on both a spirtual quest, as well as a commentary on the sate of the world of China in the 16th century. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Arabian Nights Translation by Richard Burton

    A 5 page analysis of the Burton translation of this famous collection of Persian folktales. From the moment that the first translation of her remarkable stories appeared, the Western world has been entranced--just as much as was her king--by the stories of Shahrazad. It has been said that these stories are masterpieces of the art of storytelling and that for inventiveness and sheer entertainment value, they cannot be equaled. The writer argues that this is certainly true. No additional sources cited.

  • Economic Success, Developing Countries, and Authoritarian v. Democratic Governments

    This 7 page report discusses some of the questions related to the changes taking place throughout the world as nations once governed by authoritarianism make the transition to democracy and what impact that transition has had on their economies. In addition, the issue of industrialization in developing countries is addressed. Modern strategies for industrial advancement in developing nations are significantly different from those that presented themselves during the Western world’s industrial revolution. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Mi Caballo, Mi Perro Y Mi Rifle by Jose Ruben Romero

    3 pages in length. Jose Ruben Romero's "Mi Caballo, Mi Perro Y Mi Rifle" delves into the lurid history of Western European conquest over the Mexican Indians. Clearly portrayed throughout the pages of Romero's historical account is the white man's opinion that if one was not a of European descent, one was not worthy of living. The writer discusses how this obvious cultural hatred harbored by the white race was focused toward the Indians for the unprovoked manner in which they attempted to preserve their indigenous land. No additional sources cited.

  • Strengths and Limitations of Western Medicine

    3 pages in length. The writer discusses inherent strengths and limitations with regard to western medicine. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Today's Military Actions and Erich Maria Remarque's All Quiet on the Western Front

    This 5 page paper focuses on the Remarque novel and compares its descriptions with the reality of military conflicts today. Several quotes from All Quiet on the Western Front are included. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Western Civilization Evolution

    This 5 page paper asks what has changed in Western Civilization since the 1400s and finds that little has. The thesis of this paper is that things are not copacetic in the world as many believe, and further, that things have not improved since the Middle Ages. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Comparing poems by Atwood and Smith

    A 3 pages paper that explicates "The Dead" by A.J.M. Smith and in "It is Dangerous to Read Newspapers" by Margaret Atwood. The writer argues that both of these poets address the horror of war, while arguing the same theme. In both poems, strikingly descriptive imagery is used within free verse to emphasize the idea that Western apathy towards war and the atrocities of war is not neutral, but, in fact, promotes war. No additional sources cited.

  • Cyber Cafe Life and Media Imperialism

    This 6 page report discusses the concept of media imperialism is the idea that Western media exerts considerable influence over the cultures of countless nations around the world and how the “imperialism” of the media is reminiscent of the behavior of the European colonizers. The report then moves on to discuss the ways in which online life has become a common reality for millions of Americans. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • 'A Family Supper' by Kazuo Ishiguro

    A 5 page analysis of Kazuo Ishiguro's short story that deals with a "family supper" that highlights the differences between the generation that fought World War II and their children, who have come under Western influences. The writer argue that this "generation gap" is particularly evident in regards to how the characters view suicide. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • The Dark Side of Country Music

    A 5 page paper that argues the point that country and western music does not express the noble and pure American spirit as has been claimed. Discussed is the inherent depression and violence that has come to mark contemporary country music. Also disused is recent research aimed at linking country music with depression and high suicide rates. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Are Western Strategies Suitable for Use in Businesses in China?

    This 8 page paper is a research proposal to assess the extent to which traditional western business strategies may be applied in China. The paper presents a research question and justification, background, literature review and a methodology. The bibliography cites 9 sources.

  • Western Pennsylvania's UPMC Health System Presentation

    A 12-slide Power Point presentation on UPMC Health Systems in Western Pennsylvania, including discussion of the effects of the organizational structure of the system. The paper associated with this file contains speaker notes and sources only. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Democracy in Europe

    A 9 page paper discussing points and implications of Larry Siedentop's "Democracy in Europe," which calls for and encourages the development of a constitutional republic of Western European nations. A separate PowerPoint® presentation also is available. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Healthcare Administration Leadership

    A 3 page essay that justifies pursuing a doctorate degree in healthcare administration. Doctorate education in healthcare administration is formulated to aid in the creation of highly motivated, advanced healthcare leaders, who can effectively address the challenges of today's healthcare system, as well as shape effective public policy for the needs of the future (Doctor in HA). The challenges facing the U.S. healthcare system, as well as the healthcare systems in all Western, industrialized societies, are formidable. Effective leadership in healthcare administration is a crucial factor in meeting these challenges. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • 'Recipe' by Janice Mirikitani

    A 5 page research paper that discusses Janice Mirikitani's poem 'Recipe,' which concerns the desire of some Asian women to have 'round' eyes. The wrier discusses the poem and relates this issue to problems of identity and appearance that are common to all Western Women. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Western Films and the Themes of Loss and Regret

    A 5 page paper which analyzes film historian Thomas Schatz's contention that, "The Western is always about regret and it's always about loss" to determine whether or not Schatz's conclusions are correct. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Western Thought and Universal Law

    This 8 page paper presents the idea that Western thought is quite different from ideas found in the rest of the world. Hinduism is discussed in depth. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Film, Theater, and Rhetoric

