Click on any of the research paper to read a brief synopsis of the paper. The essay synopsis includes the number of pages and sources cited in the paper.
Click on any of the term papers to read a brief synopsis of the research paper. The essay synopsis includes the number of pages and sources cited in the paper.
'Hard Science' and Psychology
A 3 page essay that examines the question "Is psychology a hard science?" The writer first defines "hard science" as a term that refers to sciences in which facts and theories can be quantified, that is, measured, tested and proven. Then, the writer argues that psychology has aspects of hard science, but that this term does not describe the field as a whole. No bibliography is provided.
Cyberpunk Lit: “Neuromancer”
This 4 page paper discusses the science fiction/cyberpunk novel “Neuromancer.” Bibliography lists 3 sources.
Elementary School Mathematics, Science, and the Internet
A 9 page literature review that addresses the use of the Internet in teaching math and science in the elementary classroom. Elementary school teachers today are confronted not only with the sometimes daunting task of instructing a diverse student population in the intricacies of science and mathematics, but they are also frequently required to incorporate new technology into their pedagogy as they do so, such as the Internet. This review of relevant literature on this topic examines several questions. First of all, it asks if use of the Internet helps or hinders the instruction of elementary student in regards to studying science and math, or is it simply one more item to be addressed in an overworked teacher's busy agenda? Assuming that the use of the Internet facilitates educational goals for elementary schoolchildren studying math and science, what are the best pedagogical practices in regards to Internet instruction? Bibliography lists 15 sources.
High School Science Teaching
A 7 page paper that represents a college student's ability to blend theory with practice. This essay begins by identifying two themes that emerged from both the literature and coursework - students have different learning styles and science curriculum and methods of teaching need to change. The essay discusses why science education needs to change with an emphasis on secondary schools. The paper identifies the courses the student enjoyed the most and relates that to the literature on the need for the active engagement of students with the curriculum and materials. Gardner's multiple intelligences theory is outlined with an example of a science teacher who used this framework. This is also related to theory and practice in teaching science. Bibliography lists 7 sources.
Science According to the Poems of Walt Whitman and Edgar Allan Poe
A 4 page essay that compares and contrasts 2 poems by Poe and Whitman. Poe's "Sonnet--To Science" and Whitman's "When I heard the Learn'd Astronomer," address not only the same subject matter, but also they take an identical stand on the topic. While Poe's poem is the most overt in its message, Whitman also takes the stand that science, specifically astronomy, attempts to drain the beauty and mystery from life and turns the wondrous into the mundane. No additional sources cited.
Science According to the Poems of Walt Whitman and Edgar Allan Poe
A 4 page essay that compares and contrasts 2 poems by Poe and Whitman. Poe's "Sonnet--To Science" and Whitman's "When I heard the Learn'd Astronomer," address not only the same subject matter, but also they take an identical stand on the topic. While Poe's poem is the most overt in its message, Whitman also takes the stand that science, specifically astronomy, attempts to drain the beauty and mystery from life and turns the wondrous into the mundane. No additional sources cited.
Is Psychology a Science
A 14 page paper that begins with a definition of science, then discusses whether or not psychology is a science. Other topics that are discussed are: how theories improve understanding of psychology, the APA standards for psychological research and the difference between quantitative and qualitative research, the rules for publishing research in psychology, current trends in the field, personal vision of psychology and how integration would strengthen the field. Bibliography lists 12 sources.
Christian Theology and Evolution
A 7 page research paper that examines whether or not Christian theology can accommodate scientific theories about the evolution. The writer, citing the emerging science of chaos and complexity theory, argues that science and theology can be reconciled. Bibliography lists 5 sources.
Current Perspectives/Math and Science Education
A 3 page research paper that discusses the fact that the position of the United States in relation to other countries and math and science education has been a cause for concern for the last decades. This examination of literature looks at current perspectives on trends in US education, with a focus on math and science education and how this impacts the country as a whole. Bibliography lists 3 sources.
Why Psychology Is Considered A Science
6 pages in length. The evolution of psychology emerging as a science stemmed from the concept of behaviorism and what motivated conduct in certain situations. Was humanity merely bound by determinism without the ability to choose, or did he harbor free will with which to guide his own existence? These ponderings ultimately gave way to a more concrete concept termed cognitive science from which the basis of psychology inevitably developed. Bibliography lists xox sources.
If Shakespeare Wrote Science Fiction, Ariel Would Use a Transporter
This 4 page paper discusses five short science fiction stories and what it is about each of them that classifies them as being in that genre. It also suggests ways in which Shakespeare could use science fiction techniques and themes to rewrite his play “The Tempest” as a screenplay for Spielberg to direct. Bibliography lists 5 sources.
DOES OBJECTIVITY OR SUBJECTIVITY DESCRIBE HOW HUMANS GAIN KNOWLEDGE?
5 pages in length. Man's understanding of his world is based within a dual foundation of finite concepts and varying interpretation. Mathematics and science, for example, are instrumental in establishing knowledge as an objective reality that rejects any semblance of subjectivity; its empirical nature requires the line from A to B to reflect a straight and unbroken line of evidences that no matter how many times reenacted will produce the same outcome. Philosophy, on the other hand, was created from the very essence of subjective opinion and could no more function under the stringent guidelines of objectivity than could math or science be considered intuitive. Bibliography lists 5 sources.
Interdisciplinary Unit on Earth Day
This is a 4 page paper that begins with a general introduction of the need for children to understand the dangers to the earth. The unit, which is appropriate for grades 2 and 3, begins with an explanation of how Earth Day originated and why. Activities for this unit are outlined under multiple headings to provide an interdisciplinary unit. The headings are: Reading/Literature/Writing/Science/Environmental Health and Science/Environmental Education/Math/Writing/Reading/Art/Music. The essay also includes a brief outline of which Pennsylvania standards are included in the activities. Bibliography lists 4 sources.
