Research Papers on Mixed Issues in Science

Click on any of the term papers to read a brief synopsis of the research paper. The essay synopsis includes the number of pages and sources cited in the paper.

  • Difference Between Qualitative v. Quantitative Research

    A 3 page research paper that discusses the difference between qualitative and quantitative research, responding to the way in which Denzin and Lincoln (2007) describe this issue. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Design, Empirical Research, and Scientific Method

    A 4 page research paper that discusses the processes involved in the scientific method and how this works in regards to empirical research and also how scientists decide on research design, that is, qualitative or quantitative methods. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Critique of Harrison, Evans, Johnston, and Loughnans' 'Bedside Assessment of Heel Lance Pain in the Hospitalized Infant'

    A 9 page overview of the procedures and findings in this study designed to provide a quantitative analysis of pain in neonates when undergoing a heel lance procedure. This study is unique in that it evaluates the feasibility of assessing pain among a particular difficult population, newborn infants who can not verbally communicate their pain or allow the researcher any means of utilizing patient self-assessment of pain as can occur in older patients. While some behavioral and physiological manifestations such as facial expression and heart rate were determined to be reliable indicators of pain others such as body movement were found unreliable. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Research Summaries and Analysis

    A 3 page research paper that summarizes 3 studies, one quantitative, one qualitative and one mixed method on ADHD and offers an opinion as to which method is the best. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • The Forest Biome

    This 10 page paper is a PowerPoint presentation with accompanying notes. The presentation looks at temperate forest biomes, giving general background on biomes to place the temperate forest biome in the broader context, looks at the characteristics and gives examples of different types of symbiotic relationships and compares this to a freshwater biome which may boarder with it. The bibliography cites 5 sources.

  • Hypoxia in the Ocean

    Hypoxia is the serious phenomenon of water bodies suffering depletion in oxygen levels. This 7 page paper explains what hypoxia is, how it occurs including the impact of issues such as water mix, temperature and pollutions with nutrients before looking at the results of hypoxia. The paper is made up of 4 pages of text followed by three pages with PowerPoint slides for a presentation on the subject. The bibliography cites 2 sources.

  • Difference between Qualitative and Quantitative Research Methods

    A 4 page research paper that includes a brief abstract. overview of the quantitative and qualitative research methodology describes the differences between these two major approaches to research. The philosophical and worldviews of each methodology is described, along with how the differences in each methodology's basic assumptions influences the strategies that are implemented in order to accomplish research objectives. Furthermore, the report encompasses why one method is chosen over the other, the basic parameters of the quantitative/qualitative debate and the fact that many researchers combine these methodologies in order to investigate their subject matter more thoroughly. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Brain Structures and Learning/Memory

    This 3 page paper provides an overview of the neuroanatomy of learning and memory, with specific focus on the cortical and subcortical structures involved. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • 3 Quantitative Research Examples

    A 9 page paper comparing three examples of quantitative research. Taking three published examples from the medical field the author illustrates how quantitative research can vary dramatically both in its design and its effectiveness. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Steps in Quantitative Research Analysis

    A 5 page paper which provides a step-by-step approach to conducting quantitative research analysis. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Difference Between Qualitative and Quantitative Research

    A 3 page research paper that discusses the differences between quantitative and qualitative research, as well as the debate ongoing in the scientific community about which is best. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Quantitative Research and 3 Examples

    A 9 page review of three examples of quantitative research. The author reviews three diverse examples of quantitative to illustrate how that research can vary dramatically both in its design and its effectiveness. Bibliography lists 3 sources. PPrschR2.rtf

  • Contrast and Comparison of Quantitative and Qualitative Research Approaches

    This 5 page paper compares and contrasts these two types of research methods. This paper presents the pro's and con's associated with both and seeks to illustrate which is better for particular situations. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Research Methods, Quantitative vs. Qualitative

    This is a 20 page paper comparing and contrasting qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative research methods are considerably different from those of quantitative research methods. Qualitative research methods are considered to be more dynamic, interactive and holistic in their approach than quantitative methods which are considered more deductive in their reasoning, objective in their observations, more defined and static in their collection, analysis and reporting. While qualitative methods provide for more narrative and detailed reports of certain phenomenon, quantitative methods allow for the study of larger populations and therefore can allow for more generalizations about a phenomenon. Whichever method is used for a particular study, researchers agree that the method should be appropriate for the subject being studied. Largely, quantitative methods are used in the physical sciences whereas studies in the social sciences lean toward qualitative methods or a combination of both research methods. Both methods are also supported by different aspects of quality, credibility, reliability and validity throughout their methodology. Bibliography lists 22 sources.