    Rhetoric in Theatre and Film: This 8-page essay examines the ways in which rhetoric functions within the constructs of theatre and film, while also contrasting the relationship between Eastern and Western mentalities relevant to rhetorical expression. By way of example, two divergent films will be used: “The Emperor and the Assassin” and “The Godfather.” Bibliography lists 6 sources. SNThefil.doc

  • Yousry Nasrallah's Film On Boys, Girls and the Veil

    A 6 page film review that explores the topics covered in the film from an anthropological viewpoint. Egyptian director Yousry Nasrallah's 1995 documentary On Boys, Girls and the Veil is a fascinating and intriguing film that will challenge Western viewers preconceptions of Islamic custom, particularly in regards to that most controversial of subjects--the veil. This examination of the film examines how the veil is portrayed in this documentary, relating this to other anthropological investigations of how the veil works in Middle Eastern gender relations and in the lives of Middle Eastern women. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • History, Revolution, and Karl Marx's The Communist Manifesto

    This 5 page report discusses The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Karl Marx’s declaration, in the most simplistic terms, was that all events are determined by economic forces. The Manifesto was much more than a “literary and philosophical work,” -- it was also a revolutionary document, a plan to battle and a call to arms, and a reflection of the history of humanity in the Western world. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • The Balkans A Short History by Mark Mazower

    5 pages in length. Mazower works diligently to teach his readers to differentiate between the Balkans as a geographical entity and the Balkans as the epitome of violence amidst chaos. Author and professor of history at Princeton, Mazower illustrates the source of such strife as being two important points: 1) nationalism and 2) the perpetual imbalance between cultural and religious existence forced upon them by Eastern and Western Europe. No additional sources cited.

  • West Misperceptions of the History of East Asia

    A 5 page research paper that argues that the traditional orientation of Western historians toward East Asian history is deceptive and inadequate. The writer then argues that thesis of Edward Said in Orientalism can be applied to the Far East and examples are drawn from Chinese history to support this argument. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • The Western Tradition of Psychology

    This 4 page paper traces the western tradition of this discipline. The contributions of notable philosophers like Aristotle, Thomas Hobbes, Descartes, Spinoza and Leibniz are discussed alongside those of Freud. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Female Sexuality and Racial Differences

    A 10 page research paper/essay that examines the topic of female sexuality. The writer argues that white women must come to understand the experience of women of color and discusses how poor and non-Western women are targeted for reproductive rights discrimination. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Music and the Sexualization of Women

    This 14 page paper analyzes the way women are presented in commercialized western music. The author addresses the question of whether this presentation is more negative than positive. Bibliography lists 11 sources.

  • Female Genital Mutilation

    A 3 page paper which examines if female sexual mutiliation is a western perspective or whether it is a universal reality aimed at women in a male dominated world. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Thinking About Music, An Introduction to the Philosophy of Music by Lewis Rowell

    A 10 page book review that summarizes and critiques Lewis Rowell's Thinking About Music, An Introduction to the Philosophy of Music (1983). The writer points out that a careful reading of the title suggests that the author does not limit himself to music, but rather places music within a philosophical framework that encompasses the entirety of Western art and culture. No additional sources cited.

  • A Short History of Franco-Flemish and Venetian Schools of Art and Music

    In five pages this paper examines these important Western schools of art and music, which flourished from approximately 1125 to 1575, and how the Franco-Flemish school influence the Venetian school. Seven sources are listed in the bibliography.

  • Wedding Dress History

    A 7 page paper which examines the history of the wedding dress. The focus is predominantly on the history of the Western wedding dress. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Differences in Silence in Poetry of the East and West

    A 5 page essay that analyzes the differences between Eastern and Western poetry, using the work of Matsuo Basho for the east and Walt Whitman for the West. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • 4 Brief Literature Essays

    A 10 page research paper that is composed of 4 short essays (roughly 2.5 pages each) on works by J.D. Salinger, Kate Chopin, Thomas Hardy, Saul Bellow and Annie Proulx. Works discussed include: Chopin, The Awakening; J.D. Salinger, For Esme with Love and Squalor, De Daumier-Smith's Blue Period, A Perfect Day for Bananafish; Hardy's On the Western Circuit; Proulx's The Shipping News, and Bellow's Something to Remember Me By. No additional sources cited.

  • Western Classical Literature and Women

    A five page look at the role women have played in Western literature from the Old Testament through the Greeks and Romans through the Middle Ages and early Renaissance to the Romantic era. Works discussed include the Bible: Homer's Iliad and Odyssey; Aeschylus' Agamemnon; Euripides' Medea; Virgil's Aeneid; Dante's Inferno; the works of Petrarch; Cervantes' Don Quixote; and Goethe's Faust. Bibliography lists two sources.