Practice of Psychology
A 3 page research paper that discusses psychology. Psychology has been defined as "the study of human behavior." However, even a brief examination of the science and practice of psychology demonstrates that this social science discipline encompasses a broad expanse of territory and that the practice of psychology is continually evolving as it changes to meet the needs of contemporary society, both now and in the future. An overview of psychology's history that this factor is particularly true in terms of psychology's purposes and goals. Bibliography lists 5 sources.
Article Critique/Effects of Remembering/Nursing Home Residents
A 10 page critique of a study article by Cook (1998) entitled "Effects of Reminiscence on Life Satisfaction of Elderly Female Nursing Home Residents." The writer summarizes and analyzes each section of this study report and finds it overall to be a positive contribution to nursing science. No additional sources cited.
Nursing's Philosophical Issues
This 9 page paper delves into ethical issues in medical science. Several aspects of nursing care are discussed inclusive of the DNR order and medication errors. Several ideologies are included and discussed as they relate to the field of nursing. Bibliography lists 3 sources.
Accreditation in Nursing
A 9 page research paper that consists of 2 smaller papers. The first paper, 5 pages, has to do with the processes involved in nursing accreditation, which compares these processes, between two agencies, with the accreditation process as it applies to forensic science. The second 4 page essay discusses how a background of employment in the pharmaceutical industry aids the nursing student. Bibliography lists 5 sources.
State of Science, Nursing Ethics
A 22 page research paper that examines the state of the science of nursing ethics. This investigation endeavors to offer a broad, exploratory overview of how professional nursing is addressing the numerous ethical challenges that characterize modern healthcare systems. Bibliography lists 9 sources.
An Analysis on an Article About Caring and Science
A 3 page article analysis that examines "Science, technology, caring and the professions: are they compatible?" by nurses Hawthorne and Yurkovich (1995). These authors express their concern that caring has declined as a value among various professions. The writer summarizes the article and then critiques it, comparing it to two nursing theories that emphasize caring. Bibliography lists 3 sources, but one reference is incomplete.
Science and Art of Nursing
A 4 page research paper that examines the debate over nursing as an art or a science. The writer argues that nursing is a combination of both, and offers references and a case study to support this argument. Bibliography lists 4 sources.
Psychology and the Ongoing Debate Between Quantitative and Qualitative Research Approaches
This 8 page paper examines the quantity/quality debate. The concept of social science is discussed but the paper focuses primarily on psychology. Examples are provided. Bibliography lists 10 sources.
Psychology and Friedrich Nietzsche
This 7 page paper considers the development of Nietzsche's premise that psychology is the queen of sciences. This paper considers Nietzsche's premise, and seeks support for this argument through distinctions made by other psychologists. This paper underscores the justification of Nietzsche's claims. Bibliography lists 15 sources.
Psychology Professionals and Ecological Awareness
A 4 page essay/research paper that addresses questions that illustrate the usefulness of psychology as an environmental science. Bibliography lists 1 sources.
Clinical Psychology and Scientific Practice
This 9 page paper discusses the history of clinical psychology, its origins and the reciprocal relationship between science and clinical practice. Bibliography lists 8 sources.
Theoretical Foundations for Nursing, Various Issues
This 6 page research paper addresses a variety of issues in regards to the theoretical foundation of nursing. Topics covered include the definition of emancipatory knowledge and praxis, differentiating between science and philosophy, strategies for transformational leadership, among other issues. Bibliography lists 7 sources.
Cross Membrane Transport and Molecular Mixtures in Joe Alper's Article 'Drug Delivery Breaching the Membrane'
A 5 page review of “Drug Delivery: Breaching the Membrane”, an article by Joe Alper published in the May 3, 2002 edition of “Science”. Alper’s (2002) research concentrates on the cell membrane and the manner in which cross-membrane transport occurs, specifically the manner in which membrane-bound protein transporters function to allow various nutrients and hormones across. Alper’s paper adds insight to both the structure and function of the cell membrane and its components and how each relates to the molecular structure of the body’s complex mixture of chemicals. No additional sources are listed.
Is Walking Beneficial for Human Health?
This 5 page paper examines the benefits of walking. The only source used is a 2008 issue of Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. Three articles are cited. Bibliography lists 3 sources.
Psychology as Science According to Wilhelm Wundt
This 10 page paper provides an overview of the life and works of Wilhelm Wundt as they defined the progression of psychology as a science. This paper integrates a view of Wundt's works, the viewpoints of psychologists and historians and the assessment of change that occurred during Wundt's greatest period of development as a psychologist in the later part of the 19th century. Bibliography lists 8 sources.
Abnormal Psychology: Amnesia
A 6 page research paper that, first of all, summarizes an obituary for H.M., a man who suffered from permanent amnesia due to an operation on his hippocampus in 1953. The article explains H.M.'s significance to science and the writer speculates on how his problems relate to the student's abnormal psychology course information. The second part describes parts of the textbook that relate to H.M. and the third section offers the writer's personal reflection on what she thought was most interesting. Bibliography lists 2 sources.
Psychology and the Importance of Facts
This 4 page paper argues that there are no real facts in social science. The field of psychology is utilized as the most prominent example.
Bibliography lists 2 sources.
Science and Art of Management
This 8 page paper explores management paradigms along with the debate of management being science or art. This paper concludes that it can and should be both. Bibliography lists 7 sources.
Concept of Human Relations
8 pages in length. Human Relations practice is based upon an eclectic mixture of theories from different academic disciplines such as psychology, sociology and political science; while each discipline indicates divergent methods to the overall approach of human relations, they all share a common denominator of empowerment and reassurance. Bibliography lists 10 sources.
A 3 page paper that discusses Titchener’s contributions to the field of psychology and explains his concept of consciousness as compared to Freud’s and James’. The writer also comments on how psychology became a science. Bibliography lists 4 sources.
Theorist and Martha Rogers a Science of Unitary Human Beings Application
This 9 page paper provides an overview of the perspectives of nursing theorist Martha Rogers, with an emphasis on Rogers’ Science of Unitary Human Beings. This paper outlines the background of the theorist, the theory, and the application for nursing practices, especially in regards to the way in which Rogers has influenced the development of holistic nursing. Bibliography lists 10 source.