  • Research and Statistics

    This 3 page paper provides an overview of the following questions: Part 1. Take a look at some journal articles. What did you find? Are they mostly quantitative or qualitative or are most of them a mix? Part 2. How do you understand the phrase,"Pie charts should never be used because they waste ink on non-data components and lack an appropriate scale?" Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Overview of the Central Nervous System

    This power point presentation includes six slides and two pages of speaker notes on the central nervous system, complete with diagrams. Please contact the company to ensure that the PowerPoint file is sent: MHcennersy.doc Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Parkinsons and the Media

    This is a 5 page paper that provides an overview of the media's perspective on Parkinson's disease. Media sources are compared to scientific articles in the context of a Power Point presentation. Bibliography lists 14 sources.

  • Education Research, Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis

    12 pages in length. Quantitative research should begin with an idea that is usually articulated as a hypothesis by the researcher which then, through measurement, generates data and then by deduction allows a conclusion to be drawn. In contrast to this method, qualitative research begins with intent to review a certain area. The researcher then collects data through observations and interviews and generates his or her ideas and hypotheses from these data. These inferences are largely made through what is known as inductive reasoning. The strength of the quantitative approach is in its reliability or the repeatability of the pattern. The same measurements should yield the same results every time. The strength of qualitative research lies in its validity or closeness to the truth. That means that good qualitative research, by using a diverse number of data collection methods, should actually touch the core of what is going on rather than just skimming the surface of the facts. The validity of qualitative methods is greatly improved upon by using a combination of research methods. This is a process known as triangulation and is used by independent analysis of the data by more than one researcher. The writer discusses how qualitative and quantitative research methods apply to research in education. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Research Question and the Hypothesis

    A 3 page short discussion of this topic that addresses both quantitative and qualitative research methods. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Research Methodology Issues

    An 11 page research paper that addresses multiple issues pertaining to how research is conducted. The writer defines numerous terms and discusses the differences between quantitative and qualitative research, inductive and deductive reasoning and also the advantages of mixed method research studies, among other topics. Bibliography lists 26 sources.

  • No Aging in India by Lawrence Cohen

    A 15 page analysis of Lawrence Cohen's book No Aging in India. Cohen's approach is essentially that of a medical anthropologist as he explores how cultures comprehend the body and its behavior in time. No additional sources cited.

  • Human Societies and Physical Geography

    A paper which considers the importance of particular geographical features and phenomena in relation to the way in which human beings interact with the environment, and the importance of geography as a scientific and sociological discipline in terms of the way it allows the study of social change in reference to the physical environment. Bibliography lists 5 sources

  • Geography According to Carl Sauer and Ellen Churchill Semple

    This 5 page paper provides an overview of Sauer and Semple's views on geography. The works of Carl Sauer and Ellen Churchill Semple represent a considerable body of work on geography, environmental issues and the impacts of humans on the world. Though Sauer and Semple have developed distinct views of the processes of geographic change, Sauer is often considered to be in direct opposition to Semple's environmental determinism and human ecology. This paper considers this supposition. Bibliography lists two sources.

  • Geography in the Future

    This 5 page paper examines two different articles on geography as a discipline. Are external factors more influential than in the past? Why is this the case? How the discipline is viewed and why things should change are issues examined in the scope of this thoughtful piece. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Overview of Arizona's Pima County

    8 pages in length. The writer discusses the human aspect (population, ethnic diversity, economics) and physical geography (habitat, climate, vegetation) of Pima County, Arizona. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • Mt. Saint Helens

    This 12 page paper discusses the geography and geologic information regarding Mount Saint Helen's Volcano. Furthermore, an in-depth history of the volcano is given as well as the effects of its most recent eruption in 1980. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • International Relations from a Geographic Perspective

    This 7 page paper discusses the impact of geography on international relations. Bibliography lists 12 sources.

  • Concepts and Theories of Geography

    9 pages in length. Understanding the spatial components of planet Earth encompasses myriad fields of knowledge; centuries' worth of study has provided the twenty-first century scientific community with the extensive scope it possesses. One of the most important fields from which this knowledge was gleaned is that of geography, a particular science that addresses everything associated with the earth's surface. Working upon the fundamental basis developed by researchers hundreds of years ago, contemporary geographical analysts have the benefits of knowing the planet's how's and why's as it relates to the developed world. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Hurricanes of the North Atlantic Climate and Society by James B. Elsner and A. Birol Kara