  • Literature and Violence

    A 4 page essay that analyzes three literary works in regards to their use of violence. Throughout the history of Western literature, violence has been frequently used as an integral element of narrative. While unpleasant, often horrific, violence is nevertheless a commonality of human experience and often constitutes the defining element of individual lives. This factor is clearly evident in ancient literature as well as contemporary, as demonstrated in this examination of Sophocles' Oedipus the King, Tim O'Brien's The Things They Carried, and Anne Tyler's Dinner at the Homesick Restaurant. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Cultural Understanding of Chinese Women Through Literature and Art

    This 8 page paper examines how women in the Chinese culture are expected to adhere to a far more traditional role than Western women. This paper examines the literature of Ha Jin as well as artwork by Zhou Fang and Chen Yifei in order to provide evidence of this thesis. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • Healthcare Administration Leadership

    A 3 page essay that justifies pursuing a doctorate degree in healthcare administration. Doctorate education in healthcare administration is formulated to aid in the creation of highly motivated, advanced healthcare leaders, who can effectively address the challenges of today's healthcare system, as well as shape effective public policy for the needs of the future (Doctor in HA). The challenges facing the U.S. healthcare system, as well as the healthcare systems in all Western, industrialized societies, are formidable. Effective leadership in healthcare administration is a crucial factor in meeting these challenges. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • The Varied Viewpoints of Hinduism

    This 3 page paper discusses Hinduism and why it seems to encompass so many different religious viewpoints; whether or not these viewpoints have enough in common so that they can be grouped together in the Western category “Hinduism”; and whether Hinduism is a world religion or one belonging exclusively to Asia. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • The Divergence of Country and Folk Music? ?

    This? ?6? ?page paper traces the evolution of the American folk song from the so-called hillbilly music of the Appalachians to Country and Western.? ?The bibliography includes five sources.?

  • Ludwig von Beethoven and His Influence

    A 5 page research paper that examines the influence that Beethoven and his music had on his own contemporaries and on modern society. The writer argues that Beethoven's music has become virtually synonymous with everything that epitomizes musical excellence in Western culture, and that it continues to inspire and motivate. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Literary Self Determination in Women and Sexuality

    A 9 page paper showing the connection between these two issues, as demonstrated in the works of Aristophanes, Plato, Dante, and Shakespeare (Lysistrata, The Apology, The Inferno, and The Tempest, respectively). The paper asserts that Western literature first mocked or dismissed the sexual expression of female self-determination, later turned it into a sin, and finally transformed it into a social gaffe, but until recently still continued to maintain that its suppression was not wrong. Bibliography lists five sources.

  • Music of Japan

    A 5 page research paper that examines the surprising prominence that Western music has gained over traditional Japanese forms since World War II, and shows that this pattern of appropriating the musical forms of other cultures is actually typical of the Japanese. The writer demonstrates that Japan has frequently borrowed from other cultures as the traditional forms of Japanese music are discussed. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Overview of Ethnomusicology

    This 4 page paper looks at what is meant by the term ethnomusicology and how it is studied along with the way it has developed. The paper then looks at the difficulties and challenges that might exist for a western student studying the music of the Tibetan monks, using an interpreter. The bibliography cites 5 sources.

  • World Music of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries

    This paper supports the thesis that with infiltrations of Western missionaries into various parts of the world during the 19th and 20th centuries, the world's music has become homogenized. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Disputes and Western Civilization History

    A 3 page paper which examines whether the disputes of Western Civilization were fought because of conflicts over territory or ideas. The works cited are Margaret L. Mead’s “Western Civilization: A Social and Cultural History” and Jackson J. Spielvogel’s “Western Civilization: A Brief History.” No additional sources cited.

  • 1400 to 1700 Japanese Relations with the West

    This is a 5 page paper discussing Japanese foreign relations with the West between the years 1400 and 1700. The years from 1400 to 1700 in Japan covered three Japanese historical periods: the Muromachi Period (1333-1573); the Azuchi-Momoyama Period (1573-1603); and, the Edo Period (1603-1867) which also included the great eras of the Shogun. While these centuries are generally not known for their great developments in international trade for Japan, there were certain instances in which Chinese and Western trade and influences and relations were introduced into Japan. During the mid 16th century, the Japanese greatly valued Portuguese weaponry which played a large factor in the ongoing warlord conflicts. By the late 16th century, foreign relations and trade had also been established with Britain, Spain and the Dutch who were as interested in the Japanese artisan goods as were the Japanese interested in goods imported from the Americas such as tobacco and sweet potatoes among other goods. Through the relations established with the English, Western shipbuilding and navigation tools were also of great value. During the mid-17th century however, shogun Iemitsu wanted to strengthen Japan by eliminating foreign influence which included further restrictions on Christianity, which had been introduced by the missionaries in the 1500s, a ban on travel outside of Japan, expulsion of foreign trade merchants and a ban on European literature among other restrictions thereby decreasing foreign trade and relations with the West. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • History Of Religious Orders and Monasticism

    A 7 page paper that begins by explaining the origin or the word monasticism and the types of lifestyles that may be adopted as a monk. The connection between monasticism and asceticism is explained. The writer then traces the history of the practice of monasticism before and after Christ and identifies the first Christian monastic orders that were founded. The differences between Eastern monastics and Western monastics are described. It was in the 6th century that the monastic way of life grew so much with the founding of the Franciscans and the Dominicans. The founding of more religious orders, including the Jesuits, was re-emphasized during the Reformation. The challenges to monasticism are discussed. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Political Institutions Shaped by the History of Western Europe

    This 6 page paper looks at European history and how it has affected Europe as it is known today. An emphasis is placed on politics. Communism is discussed. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • History and Impact of the Cold War

    This is a 10 page paper discussing the events that led up to the Cold War. Major causes and issues are included and the overall effect of the war is discussed. The gradual build up of forces on both the capitalist Western side and the communist Eastern side are included. The paper focuses on the major countries involved. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Post Second World War Business History of Japan