Psychology as a Science?
This is a 6 page paper that evaluates the claim that psychology is not a science. It examines the 'duality theory' and the 'machine' theory in respect to their impact on this argument. Bibliography lists 8 sources.
Theology and Psychology Integration
A 10 page research essay discussing the how and why psychology and theology, or religion, should be integrated. Beginning with some statements and citations about the integration of science and religion, or theology, and moving into specific examples of the integration of religion and psychology, the writer offers evidence from the literature to support the premise these two should be integrated. Bibliography lists 10 sources.
Cognition and Solving Problems
The ability to assess a problem and
formulate solutions has been a subject within such varied disciplines as
mathematics, psychology, linguistics, neurobiology and computer science.
The fact remains that problem-solving is a complicated procedure that
merits study. This 10 page paper explores information processing and
memory in terms of problem solving. Bibliography lists 10 sources.
Psychological and Sociological Perspectives on Smoking
A 3 page consideration of this perplexing question. The author points out that, of all the social sciences, the disciplines of sociology and psychology are best suited to answer this question. Bibliography lists 1 source.
Sociology Q and A
This 5 page paper answers three questions posed by a student. Topics covered include the application of Freudian psychology to social science, functionalism, conflict theory and interactionism and the application of feminism to social theory. Bibliography lists 3 sources.
New Methods of Instruction for Teachers at all Levels
This 7 page reviews five different methods of instruction in the classroom that involves engaging students in reading, math and science, as well as those with behavoral and poorer performance levels in these areas. Bibliography lists 6 sources.
Pain Management Choices and Patients Rights
This 5 page paper addresses issues surrounding pain management. Should a patient be allowed to die if medical science cannot properly manage his or her pain? The Dax Cowart case is referenced in the discussion. Other issues are addressed such as addiction to opiates and just how much influence a patient should have in his or her own medical care. Bibliography lists 8 sources.
Patient Depression and Nursing
This 18 page paper considers the way in which a patient with depression in nursed. The paper is written with reference to a fictitious practice experience, considering the use of application of knowledge (both art and science) which is used by the nurse to nurse to assess, plan, and implement patient care. The paper considers the underling medical knowledge and how this is observed, the presence of influences such as stress and outlines a suitable nursing model that would be appropriate for the treatment of this patient. The bibliography cites 15 sources.
Nursing Knowledge: Development And Utilization
12 pages in length. The philosophy of nursing is something much grander and more complex than most people realize; not only does it incorporate views, metaparadigm, paradigms and theories, but it also includes the consideration of nursing as a discipline and profession as well as an art and science. Indeed, the basis of nursing knowledge is founded within the synthesis of all these elements which - when taken as a unit instead of individually - serves to synergistically encapsulate the very nature of nursing philosophy. Bibliography lists 13 sources.
Philosophy of Nursing and Future Plans
An 8 page research paper/essay that offers a guide to a student, using tutorial language, that provides a guide to writing a personal philosophy of nursing and then turns its focus to the crucial role that obtaining a Bachelor's degree in nursing science can play in a nursing career before closing with a discussion of author's short-term and long-term professional goals, which includes becoming a trauma nurse practitioner. Bibliography lists 4 sources.
Profile of an Equitable Math/Science Classroom
A 3 page summary of an article by Joy Wallace entitled "Profile of an Equitable Mathematics and Science Classroom and Teacher." The writer summarizes and analyzes the various categories. No bibliography is offered.
BSN Degree Problems
A 4 page research paper that discusses the problems encountered in pursing a BSN degree. Registered nurses (RNs) face specific challenges that concern their multiple roles and responsibilities due to the processes involved in transitioning from RN status and earning their Bachelor of Science degrees in nursing (BSN). Whatever the BSN candidate's nursing status, LPN or merely an undergraduate student, the transition toward BSN nursing can offer problems and challenges. Nursing literature on this topic indicates many common problems and concerns. Bibliography lists 5 sources.
Sixteenth Century Literature and Parody
The sixteenth century was the beginning of the
Renaissance, where the yoke of the Church was being thrown off and the
possibilities of science were balanced with a humanitarian outlook toward the
future. Under these conditions, it is easy to see why the writers of this era
would resort to parody in order to ask, "do we need to continue believing this
message?" This 6 page paper looks at a number of sixteenth century works in
terms of the use of parody. Bibliography lists 12 sources.
Mathematical Contributions of Albert Einstein
In 5 pages the author discusses Albert Einstein's contributions to the field of science and mathematics while explaining such theories as E=mc2. Bibliography lists 8 sources.
Technology In Middle And High Schools
A 12 page paper. There is still controversy about the use of technology in math classes. This essay discuses and reports research regarding the use of technology in math and science classes in middle schools and high schools. The writer discusses barriers to using technology, including access and teacher preparation. The results some teachers have had with certain technology is also reported. Bibliography lists 12 sources.
Intelligences and Intelligence
Charles Spearman (1904) defined and developed a unilinear testing approach to general intelligence (g), which is based on a positive correlation among varying subjects like math, earth sciences and vocabulary. Gardner (1983) proposed there were multiple intelligences (MI), or seven areas of intelligence.... These are compared and contrasted. Bibliography lists 4 sources. jvIQmster.rtf
Women and Men in the Sciences: Is There Any Difference in Ability?
This 8-page paper argues the likelihood that Harvard president Larry Summers was right when he proclaimed that women weren't very good in the math, science and tech fields because of innate abilities. The paper also discusses, however, that women tend to be discriminated in these fields, as well, so it's hard to tell. Bibliography lists 8 sources.
Shortcomings of Math and Science Textbooks
This 5 page paper outlines the problems with science and math textbooks and shows the movement with Project 2061 to reform the nation's textbooks. Specific examples of textbooks shortcoming, underlying issues of standardized testing reforms and more. Bibliography lists 2 sources.