    This is a 5 page book review of James B. Elsner and A. Birol Kara’s text “Hurricanes of the North Atlantic: Climate and Society” (1999). James B. Elsner and A. Birol Kara’s text “Hurricanes of the North Atlantic: Climate and Society” (1999) is considered an extensive scientific text authored by two well established researchers in their areas of expertise. The book written by a professor of meteorology and geography at Florida State University and a contractor for the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory of NASA uses historical and scientific studies to assess the hurricane activity and consequences in the North Atlantic while providing the reader with prediction models, historical data sets, statistics and the “societal vulnerability to hurricanes”. Overall, Book News (1999) considers it “of likely interest to meteorologists, climatologists, and economists, as well as decision makers in government and industry”. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Cinematic Explanation of Sciences' Gender Gap

    This 7 page paper examines the portrayal of strong women scientists in two films: Laura Dern as Ellie in Jurassic Park and Margaret Sheridan as Nikki in the 1950s classic, The Thing from another World and why, despite the popularity of such women in film, they do not hold comparable positions in the real world. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Unmanned Space Travel and its History

    A 9 page paper that provides a history of unmanned space flight that has lead up to the Mars Pathfinder mission and the interrelationship of all of those missions to the eventual human habitation of another planets, namely, Mars. The quest for Mars was begun 40 years ago, and all of the space exploration to date, manned or unmanned, including discoveries about earth and the universe, have been made toward this purpose. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Overview on the History of Dental Fillings

    An 8 page discussion of the history of dental fillings. Traces the filling from ancient times to present exploring the various types of materials which were used. Explains that the choice of filling is related to performance but also to availability and cost. Notes that the evolutionary path of fillings is tied as well to the evolutionary paths of other dentistry aspects such as drill evolution and the development of molding techniques and materials. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • A Brief History of Time by Stephen Hawking

    A 5 page book report on the renowned scientist’s consideration of the significance of time in the universe. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Aloe's History and Use

    A 10 page paper which presents an examination of the history and the uses of the aloe plant. Bibliography lists 15 sources.

  • History and Future Promises of Space Exploration

    An 8 page overview of the timeless attraction of space and how that attraction has translated into space exploration programs. This paper traces the history of space exploration and contend that this exploration has the potential to result in more than just satisfying academic curiosity. Space exploration, in fact, directly benefits mankind in a number of ways. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Steven Shapin's A Social History of Truth and The Leviathan and the Air Pump

    This 10 page paper discusses, compares and contrasts Steven Shapin's two books, 'A Social History of Truth' and 'The Leviathan and the Air-Pump'. The major themes and thesis of each are outlined. Examples and quotes cited from texts with page numbers. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Romantic Era and History of Science

    A 5 page paper discussing the qualities of the period of 1770-1830 in scientific advancement. The age of enlightenment is associated with order and reason; progress and change belongs to the 19th century. A.L. DeJussieu (1748 – 1836), C.F. Mirbel (1776 – 1854) and K Sprengel (1766 – 1833) all quietly contributed to the advancement of science in general - and botany in particular – during this time that would prove to provide preparation for rapidly-occurring advances in the future. Growing knowledge of what was ultimately led to speculation of what could be. By the end of the Romantic Period in 1830, the focus shifted toward work that could effect change, rather than merely explain why things existed as they did. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • Cooperation History and Evolution

    This 6 page paper critically evaluates the statement that evolution is the history of co-operation. This is discussed from the perspective of evolutionary biology and looks at many types of organisms form soil bacterium through to bees and human life. The occurrence of cooperation and reasons for its’ occurrence and the way in which it is ensured, The paper also considers different types of cooperation before reaching a conclusion. The bibliography cites 10 sources.

  • Early Europe, Scientific Theory Development, and Counterfactual History

    An 11 page exploration of the way society repressed scientific fact in Europe, between 1000 A.D and 1800 A.D. The toll this repression took was a delay in the development of muchmore advanced knowledge. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • A Review of Literature Regarding Cotton Harvest Aids

    16 pages. This is an extensive literature review on the topic of harvest aid chemicals and timings on cottonseed that are to be re-used for planting purposes. Some topics included are the cool/warm vigor index, seed index, and chemicals used. Bibliography includes 30 sources.