    A 7 page paper tracing the changes in Japanese business following World War II. Today, the keiretsu structure that allowed massive accumulation of nonperforming corporate debt has been dismantled, at least in that portion discouraging appropriate corporate governance. Economic consequences of past actions appear to be the limiting factor in Japan’s attempts to move past the effects of the bursting of its bubble economy and then the Asian currency crisis. Its foray into Western management styles discounted the value of its workers’ dedication to their companies. That dedication is grounded in centuries-old culture, however, and likely still exists beneath the layers of policy-imposed constraints. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Western History and the Divine Nature of God

    A 5 page research paper that examines the history of philosophy concerning the nature of God. Throughout the course of Western history, philosophers and theologians have sought to answer questions pertaining to the nature and existence of God. "What is the nature of God and how is he related to the universe? Is God a person, like man, but more ideal? …Can the human mind know God," these and other questions have plagued humanity from earliest history (Frost 100). This examination surveys concepts of God from Plato to Aquinas, showing how the conceptualization of the divine progressed during the millennia.

  • Western Civilization Historical Periods

    A 3 page paper which defines and examines Renaissance, Reformation, Enlightenment, and Scientific Revolution as they influenced the development of Western civilization. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • Women's Roles in Western and Hindi Cinema

    This is an 8 page paper discussing the different roles of women as portrayed in contemporary Hindi and Western film. Comparisons of the movies “Kuch Kuch Hota Hai” and “Sleepless in Seattle” are made. Both movies were based on the same story but were treated differently in the roles the women played. “Kuch Kuch” had to maintain the male-dominated features from Indian society but the women still were strong, independent yet respectful of tradition and the story touched on several social issues. “Sleepless” portrayed women as independent in their work and lives, but were pathetic in their pursuit of men and the story remained simple and predictable. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Contemporary Chinese Poetry's Thematic and Linguistic Structure

    An 11 page discussion of the linguistic and thematic structure of modern Chinese poetry. Analyzes the poem “Into the Mountains” by Yang Mu to present examples of metaphor, simile, comparison, and personification. This paper emphasizes that essentially modern Chinese poetry relies on the same use of semantics as do Western forms of poetry. Other considerations enter the picture, however, when these poems are translated into English. In this instance, the translator has essentially as much power as the poet in changing subtle components of a poem with the manipulation of the English words which he uses to convey the meaning. While it is useful to analyze the semantics of modern Chinese poetry from an operative structure standpoint therefore, it is perhaps even more useful to analyze this poetry from a thematic standpoint. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Review of Homer's 'The Iliad'

    A 6 page book review that summarizes and analyzes aspects of this classic epic poem. The Iliad, by the ancient Greek poet Homer, is one of the greatest poetic epics in history. This poem has held readers in thrall for millennia as there is it is a grand tale of heroic adventure. As time has past, its allure has increased due to the fact that Homer's storytelling prowess opens a window for the modern reader that reveals another time, an ancient era, with its mores, customs, traditions, beliefs and lifestyle illustrated in the lives of the Greek and Trojan heroes. In accomplishing this, the Iliad reveals a pagan world whose orientation is quite different from the Western world known to the reader. Thematic content is also discussed. No additional sources cited.

  • Sexual Culture of the West and Christianity's Impact

    This 15 page paper provides an overview of the topic and relates it to the findings in the current literature. The role of women, the understanding of marital relationships and even the value placed on men and women have been based on Christian belief systems and the integration of religious values into the dominant culture. The sexual identities and sexual beliefs, then, in the modern era can be traced to historical elements influenced by Christianity. Bibliography lists 25 sources.

  • Post 1950 West and Marijuana

    An 11 page discussion of the history of marijuana usage in countries like Great Britain, Canada, and the U.S. since the mid part of the twentieth century. The author reviews some of the critical laws regarding marijuana usage, inclusive of the 2002 decision by Great Britain to lessen the criminal penalties for possession of marijuana and to in effect look the other way, to conclude that while countries like Great Britain and Canada are slowly preparing for the leap toward legalization, the U.S. is holding back and looking at the edge. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • Western English Society and Male and Female Suicidal Behavior

    15 pages in length. Suicide: The quest to end one's life by means other than natural death. That a person would want to commit suicide is clearly indicative of a severe mental disorder that leads to feelings of hopelessness and despair; that men are far and away more prone to taking their own lives is indicative of pressures inherent to the male gender in a civilized society. Indeed, living in today's world requires a strong mental and emotional stamina in order to deal with the myriad issues and concerns with which people are bombarded on a regular basis. For the most part, people deal with these periodic problems in typical fashion by addressing the issue and seeking resolution; for others, however, even seemingly insignificant problems are blown up into catastrophic circumstances where the individual is unable to cope. When things begin to reach a breaking point and the person believes there is no end in sight, the most attractive lure by which to escape this torment is suicide. Both Canada and the United States, two western English speaking societies, have high statistical findings in relation to national suicide that indicate a significantly higher rate among men than women. Bibliography lists 20 sources.

  • How Baumer and Kantorek in All Quiet On The Western FrontWould Respond to the poem The Next War by Robert Graves

    4 pages in length. The writer briefly discusses how Baumer and Kantorek would respond to Robert Graves' poem "The Next War." Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • Retention/Recruitment & Canadian Nursing Shortage

    An 8 page research paper that discusses Canada’s nursing shortage. There is currently a severe nursing shortage in all of the industrialized countries of the Western world, including Canada. Experts predict that the nursing shortage in Canada will worse over the course of the next decade and this prediction appears to be accurate as the number of registered nurses (RNs) working the rural regions of Canada have already decreased from 65.2 per 10,000 in population in 1994 to 62.3 in 2000 (Belkus and MacLeod, 2004). This literature review focuses on strategies that are being implemented regarding the key issues of retention and recruitment of nurses, as these factors have a significant influence on how the nursing shortage impacts specific organizations. Bibliography lists 16 sources.