Report on Cyber Crime
This 8 page report discusses the fact that the “consensual hallucination” (a
term coined by science-fiction writer William Gibson) of cyberspace must, of necessity,
include a “consensual” understanding that the realm of cyberspace is no less vulnerable to
the negative aspects of human nature such as deceit, fraud, and theft. In many ways, the
opportunity for criminal activity in cyberspace is heightened due to its very nature which
supports anonymity and a certain freedom of action that few people would ever act on in
their “real” lives. Bibliography lists 10 sources.
Grades First through Fourth Content Area Writing and Reading Instruction
This 9 page paper emphasizes grades 1-4 but the concepts and strategies discussed may be used at any grade level. The focus is on strategies to teach reading and writing in content areas. General strategies that may be used in any content area and at any grade level are outlined and described. The paper also comments on teaching reading and writing in specific content areas: social studies, math, science and geography. Bibliography lists 8 sources.
Sci-Fi Films: Radiation Monsters and Homestick Aliens
This 8 page paper compares two classic science fiction films, “Them!” and “E.T. The Extraterrestrial” and what they tell us about the times in which they were made. Bibliography lists 12 sources.
Apocalyptic Representation Supporting Authoritarianism in Science Fiction Movies
This 5 page paper discusses U.S. science fiction films and how they use apocalyptic representation to present authoritarian arugument in support of authoritarianism. This paper uses many specific film examples. Bibliography lists 6 sources.
Gene Therapy and Shaywitz and Ausiello's Back To The Future
Shaywitz and Ausiello, in their article,
Back To The Future, Medicine and Our Genes, argue that the emerging gene
sciences will reunite the patient, doctor and researcher in ways not seen
since the 19th and early 20th centuries. This 5 page paper proposes that, in
exploring the issues concerned with gene therapy, it seems as though the
judgment of Shaywitz and Ausiello is well within the ethical bounds of
religious and medical tenets. Bibliography lists 4 sources.
Reason Plus Spirituality Equals Enlightened Theology
A 5 page paper that examines the integration of the sciences of philosophical thinking and theological belief beginning with the Age of Enlightenment in the eighteenth century. The progression of this integration is traced across the nineteenth century and through the 1960s racial tensions of the twentieth century. Included are the philosophies of Jonathan Edwards, Ralph Waldo Emerson, William James, W.E.B. DuBois, Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X. Bibliography lists 6 sources.
Scientology and Its Impact on Actor Tom Cruise
A 6 page discussion of the so-called religion Scientology and its effect on actor Tom Cruise. This paper contends that in reality Scientology is nothing more than a lucrative cult, the premises of which verge more on science fiction than theology. Although Cruise is blessed with good looks, money, and tremendous professional success, his personal life has fallen apart in more than one area over time and much of the turmoil surrounding his failures can be linked with Scientology. Bibliography lists 7 sources.
Is Scientology a Religion or a Cult?
A 5 page denouncement of the so-called religion of Scientology. This paper exposes the basic premises of the cult as being based more on science-fiction than theology. Despite its high-profile membership which makes the sect appear glamorous and appealing a more objective investigation of its teachings reveal many discrepancies, shortcomings, and outright fallacies. Bibliography lists 6 sources.
A Cybernetics and Systems Science Overview
This 5 page paper provides an overview of the concepts, and explores the differences between first order and second order cybernetics. Family systems are explored. Bibliography lists 4 sources.
Portrayals of Good Science Gone Bad in Works of Robert Louis Stevenson, H.G. Wells, and Mary Shelley
A 10 page overview of the factors which existed in the Victorian era to spawn such works as “The Island of Doctor Moreau” and “The Invisible Man”, “Frankenstein” and “Dr. Jeckyll and Mr. Hyde”. This paper describes the quest for understanding and scientific experimentation which captivated this era and speculates as to how this captivation extended to the literary world as well. Bibliography lists 8 sources.
Journal Article Review on Teaching Fifth Graders Science
This 3 page paper presents a review of a journal article. The article reports a case study of four fifth-grade teachers. This review reports the type and purpose of study, an overview of the study, the conclusions of the authors and the relevance of the article for teachers. Bibliography lists 1 source.
Cinematic Explanation of Sciences' Gender Gap
This 7 page paper examines the portrayal of strong women scientists in two films: Laura Dern as Ellie in Jurassic Park and Margaret Sheridan as Nikki in the 1950s classic, The Thing from another World and why, despite the popularity of such women in film, they do not hold comparable positions in the real world. Bibliography lists 7 sources.
Science Fiction Cinema's Portrayal of Society's Fears and Hopes
A 5 page paper
which discusses the films “The Day the Earth Stood Still” and “Close Encounters of the
Third Kind” as they relate to the hopes and fears of the eras in which they were produced.
Bibliography lists 2 additional sources.
Literature and the Element of Science
This 5 page paper discusses the scientific concepts presented by Daniel Quinn's protagonist, Ishmael. His unique perspective brings out the dire straits that mankind has put himself in, and offers solutions. Quotes cited from the text. Bibliography lists 1 source.
Fantasy Literature and Science Fiction
This 3 page paper considers the idea that fantasy appeals to that part of our minds that doesn't believe in fate, but insists that everything that happens to us must have a reason, and whether or not that statement makes sense. Bibliography lists 2 sources.
Romantic Era and History of Science
A 5 page paper discussing the qualities of the period of 1770-1830 in scientific advancement. The age of enlightenment is associated with order and reason; progress and change belongs to the 19th century. A.L. DeJussieu (1748 – 1836), C.F. Mirbel (1776 – 1854) and K Sprengel (1766 – 1833) all quietly contributed to the advancement of science in general - and botany in particular – during this time that would prove to provide preparation for rapidly-occurring advances in the future. Growing knowledge of what was ultimately led to speculation of what could be. By the end of the Romantic Period in 1830, the focus shifted toward work that could effect change, rather than merely explain why things existed as they did. Bibliography lists 9 sources.