  • Amino Acids, Enzymes, and Proteins

    A 4 page overview of the structure and function of proteins, enzymes, and amino acids. Details how structure affects function. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Amino Acids, Proteins and Cell Structure

    This 4 page paper explores the importance of amino acids as well as the structure of the eukaryotic cells. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Benzilic Acid Multi Step Synthetic Process

    This 6 page laboratory study considers the multi-step synthesis process in the creation of benzilic acid. The project proposes the use of benzaldehyde and potassium cyanide and the focus on the varied steps in order to synthesize benzilic acid. This study reviews the procedures, outlines the findings relative to this process, and produces some data regarding the process in order to show the impacts of each step in the process. The multi-step synthesis approach and the use of specific agents are central to the views created in this study. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Streptococcus mutans and Acid Tolerance

    A 14 page discussion of the physiological mechanism employed by this species of oral bacteria which allow it to exist in the rapidly fluctuating pH levels of the human mouth. The author details how the cellular membrane of the organism is critical in this process, selectively allowing protons to pass out of the cell and preventing them from passing into the cell. This ability allows S. mutans a selective advantage. Acidogenicity (the ability to generate acid) and acidurance (the ability to function in an acidic environment) are the primary physiological traits of this organism which make it such an important factor in the production of dental caries as well. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Hydronic Systems and Heating Loads

    A 5 page paper discussing the benefits of boiler-based heating systems for various types of heat loads. In years past, the boiler system was considered to be most useful in only large commercial applications, but it quickly is becoming standard in residential and light industrial use as well. The paper discusses some of the theoretical (i.e., Newtonian) underpinnings of hydronic operation as well as the fluid mechanics aspects. No equations. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Radiation, Convection, and Conducton Heat Transfer Mechanisms

    This 6 page paper examines heat transference mechanisms. The paper stars with a good overview of how heat is transferred and the equation for heat transfer rates. Following this the three different mechanisms; conduction, convection and radiation are each examined. The bibliography cites 1 source.

  • Physics and the Catapult

    A 4 page discussion of the catapult. This paper describes the design of the catapult and how changing different aspects of that design can change its efficiency. Bibliography lists sources.

  • A Look at Chameleons

    A 5 page overview of the group of animals we know as chameleons. The author provides a specific phylogenetic classification of these animals from Kingdom to Species, noting the similarities in evolutionary pattern with other vertebrates and distinguishing the chameleon from other lizards on the basis of key taxonomic criteria. A discussion of the ecology of the group as a whole is presented as is a brief notation on the endangered status of one specific example of this group, Chamaeleo belalandaensis. A detailed explanation of how and why the chameleon changes color is included as well. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Great Plains and Severe Weather

    A 4 page paper that identifies where Tornado Alley is and why it has that nickname. The essay explains what a tornado is and how scientist think it is formed. Some examples of tornadoes are provided. The essay comments on the development of the Great Plains region and how people deal with tornadoes today. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • United States Navy and Its Weather Collection Data and Strategic Impact

    A 6 page discussion of the importance of data collection and statistical analyses in the U.S. Navy. The author emphasizes the importance of understanding weather patterns drives much of the Navy's data collection and analyses efforts. Being able to predict the weather can mean the difference between success or failure. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Chemistry of Boron

    A 4 page research paper that discusses the chemistry of boron. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Science Studies and Varied Topics

    This 3 page paper provides an overview of three different topics that can impact the study of science: plagairism, dynamic equlibrium, and carbonic acid/bicarbonate buffer system. There is one page provided on each of these topics. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Genetic Diversity and Extinction

    This 5 page paper considers the question of whether extinction is a necessary part of the survival of the species. The question of whether extinction of certain species will inherently reduce genetic diversity has been at the center of recent debates. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Hawaiian Island's Monk Seal Endangered Species

    7 pages. The Hawaiian monk seal is an endangered species. There are only six breeding locations left in the northwestern Hawaiian Islands. This paper will focus on how and why the population has begun to decline and the problem of genetic variability in some of the breeding populations which inevitably leads to problems within the species. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Rice That is Genetically Engineered

    This 3 page paper evaluates two articles about genetically engineered (GE) rice, the so-called "Golden Rice"; and suggests that these two sources alone are not enough to decide the debate. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Gravitational Force and Mass

    A 5 page exploration of the hypothesis that " The mass of an object has no effect on the acceleration of a falling object". The author explores this hypothesis in relation to Newton's Constant for Gravitational force and pulls projects from the literature to illustrate that relationship. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Lab Notes for Acceleration Under Gravity

    This is a 3 page paper that provides an overview of acceleration under gravity. It discusses practical applications of the formula. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Antenna Levitation and Human Diamagnetism Gravity

    A 3 page investigation of the physics behind party levitation whcih is sometimes accomplished in the game “Light as a Feather, Stiff as a Board”. In this game a volunteer is lifted off the ground from either a prone position or while seated in a chair using just the fingers of four assistants. Diamagnetism is explained in this context. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Nurture Wins in the Nature versus Nurture Debate