  • Overview of Family Health Nursing

    A 6 page research paper that discusses this area of nursing. The World Health Organization (WHO) in Europe introduced the concept of the Family Health Nurse (FHN) in 1998 as a possible means for promoting and strengthening health among families (Macduff and West, 2005). It was proposed that this new type of nurse would make a "key contribution within a multi-disciplinary team of health care professionals" (Macduff and West, 2005). This examination of family health nursing looks at its role in promoting family health, how it is defined and how it fits with the changing nature of the family in Western culture. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • 'Bearing Illness and Injury' Review

    A 6 page review of an article appearing in the December 2000 issue of Western Journal of Nursing Research. The authors describe a qualitative study seeking to gain information about patients' views of catastrophic illness and injury. The paper analyzes problem statement, study purpose, sample selection, data collection, data analysis and the conclusions that the researchers draw. The study is good as a preliminary one, but the authors fail to address the issue of bias at any point. They still arrive at conclusions valuable to nursing, however. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • Southern Literature and Communication

    7 pages in length. There have been a number of influences that have shaped southern literature. From the time that Western Europeans founded the country to the inclusion of southern lore to the contributions of such literary giants as Eudora Welty and William Faulkner, the composition of southern literature has been both constant and ever changing. Indeed, as much as America, itself, is a melting pot of diversity within a cultural concern, so too has this considerable diversity represented a significant aspect of its stronghold in the literary world. However, the writer discusses how there is also a certain difficulty with southern literature, in that the communication factor is sometimes imperceptible and often troublesome to comprehend. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Tragic Themes in Erich Maria Remarque's All Quiet on the Western Front, Sophocles' Antigone and William Shakespeare's Macbeth

    This 5 page report discusses the common themes that exist in these three works of literature. Great tragic literature carries with it certain common themes that define it as tragedy and which then allows the reader to understand that there is a greater story being outlined than just the one of the characters presented in a single story. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Eastern versus Western Management

    A 5 page paper discussing adaptations that East and West have made in business management over the past several decades. Organizations in the East and the West have altered details to fit their own needs, but in the end, West has adopted some of the best of the East; the East has relieved itself of many of the inhibitions of responsibility for other separate companies. The result is a convergence of approaches to management. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Western and Eastern Management

    A 10 page paper comparing management approaches in the East and West hemispheres. Management in the East and management in the West has been seen in the past as being two totally different concepts, similar only in the fact that they each are intended to result in effective management of the organization. The trend of globalization has done much to even out many of those differences, however, as has increased attention to transparency in management. Economic difficulties in both the East and West have obliged organizations in each to operate more efficiently, which in turn has led businesses of both origins to be more pragmatic in their operations. The result to date has been that Eastern management is less circumspect than in the past; Western management has begun to acknowledge more than only the bottom line and quarterly results. Management in the East and West has begun to converge into another form that has taken the best of both. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • El Indio by Gregorio Lopez Y Fuentes

    3 pages in length. Gregorio Lopez y Fuentes' 1937 novel El Indio strives to represent many things at once: political mistreatment, ethnic intolerance and cultural ignorance. While on the surface the story appears as yet another narration with regard to Western European overtaking of Indian land, it is significantly much more than that. Indeed, there exists plenty of references – both obvious and subliminal – that effectively address what truly did occur between the colonists and the indigenous population; however, the writer discusses that through the author's insight, the reader gains a considerable amount of knowledge about what occurred during this clash of culture. No additional sources cited.

  • El Llano en Llamas by Juan Rulfo

    3 pages in length. "El Llano En Llamas" by Juan Rulfo's is indicative of the prolific writer's inherent ability to pursue even the most complex of concepts. Not unlike myriad other works of this genre, Rulfo appeals to the innermost recesses of the reader's soul by reaching out and inviting his audience to experience with him the sometimes intense and often expansive sense of being during the Mexican Revolution. The writer discusses how the novelist demonstrates a distinctive talent when it comes to writing about the inherent difficulties associated with Western European settlement and the blatant disregard for humanity. No additional sources cited.

  • Racist Concepts and Heart of Darkness by Joseph Conrad

    This 8 page report discusses “Heart of Darkness” and issues of racism found (or not found) in the novel. While racism enters the story in as much as it is a constant leit motif in all aspects Western humanity journeying to the “dark continent” of Africa. It is simple to dismiss questions of racism as a normal reaction of the age in which Conrad was writing. However, what must also be noted is that in Conrad’s constant yet subtle ways, his style and narrative technique disguises his distorted portrayal of Africa, to the extent that the reader may unconsciously accept what Marlow says without questioning the validity of his allegations. No secondary sources.