Environmental Scientific Principles and the Hunting Issue
5 pages in length. By the inherent rights of being human, man believes he has the privilege to impose dominion over the animal world. Nowhere is this more evident than with the sport of hunting. However, there are myriad implications with what many consider to be an innocent pastime; inasmuch as recreational hunters upset the natural progression of species and their predators, they place the delicate balance of nature in grave danger. In reviewing this article, it is clear to see that there is a definite injustice going on in the name of fun. The writer discusses how the principles of environmental science that apply to the issue of hunting reach significantly deeper into the fundamental framework than most people realize. No additional sources cited.
Evolutionary and Creation Scientific Theories
A five page paper which looks at the creation scientists’ theories of the origins of the universe and life on earth, as delineated in the Christian Bible, and the way in which these relate to other theories such as the Big Bang, Darwin’s explanation of natural selection, and the evidence of fossil records.
Bibliography lists 5 sources.
Ice Sculpture, Science, Theology, and Sensations
A 4 page overview of the processes we go through
to justify and vocalize beliefs. Centering around our observations and belief regarding an ice sculpture being used as an Easter Meal centerpiece,
this paper contrasts esoteric belief and scientific belief. Bibliography lists 2 sources.
Psychology, Science, and Research Approaches
A 5 page discussion of the relationship of the scientific approach in the field of psychology. This paper contends that psychological research is characterized by two separate yet integrated approaches. These approaches are that of qualitative and quantitative investigation. In the place of statistical findings revealed with quantitative research, qualitative research illuminates and provides understanding. Each approach is an important component of the field of psychology. Bibliography lists 2 sources.
Psychology: Informal Practice To Bona Fide Science
3 pages in length. The field of psychology has not always been held in such high regard within the scientific environment, having had the task of proving its worth and validity as a legitimate discipline and not merely an ambiguous offshoot of philosophy. As the field began to expand and notable theorists established what are now standard principles, psychology ultimately earned its place within the scientific community alongside other closely controlled fields of study. Bibliography lists 2 sources.
Detrimental Effects of Coeducational Schools on Females
10 pages in length. The social benefits of coeducational schools may provide an important conduit for students who have only attended single-sex schools in the past, however, it has become more than apparent how this particular academic environment lends itself to scholastic shortcomings where female students are concerned. The extent to which girls are more inclined to pursue math and science courses in a single-sex environment is both grand and far-reaching; the pressure and intimidation inherent to performing as well as their male counterparts in the coeducational setting speaks to the reason why the female gender fails to thrive in these academic areas, illustrating how coeducational schools are not always the best choice. Bibliography lists 8 sources.
The 'Science' of Human Behavior According to B.F. Skinner
A 5 page analysis of the principles of behavioral psychology as discussed by B.F. Skinner, a pioneer in this field. The writer gives a summation of Skinner's theories relative to the dynamics of operant conditioning and operant behavior. No additional sources cited.
The Psychological, Biological, and Social Science Obstacles in Understanding Bisexuality
In six pages this paper addresses the past and present confusion that exists within scientific, psychiatric, and social literature which impacts the acceptances of bisexuality by society. Two sources are listed in the bibliography.
Psychology and its Meaning
This examines what the meaning of psychology is, and four different psychological approaches; psychoanalytical, behavioral, humanistic and cognitive. The paper also uses examples of each approach. Bibliography lists 4 sources.
An Overview of Child Development Issues
In 15 pages, the author discusses child development. Children are not just small people. They are developmentally different from adults. This is a major concept that all parents must learn. An infant will develop at his/her own rate within a certain time span. They create their own sense of identity. In fact, it is important for a child to have a sense of identity. Children need to be supplied with the tools for learning and proper development. Child growth and development is the result of human biology, anthropology, medicine, sociology, and psychology. It is not only one area of science or social science. The topic is broad and can be overwhelming if one does not keep in mind the simple concept of nurture verses nature. A child must be nurtured. He/she should not be abused or thrown away. A child is a human being after all, and as such has not only the right to develop but also the right to develop in a manner that is acceptable, normal, healthy, and good for the child. Bibliography lists 12 sources.
Analyzing Suicide A Study in Sociology by Emile Durkheim
This is a 10 page paper discussing Emile Durkheim’s text “Suicide: A Study in Sociology”. Emile Durkheim’s text “Suicide: A Study in Sociology” (1897) was considered one of the first studies in the social sciences which used a purely scientific and methodological approach to study a social phenomenon. Suicide, for the large part, previously was considered an individual act focused upon mainly by psychologists. Durkheim however related the individual act of suicide to the cohesiveness or imbalance within society. According to Durkheim, during the age of industrialization throughout the 1800s, the incidence of suicides increased as a result of the demise of the traditional social institutions such as the church and social guilds which could not be replaced by the goals of wealth and the division of labor. Suicides were the result of an imbalance of two major social forces: social integration and moral regulation. Durkheim’s focus on the influence of social forces on the individual was highly controversial during his time as it undermined the concepts of “free will and individual moral agency”. Nevertheless, Durkheim managed to establish sociology and the social sciences as one of the major areas of study within France and his theories and methods are still considered significant in contemporary sociology, more than a century later.
Bibliography lists 6 sources.
Jewish History and Spain's 'Golden Age'
7 pages in length. Major changes occurred in the 11th century when the Umayyads steadily lost power as the Berbers rose in influence after capturing Cordoba in 1013 CE; the passing decades served as their barometer of progressing power. Cultural and commercial prominence became their focus as capitals and other cities were transformed into Meccas for the two very important elements. As these significant changes were taking place, one more addition would serve to establish an entire population as being both welcomed and honored: the Jews. Indeed, these individuals did not come empty-handed into their newfound environment; rather, they brought with them such important endowments as financial aptitude, politics, economic advisory, as well as a vast amount of humanities-related knowledge in the form of literature, academia and science. The blending of art, linguistics, philosophy, science and medicine rounded out a society that was heretofore underdeveloped in many of these areas. As such, the influence of so many learned Jews soon saw intellectuals and doctors alike holding some of the most important social/legal/political positions in the land. No bibliography.