  • The Revolt of the Masses by Jose Ortega

    10 pages in length. The loss of freedom and reason was a concept that greatly worried Spanish philosopher and social theorist Jose Ortega y Gasset. At the time of World War I, totalitarianism was taking a stronghold upon Europe, while the Great Depression proved to threaten the nature and destiny of the Western civilization. The Enlightenment had begun to show signs of wear, directly affecting the manner by which freedom and reason were slowly but surely being cast aside. It can be argued that with the weakening influence of World War I, reason and freedom stood little chance of escaping the impact of totalitarianism. It was Ortega's contention that through the means of such barbarism, those who were intellectually undisciplined and culturally unrefined would soon serve as the new ambassadors to European existence. Asserting that such masses would prove fatal to the Europe's cultural, economic and political progress, Ortega was mightily concerned with the fascist and communist implications of such a trend, which he clearly addressed in his book entitled 'The Revolt of the Masses.' Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Former Soviet Union and Communications

    This 15 page report discusses the economic, social and political factors that have caused the former members of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) to have fallen so far behind in their own adaptation to the Information Age. Prior to the dissolution of the USSR, electronic communication, other than fragmented telephone service and state television, was virtually nonexistent. Economics and technology stood in the way, every bit as much as the political aspect of access to information. Although communications are improving in the former Soviet Union, it still is antiquated in comparison to most Western opinions and standards. However, as with most radical social changes, the change in communications must be viewed in the context of what has gone before. Bibliography lists 11 sources.

  • Cannibals and Kings by Marvin Harris

    A 5 page analysis that examines Cannibals and Kings: the Origins of Cultures by Marvin Harris. The writer demonstrates that Harris offers some intriguing ideas relative to the way that early man developed in response to environmental forces. Harris' book covers a wide-ranging variety of topics. In so doing, he often presents a perspective on history that is non-traditional. Nevertheless, Harris provides some very persuasive arguments that leave the reader with much to consider relative to the technologically oriented path of Western society. No additional sources cited.

  • Is Maria Teresa Tula's Thinking Still Relevant?

    A 5 page paper discussing the generalizability of resistance to political oppression in the New World and in the East. In Hear My Testimony, author Maria Teresa Tula provides an account of the struggle for human rights in her native El Salvador. The purpose here is to examine the historical origins of that struggle and to determine whether the work reflects world historical forces of the non western world. The paper concludes that though results in abuses of human rights take similar forms, the historical origin of extremism in the New World and in old civilizations of Asia are greatly different. The book does provide an account of women's involvement in political resistance, however, which is highly relevant to oppression resulting from any origin. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Comparison of John Calvin and Martin Luther

    A 20 page research paper that compares the religious beliefs of Reformation thinkers Martin Luther and John Calvin. The Protestant Reformation engulfed the medieval world in the early sixteenth century, breaking apart the familiar paradigms and recasting both the religious and political map of Europe. It was, without a doubt, a decisive moment in the history of the Western church. Energies that flowed from the Reformation would eventually affect the character of the spread of Christianity. The writer argues that Calvin built upon the foundation laid down by Luther and expanded on many of his precepts. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Composer Frederic Chopin's Life and Music

    This 5 page report discusses Frédéric François Chopin, (1810-49), Polish composer and pianist of the romantic school, regarded by some as the greatest of all composers of music for the piano. The music he provided the Western world has served as some of the most soulful of all piano music and while his mazurkas are some of the most joyful renditions of folk music in a classical framework. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • McDonalds in China

    This 54 page paper examines the well known fast food chain McDonalds and considers how it is competing in China, the competitive advantages it is using and the way these fit in with McDonalds core international strategies and with the market in China were competition is seen in the form of other western fast food chains and increasing numbers of Chinese fast food chains. The paper starts with an introduction then presents an in-depth literature review looking at the history and existing strategies of McDonalds, the positions that McDonalds may choose to pursue and the strategies used in China. The paper then simulates primary research with consumers, including an in-depth methodology as well as a presentation and interpretation of the results. The final section of the paper pulls together the results of the literature review and the primary research in order to assess the use of different competitive advantages by McDonalds in China. The bibliography cites 60 sources.

  • Comparing Western Civilization's Marriages of Choice and India's Arranged Marriages

    An 11 page paper which discusses and analyzes arranged marriages in India with free choice marriages in Western civilization. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Comparison of the Western World and the Renaissance

    A 6 page paper discussing the Renaissance and its differences and similarities to contemporary society. The writer briefly examines science, culture, politics, philosophy, and other key aspects of the culture. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Chinese Buddhism Traveled the 'Silk Road'

    20 pages in length. The legacy of the Silk Road is synonymous with Central Asia's overwhelming expansion of cultural, social, political and economic elements. That this particular stretch of throughway was established as a means by which to connect China with Europe and Western Asia illustrates the critical nature inherent to such a tremendous undertaking. Bringing such valuable commodities as precious metals and stones, glass, gold, ivory, jade, iron, furs, ceramics, bronze items and lacquer in addition to its namesake, this celebrated path brought what many contend to be the epitome of what came to represent China: the art and literature of Buddhism. Bibliography lists 19 sources.

  • Cherokee 'Trail of Tears' and Expansion of the West

    6 pages in length. This paper examines the sad travesty of the Cherokee Trail of Tears march due to western expansion from 1815-1840. The historical treatment of the Cherokee is reviewed. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Contemporary Nursing's History

    This 5 page report briefly discusses the development and history of modern nursing in the Western world. “Modern” nursing, just as other aspects of modern medicine, began to come into its own in the mid- to late-19th century in the Western world. Between war, scientific advancement, and the onslaught of the Industrial Age, humans were becoming aware of certain physical truths regarding their physical bodies, good health, and what constituted beneficial care and treatment. It has continued to advance along with technology and human knowledge. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Byzantium Emperor Justinian I

    This 10 page report discusses the Byzantine emperor, Justinian I. Justinian is known for expanding Byzantine rule in the Western world, developing and beautifying the city of Constantinople, and completing the codification of Roman law. It has been due, in great measure, to Justinian I’s efforts and determination that Western civilization and the law governing it have developed in the ways they have. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Perspective Comparisons of Western Civilization A Brief History by Marvin Perry and Ishmael by Daniel Quinn

    5 pages in length. Humankind's history has been filled with advancements; indeed, one can readily argue that since the very first time man realized he had the ability to formulate specific answers to problematic questions, he has been furthering the human race without so much as a reprieve. This unwavering progress has been recorded and taught in every classroom of every school all over the world. It would never occur to anyone who has spent his or her entire life believing such teachings that there could be something incredibly wrong with the manner by which humanity has furthered its own species. This is precisely the point of Daniel Quinn's Ishmael, which effectively characterizes the origins of civilization as nothing short of disastrous for both the planet and other species alike. When compared with the likes of Marvin Perry's Western Civilization: A Brief History, it becomes quite clear how mankind demonstrated the damaging characteristics of individualism from the beginning. No additional sources cited.

  • US Women's Suffrage and its History

    This is a 3 page paper discussing the history of the women’s suffrage movement in the United States. The women’s suffrage movement within the United States began in earnest in 1848. Reflecting the sentiments of women around the world, organizers of a national convention that year began the process to fight for the right to vote (suffrage) and enfranchisement (the end of slavery) for women. The suffrage movement had two organizations, the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA) headed by Susan B. Anthony and Elizabeth Cady Stanton and the American Women Suffrage Association (AWSA) organized by Lucy Stone and others. The two organizations merged in 1890 which was also the year which also saw women’s rights to vote gradually being accepted across many of the Western states. After a long struggle and witnessing the enfranchisement of women occurring in many other countries, the Nineteenth Amendment to the Constitution giving women the right to vote was finally passed in 1920. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • History and Linguistics of the Jamaican Creole Language

    This is an 8 page paper discussing the Jamaican Creole language. The Jamaican Creole language, also known as Western Caribbean English, has been a unique language since the beginning of the 19th century although is it still only officially linguistically classified along with Creole and Pidgin languages as “language isolate, unclassified” with the International Linguistics Center in Dallas, Texas. Because of its unique elements which differentiate it from Standard English in the areas of linguistic phonology, morphology, semantics and pragmatics, linguists believe that it should not be considered a “dialect” but should be reclassified as a “nation-language”. Not only spoken in Jamaica, Jamaican Creole is also spoken in Columbia, Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Panama. Jamaican is also influencing cultures and societies around the globe as large communities of West Indians who reside in countries such as Canada and the United States not only bring their language to the culture but also elements of their music, mannerism and lifestyle which are being adopted by neighboring communities. The Jamaican language is considered an excellent example of the many languages which are participating in the “Latinization” of the English language and are important in the linguistic study of the evolution of language. Includes an outline. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Pan Islamic Terrorism and Conflict Between Palestine and Israel

    A 4 page discussion of the association that exists between Israeli-Palestinian conflict and Pan-Islamic terrorism in the Middle East and beyond. The author reviews the history of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and notes the role of Western foreign policy. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Yogesh Chadha Gandhi A Life

    This is a 5 page book review of “Gandhi: A Life” by Yogesh Chadha (1997). Gandhi’s peaceful process was integral in the negotiations of the independence of India and while his methods may have seemed against many of the traditions of the Hindus, his acceptance of other religions and Western ways paved the way for a new and independent India. While Chadha used historical methods to relate the biography of Gandhi and tries to strip away several myths about the saint, he at the same time shows how Gandhi in his open, accepting and non-violent resistance was able to unite the Indian people toward a new independence even at the cost of his own life. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Islam and Interfaith Marriage

    This is a 5 page paper discussing interfaith marriage in the Islamic religion. Interfaith marriage is not recommended in Muslims as Muslims are encouraged to find spouses with a similar religious outlook for the sake of future compatibility and for the raising of children. However the guidelines for marriage in the Qur’an do allow for some instances of intermarriage between Muslim men and non-Muslim women but not between Muslim women and non-Muslim men. For those couples who have interfaith marriages in the Islamic religion, mostly in the Western countries where there are fewer Islamic communities, they have reported success only when they allow themselves equal respect for each other’s religion, educate themselves about the practices of each other’s religion, maintain open communication regarding the practicing of religion, the raising of children and the recognition of holidays. Despite the liberal views of many interfaith couples, difficulties still arise in the raising and faith of the children. Muslim men who have children who have not be raised Muslim may have difficulty bringing them into Islamic states and retaining custody after a divorce. In the world today however and despite the strict guidelines of the Qur’an, interfaith marriages are occurring with the couples themselves largely deciding how to handle their choices for success in their marriage. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Anthropology, the Western Pacific Trobriander Islanders, Bronislaw Malinowski and Male Bias

    A 6 page examination of the early twentieth century work of Bronislaw Malinowski among the Trobriander Islanders. While Malinowski recognized the importance of women in Trobriander society, he missed key relationships among the sexes which not only allowed the culture to thrive but which illustrated the economic and cultural importance of females. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Consumer Culture and British Fashion Magazine Influence