Robert Louis Stevenson's Autobiographical Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde
A 5 page essay that makes the point that on the surface, there is little to connect The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde to the events that make up the life of its author Robert Louis Stevenson. Jekyll was English; Stevenson was born in Scotland. Jekyll was a scientist, a doctor; Stevenson a lawyer by education and a writer by profession, and, of course, the fundamental premise of the novel, which is that Jekyll transforms into Hyde, is in the realm of science fiction. However, if one looks below the surface and consider this work for what it says about Stevenson's Victorian mindset, autobiographical aspects begin to emerge. Bibliography lists 5 sources.
2 Education Articles Reviewed
A 14 page paper that reviews two articles in the field of education, one of which is quantitative and the other is qualitative. The essay begins with an explanation of quantitative research and qualitative research. Because one of the articles is a case study, this method is also explained. The first article is a study from the UK and addresses a problem of the lack of progress as students transfer to high school. It looks specifically at science performance at year 6 – 8. The second article is a case study of a multilevel interdisciplinary team teaching approach used at a large urban high school. Besides reporting the studies, the writer comments on the research styles of each investigator. Bibliography lists 5 sources.
Concepts and Theories of Geography
9 pages in length. Understanding the spatial components of planet Earth encompasses myriad fields of knowledge; centuries' worth of study has provided the twenty-first century scientific community with the extensive scope it possesses. One of the most important fields from which this knowledge was gleaned is that of geography, a particular science that addresses everything associated with the earth's surface. Working upon the fundamental basis developed by researchers hundreds of years ago, contemporary geographical analysts have the benefits of knowing the planet's how's and why's as it relates to the developed world. Bibliography lists 7 sources.
Witches, Midwives, and Nurses A History of Women Healers by Ehrenreich and English
5 pages in length. The topic of this book evokes a sense of patriarchal control and unmitigated ignorance with regard to the 'science' of medicine and how it has evolved during the past few hundred years. Women's contributions, disregarded and shunned until very recently, have historically been overshadowed by oppressive patriarchal perspectives; by chronicling the events that have occurred throughout the centuries in relation to women and the medical community, Ehrenreich and English help to illustrate just how despotic the entire male-based medical profession has been, particularly in light of the unpleasant legacy left by the witch hunts of old. Bibliography lists 5 sources.
President George W. Bush's 'No Child Left Behind' Act and Its Implementation
5 pages in length. Contemporary society has a significant challenge on its hands: to provide students with a strong enough education to meet the ever-growing standards imposed by society. As a means by which to address this tremendous need, President Bush instituted the No Child Left Behind Act, which calls for the implementation of solutions to what he deems as the ten most important concerns within the nation's school system: Achieving Excellence Through High Standards and Accountability; Improving Literacy by Putting Reading First; Improving Teacher Quality; Improving Math and Science Instruction; Moving Limited English Proficient Students to English Fluency; Promoting Parental Options and Innovative Programs; Encouraging Safe Schools for the 21st Century; Enhancing Education Through Technology; Providing Impact Aid; and Encouraging Freedom and Accountability. Bibliography lists 4 sources.
Independence Day/Film Review
A 5 page film review of Independence Day (1996, directed by Roland Emmerich), which is a film made in the tradition of the grade B science fiction thriller, which is an exemplary film genre that never deserved the derogatory term "grade B" when one considers the pathos, drama, and ability of these adventures to draw in the audience and offer them a glimpse of another reality. In the 1950s and early 60s, Americans watched visions of flying saucers flicker across movie screens in darkened theaters and contemplated the vulnerable position of humanity in a tremendously huge and unknown universe. If known scientific facts did not quite jab with the film's action, no one cared because this was not the point. The point was to become emotionally caught up in the defense of the Earth, which is a cathartic and highly enjoyable experience, and this is what Independence Day offers. Bibliography lists 2 sources.
Scientific and Classical Management
8 pages in length. Classical management carries with it myriad definitions, in particular the need to maintain an atmosphere that is restrained and simple, conforming to established taste of critical standards or adhering to traditional forms. Scientific management, on the other hand, represents the coupling of science and engineering as they relate to work practices as a means by which to augment management control and productivity. Its emergence took place in the forty-year span between 1880 and 1920, where it
was significantly dependent upon machinery in order for work to be appropriately subdivided into highly specialized, routine tasks. From a management point of view, the very foundation of the classical theory was to establish a universal method appropriate for all situations; indeed, it was a search for truth. It was as if the theorists were in search of an end all be all sort of application that would effectively address all questions as to how organizations worked and how managers should managed. Bibliography lists 6 sources.
Erik Erikson: Biography and Theory
20 pages in length. Erik Homberger Erikson, born near Frankfort, Germany in 1902, was the son of Danish parents whose collective aspirations amounted to a tremendous impact upon better understanding human behavior. The foundation of Erikson's prolific influence upon mankind's developmental activities began in an unconventional manner by virtue of art and language courses when one might readily expect him to be immersed within the bounty of science studies more indicative of his ultimate contributions. His distaste for conventional education compelled him to glean a more worldly instruction as only life experiences can provide; as such, he eschewed formal schooling and went to Europe. Erikson's intersection with psychology arrived when he began as an art instructor for American children whose parents traveled to obtain Freud's enlightenment in Vienna. From there he attended the Vienna Psychoanalytic Institute, which led the way for his entrance into America and ultimate status as the first child analyst of Boston; a position at Harvard Medical School soon followed with others at Berkeley, Yale and the Menninger Foundation. Bibliography lists 10 sources.
Behaviorism And Preschool
10 pages in length. Preschool is a time of many challenges for both student and teacher, inasmuch as this particular age group is just learning the tenets of social behavior outside the otherwise insulated aspect of family life. Utilizing the concept of behaviorism within the preschool setting provides the teacher - and parent - with the capacity to identify various behaviors and modify them in order to attain a better academic outcome. The extent to which behaviorism asserts that observable conduct represents the only true aspect of the science of psychology is both grand and far-reaching; that autistic preschoolers represent one population where behaviorism is particularly beneficial speaks to how this approach is both widespread and effective. Bibliography lists 9 sources.
A Review of Max Weber's Construction of Social Theory
Martin Albrow, in his book Max Weber’s Construction of Social Theory, argues that Max Weber provides a long-neglected foundation for sociology, and that the arguments of Weber can be utilized in understanding the sociological premises of a number of other theorists, including Kant and Nietzche. Further, Albrow relates the arguments of Weber to the assertion of the value of sociology as a science, and also defines the link between
the premises of social theory and the development of social philosophy, social psychology and the logical correlation between the two. This 4 page paper reflects the essential arguments in Albrow’s work and considers the implications for evaluating sociological, philosophical and psychological underpinnings. No additional sources cited.
Major Psychological Theories
4 pages in length. The manner by which a human being's mind operates, why people behave in certain ways, how their thoughts and perceptions are generated, and what situations trigger changes in mental clarity or capacity is the core focus of psychology. The challenge of whether or not this branch of science is actually scientific at all has been a long-standing debate with those who contend there is too much interpretation applied for psychology to truly be considered empirical. However, some of the field's major theories have formed the foundation of man gaining a greater understanding of his mind, its power and vulnerabilities. Bibliography lists 5 sources.
Positivism, Behaviorism and Gestalt Psychology
This 3 page paper provides an overview of two sections of questions on psychology. Part 1. What is logical positivism? How is legitimate science consistent with logical positivism? Explain your answer. What is radical behaviorism? What is cognitive psychology? How are radical behaviorism and cognitive psychology similar? How are they different? Part 2. How has the Gestalt view of mental organization in perception and thinking relate to the cognitive psychology paradigm? What is the difference between short-term and long-term memory? What did Donald Broadbent mean when he referenced attention filters, as related to encoding into short-term memory? Bibliography lists 3 sources.
Patient Outcome and Defining the Contribution of Nursing
An 11 page exploration of the relationship which exists between nursing contribution and patient outcome. The author of this paper asserts a more and more predominant theme in nursing is the nurse’s one-on-one interaction with the patient and the consideration of such factors as culture and even spiritualism in patient care delivery. While at one time nursing was a discipline which concentrated primarily on the science of human anatomy and physiology, nursing has evolved to a discipline which recognizes not only the hard scientific facts of physiology but also the importance of psychological and sociological factors. Bibliography lists 8 sources.
Nursing Practice and Pain Management Research
A 10 page paper discussing putting research into nursing practice. There is much research done in the name of furthering practice technique and nursing values. Not all research is of the quality it should be, but even that which is still is difficult to incorporate into practice in many instances. Increasing projects in nursing research are using a qualitative approach, one that typically has been looked askance on by the medical community as not being "real" science because it relies on opinions and attitudes of research subjects rather than on physically measurable (i.e., quantitative) quantities and structures. This paper reviews a well done qualitative work, then applies its findings to pain management in nursing practice. Bibliography lists 9 sources.
Possible Barriers for MSN Pursuit by Registered Nurses
17 pages in length. Furthering one's education within the nursing field is advantageous to both the patient and the nurse; however, there are situations where attaining this higher education is fraught with perceived barriers. In the instance of registered nurses considering returning to school for a Masters of Science in Nursing (MSN), the perceived barriers include issues directly related to time, money and confidence. How these RNs attempt to overcome the perceived barriers inherently associated with attaining an MSN is paramount to the need for better-educated nurses throughout the industry. Several issues are raised when research seeks to find and address the perceived barriers of registered nurses considering returning to school for an MSN, not the least of which include the impact upon the severe nursing shortage, distance learning, decreased costs associated with higher education, as well as compressing the overall time required to attain the degree. Bibliography lists 16 sources.
Friedrich Nietzsche and Nihilism
This is an 11 page paper discussing Nietzsche and the concept of nihilism within his work. German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) is probably best known for his works on nihilism; the belief that all values, truths and morals which have been constructed by man are baseless including those within the Bible. Nietzsche did not originally begin his work in the area in nihilism but throughout his own study and questioning of the theories of truth found in theology, the classics and philosophy which had always been readily accepted for centuries, he concluded that the eventual course of man would be that of nihilism. As man demands more answers through the field of science, many of the traditional theories and religious beliefs will be stripped away. At the same time, humans will begin to realize that they cannot meet the ideals of the invented truth and will not be able to transcend into that “higher world”. Despair follows and man must return to nature and a time of humanity where the invented concepts of “good” versus “evil” are no longer relevant. Beliefs are then based on the singular concepts of each person living each day. However, these ideas are contrary to societal beliefs and the basic structure of society and therefore society as we know it will be destroyed.
Bibliography lists 9 sources.
How Exercise Delays Onset Of Dementia In Alzheimer's Patients: Literature Review
20 pages in length. The natural course of aging takes its toll on both the body and mind; as much significant progress medical technology has made, there are still some aspects of human existence it cannot stop or reverse. Multimodal exercise has long been a highly recommended component of the geriatric health protocol as a method by which to tone muscles, strengthen bones stronger and keep all the bodily systems in good function. Why is it, therefore, that exercise is only just recently being associated with the delay onset of dementia when it has such dramatically positive impact upon the rest of the physiological makeup? Second only to the skin, the human brain is the largest organ in the body that responds to stimuli no differently than others, however, it is also vastly complex when compared to the liver or heart; because medical science still has a very long way to go before the mind's holistic function and capacity is known, new realizations of the mind/body connection will continue to be made, not the least of which includes the growing association between physical activity and staving off dementia. Bibliography lists 19 sources.