    This is a 27 page paper discussing the influence of British fashion magazines on the British consumer society and their influences throughout history up and including the 1990s. The history of the fashion industry in relation to cultural influences, consumerism and the projected images of women and men in today’s society has led to a great deal of research in the fields of sociology, psychology and economics. While fashion magazines have changed their format a great deal in the past century as today their pages contain over one third in advertisements, their content has also changed a great deal. While researching the development of British fashion magazines within the last century, magazines such as Vogue, Elle and InStyle, initially showed that the focus of fashion magazines was women’s clothing and the models were portrayed as older elite women who replaced the dolls previously used. The influence of the fashion magazine on the female consumer at the beginning of the 20th century reflected the expectations of society in regards to conservative or opulent looks depending on the decade. Today, British fashion magazines tend to reflect the standards, or lack of standards, as now seen in the music and media industries. A recent study of focus groups’ opinions of images found in Vogue magazine found that most women and men feel that they can discern from the images presented in fashion magazines those images which are more “realistic” than others. In addition, it appears that in regards to consumer choice, fashion magazines are considered one of the less reliable sources available to consumers who prefer peer, family and local store recommendations over that of fashion magazines which appear as unreliable and unrealistic in regards to most situations and events. Nevertheless, the continued popularity of fashion magazines and their continued focus on the Western and/or American entertainment industries as a source for fashion is considered as a reflection of societal cues and consumer behavior. Bibliography lists 26 sources.

  • Bolman and Deal's Theories as they relate to School Systems

    This is a 10 page paper discussing the primary management practices within the school system in the context of Bolman and Deal’s four organizational frames. Bolman and Deal’s text “Reframing Organizations” (2003) deals with the concepts of frames within the workplace which employs the “usable knowledge” available from a management perspective and also addresses the failures within organizations “due to lack of imagination”. Organizations are broken into the four conceptual “frames” of structural, human resources, political and symbolic which account for the various aspects of planning, staffing, organizing, directing and controlling within any organization. The management functions within school systems can also work within these frames as they include all of the same vital components which must be managed and maintained as within corporations. A study published by Souchet (2001) is used to show the management practices within the school system in regards to the role of a principal within a small urban setting in the Mid-Western United States. The school principal within the school setting is “also known as the middle manager and the site administrator” in organizational terms and is considered as the major managerial influence within the school as he or she must determine “whether the education is effective or ineffective, whether morale is high or low, whether the school climate is positive or negative; whether personnel are satisfied or dissatisfied; whether students achieve or don’t achieve; whether parents and the public are cooperative or uncooperative; and whether there is effective or ineffective management and leadership”. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • The Ramayana Version by R.K. Narayana

    A 4 page discussion of this abbreviated version of classic tale from Indian culture. This paper presents the thesis that while R.K. Narayana's rendition of "The Ramayana" is too abbreviated to offer much scholarly use, it occupies a critical place in world literature in that it introduces the world (particularly the West) to one of the most important tales of Indian literature, a tale that would be too long and too complex to capture the attention of most western readers without the type of abridgment that Narayana has elicited. Narayana was in fact writing for a specific audience within a specific societal framework. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Studying the Terroist Groups the Red Army Fraction/Baader Meinhof Group, the Dashmesh Regiment, the Islamic Jamiat-i-Talaba, the North Korean Communist Group, and the Action Directe

    This is a 30 page paper studying five terrorist groups: their history, ideology, acts of terrorism and current status. The study of five terrorist groups, the Action Directe (AD), the North Korean Communist Group, the Islamic Jamiat-i-Talaba (IJT), the Dashmesh Regiment, and the Red Army Fraction (RAF) shows the extent extremists will go to further their causes in both the domestic and international arena. The Action Directe (AD) in France and the Red Army Fraction (RAF) in Germany were mostly active in the 1970s and 1980s when many of their leading members were imprisoned. Although not directly linked with any recent terrorist actions, the members of the AD and RAF are still actively associated with radical or political groups today. The North Korean Communist Group is considered one of the most viable terrorist threats of today as they are large, well-funded, still torture political prisoners and are believed to still manufacture nuclear, chemical and biological weaponry contrary to international agreements. The Islamic Jamiat-i-Talaba (IJT) as the student based affiliated of the political party Jamiat-i-Islami (JI) in Pakistan wish for the education of Islamic youth and for the formation of an Islamic state free of all Western deviant and capitalist influences and continue violent protests to promote this ideal. The recent war on terrorism against the Taliban in Afghanistan has led the IJT to believe that the increase in martyrs for their cause will only increase their recruitment for their group. Finally, the Dashmesh Regiment or 10th Regiment in Pakistan and India wish for a separate Sikh state called Khalistan which is currently on land in India. They have formed alliances with other national and international terrorist groups with the intent of getting their cause well known and have been responsible for several international acts of terrorism. Although their group was diminished when the Indian forces captured many of their leaders, international Sikh supported organizations have been formed in their place to continue their cause. Bibliography lists 18 sources.

  • The Tradition of Chinese Medicine

    This 5 page report discusses Traditional Chinese Medicine and the fact that it is finally gaining a certain measure of respect in the Western world. Physicians trained in Western or “modern” medicine dismissed traditional Chinese medicine, sometimes referred to as TCM as nothing but superstitious quackery. However, in the past few decades, even those medical experts who were most opposed to traditional approaches to medical treatment have come to understand that “TCM” offers numerous benefits that are often more effective than what the “modern” approach has to offer. Bibliography lists 5 sources.


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