Keeping Art In Public Schools
11 pages in length. It has long been realized how the infusion of creativity serves to enhance the overall level of intelligence; as such, students who are in public schools with active arts programs stand to benefit from the synergistic alliance between creativity and intelligence, a coupling that is being threatened by budget cuts and teacher shortages. To attend public school without the advantage of including art is placing students in an environment without culture; clearly, maintaining a schedule of math, science and English does not fulfill the requirements of a well-rounded education. In short, the presence of art programs in public schools "raises SAT scores; improves reading, math, and spatial skills; increases overall academic performance; and builds self-esteem, self-discipline, creativity, community cohesion, and greater tolerance for difference" (Gee 9). As the author points out, the mixed nature of art helps to bridge the divide student populations have with accepting diversity in their lives. With so much being excised from today's public schools, taking away art programs does nothing short of jeopardize the broad-based knowledge that affords greater knowledge, better opportunities and a sense of accomplishment. Bibliography lists 7 sources.
Math Assessment, Authentic Assessment Programs, and Inconsistencies
This is a 10 page paper discussing the interpretative and inconsistent nature of math assessment and possible authentic assessment programs. Several issues relate to the inconsistent and interpretative nature of math assessment within the educational curricula today. Firstly, on a national basis, studies reveal the range in attitudes in regards to importance math assessment has in the overall educational curriculum. While math assessment is often mentioned, its importance does not seem as highly weighted as other aspects of assessment of school performance. Secondly, within the school systems themselves, teachers in mathematics vary a great deal in their teaching practices which can affect assessment; perception of their students’ abilities based on social factors and past performance; perception of the importance of national and consistent assessment; and desired learning outcomes. There are many educational assessment tools which are available. However, assessment tools vary in regards to their expense, time, and curriculum considerations which can affect whether or not the tool can be usefully applied. One of the goals of the U.S. educational system is be “the first in the world in mathematics and science achievement” and some educational programs are trying to fulfill this goal by not only developing consistent national education and assessment programs but programs which are comparative on an international scale, such as that found within the International Baccalaureate Program (IB).
Bibliography lists 10 sources.
G.B. Nash, C. Crabtree, and R.E. Dunn's History on Trial Culture Wars and the Teaching of the Past
This is a 6 page paper discussing the book “History on Trial: Culture Wars and the Teaching of the Past” (1997). The publication of “History on Trial: Culture Wars and the Teaching of the Past” which describes the heated controversy surrounding the formation of the National History Standards in the mid-1990s, has in itself several controversial issues which makes it a useful tool in discussion forums in the social sciences. The authors of the text, Gary B. Nash, Charlotte Crabtree and Ross E. Dunn were involved in the selection of the committee working on the standards and have provided a background look at the events which took place during the development of the standards. Different issues discussed were the fact that while several historians approved of the constant updating and reinterpretation of historical events in the past and the inclusion of addition of multicultural issues while others believe that history as it has traditionally been taught should not be altered to any extent. The authors provide criticism of their own critics but their close proximity to the situation also provides additional limitations to the work which is provided to the reader as highly subjective in its context. Overall however, it is in a sense a historical document in its own right which like any other event from history is open for discussion or controversy and widely resembles many of the points outlined by the authors.
Bibliography lists 4 sources.
Cinematic Structure and Coding of the Film Gone with the Wind
This is an 11 page paper discussing the use of structure and code in film. Structuralism and semiotics and their use of codes and cues to define the underlying structures in society were first theories applied to the social sciences and then to the world of narrative literature. Marx and Freud further used semiotics to demonstrate how codes can be used effectively to psychologically affect those within society. Using this premise, during the early days of feature films semiotics were used to analyze the underlying structures of films. A good example of cinematic coding is used in the classic film “Gone with the Wind” made in 1939. The film uses coding on two different levels to define the structures within society. Firstly, the film uses references and themes relevant to the era of the Civil War depicted in the film. Secondly, and probably more importantly, the film uses coding to define the structure of society during the 1930s when the film was made. Specific contrasts of bad and good, black and white, pure and scandalous, affluence and poverty are portrayed using visual, narrative and auditory codes.
Bibliography lists 7 sources.
Contemporary Studies of Formative Sexual Experiences
This is a 15 page paper discussing formative sexual experiences. Formative sexual experiences are those which relate to initial sexual intercourse and in most social science investigations are based on heterosexual relations. Chapter 9: Formative Sexual Experiences in “The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States” by Laumann et al in 1994, reports the trends found in a national survey done in the United States. Generally, it was found by the investigators that there has been a steady decline in age over the past forty years in regards to first intercourse and this is consistent with other studies. Other results of the study found that men’s motive for their first sexual experience is largely that of sexual curiosity while women motivations are more emotionally based. Other results found that one in twenty women reported being forced for her first sexual intercourse and a substantial proportion of men and women reported preadolescent sexual conduct with adults. In relation to other studies conducted, Laumann’s results are consistent with those reported in the United States but some factors differ from studies conducted in other areas of the world such as New Zealand, Norway, and Thailand to name a few. While all studies reported that the age of initial sexual experience is declining, the long lasting effects on relationships are not always considered to be negative as reported in a New Zealand study and females and males differ in their sexual motivations in Nordic society. The differences in the studies are often based on the differences on the social norms and structures of each society and because of this Laumann’s report can only be taken in the context of American society in the early 1990s.
Bibliography lists 11 sources.
Culture, Demographics and Socioeconomics of the Black American Family
This is a 6 page paper discussing the demographic, socio-economic and cultural characteristics of African American families. Studies of demographic, socio-economic and cultural characteristics of African American families and communities have shown that overall, African Americans report lower incomes, lower education, higher unemployment and poverty rates, and higher mortality and suicide rates than most White communities in the United States. All of these factors have improved over the last decade and unemployment was reported at an all time low in the last U.S. Census. Despite these adversities however, a large percentage of African American families have succeeded in their educational and professional careers. It is believed that this “resilience” is enhanced by several cultural support characteristics which exist within the African American families and their communities. Most African Americans have reported that their most difficult challenges are based on racism and oppressive factors rather than factors which relate to their family or socio-economic status. Racism, oppression, and segregation are also believed to be some of the primary differences in the mortality and suicide rates in the African American population from the white population. In social science studies and in relation to agencies which wish to establish social support groups to help African American families, all of the cultural, socio-economic, and demographic differences must be taken into account.
Bibliography lists 6 sources.