    A 3 page research paper/essay that examines the nature v. nurture debate and argues in favor of nurture. The "nature versus nurture" debate has been going on now for over a century, as it began in the nineteenth century when a cousin of Charles Darwin, Francis Galton, came up with the idea of "improving" the human race through "selective breeding" (Hogenboom 1402). Since that time the pendulum has swung back and forth with either "nature" (that is, the influence of inherited traits) or "nurture" (the influence of the environment) being predominant among scholars. However, considering the latest research, the indications are that nurture is more important than nature in making us who and what we are. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Honey Bee's Behavior and Evolution

    This 20 page paper looks at the evolution and behavior of the honey bee and why it is significant in the scheme of things. How this bee provides an example of how the world is ordered is explored. The argument from design is provided as well. It is suggested that the honey bee's behavior and makeup is so precise that it is reasonable to assume there was a designer. Bibliography lists 12 sources.

  • Debating Shoeing Horses

    A 3 page paper discussing the implications of shoeing horses. The bottom line appears to be that shoes are beneficial in offering protection where it is needed and in correcting existing hoof problems, but that all horses do not need to be routinely shoed without assessing the conditions in which they live and work. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Why Ships Float and Nails Sink

    This 3 page paper explores one of the most basic and most mysterious forces in nature: buoyancy. It explains why a heavy steel ship can float but a steel nail sinks. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Population Genetics A Literature Review

    This 14 page paper reviews seven article in population genetics. Species considered varies from microbes, to insects, to birds, to humans. No additional sources are listed.

  • The Human Genome Project and Genetics

    A 12 page overview of the field of genetics. Emphasizing the significance of Gregor Mendel’s work in the nineteenth century and detailing the findings of that work, the author outlines the evolution of knowledge which has occurred in the field of Mendelian Genetics. Bibliography lists 12 sources.

  • Human Interaction with Other Humans and Machines

    This 3 page paper uses articles by Robin Marantz Henig and DeNeen Brown to explore the way humans relate to robots as opposed to how they relate to humans. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Trinucleotide Expansion in Huntington's Disease

    A 3 page overview of the trinucleotide expansions within the huntingtin protein that result in the extension of polyQ-encoding repeats. Bibliography lists sources.

  • Hydraulic Pressure Intensification and Industrial Fluid Power

    5 pages. Industrial fluid power and hydraulic pressure intensification are discussed in detail in this informative paper. Information includes such things as useful applications of fluid power, types of intensifiers and intensifier construction. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Hydrogen Fuel as a Renewable Energy Source

    This 7 page paper examines the health and environmental benefits of renewable sources of energy versus their fossil fuel counterparts. More specifically, this paper examines the benefits of hydrogen fuel cells, their impact upon the environment, and their future applications. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • An Overview of Fuel Cell Technology

    A 22 page paper that provides a comprehensive overview of fuel cell technology. Discussion includes: an introduction to fuel cells, what they are, how they work and the types of fuel cells in research; applications for fuel cell technology, including those that are already in use; fuel cell-powered motor vehicles and what the progress is in this industry, including manufacturers who have already introduced fuel cell-powered cars and the forecasts for the near future; issues concerning hydrogen; problems and disadvantages with fuel cells and a conclusion. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • The Benefits of Using Hydrogen

    A 3 page paper. This paper briefly explains the first two laws of thermodynamics and then discusses why hydrogen is a viable alternative to fossil fuels. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Overview and Analysis of Spatial Ecology

    This 5 page paper gives an overview of spatial ecology and analysis. Problems with this type of research and theory are presented. Examples of studies done utilizing spacial patterning of biodiverse groups given. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • New Planets' Discovery and Infrared Astronomy

    This 10 page paper provides an overview of infrared technology and how it is used to discover planets that exist beyond the known solar system. A great deal of information is presented on the technology as well as information on recently discovered planets. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Comparing Solar Cells with Plant Cells

    A 4 page research paper that discusses the similarities and differences between solar cells and plant cells, that is, the process of photosynthesis. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Religious Diversity, Biology, and Memes

    A 12 page research paper that examines a variety of questions concerning biology and current ideas about how it interacts with religion. Topics explored include memes and the work of Susan Blackmore, Consilience by Edward O. Wilson, the work of Gould and Wolfram, and more. Bibliography lists 12 sources.

  • Life and Contributions of Sir Isaac Newton

    This 11 page paper begins with a brief biography of Sir Isaac Newton. His major ideas, discoveries, inventions and works are identified. The Newton - Leibniz calculus controversy is discussed. Those who influenced Newton's works are identified. His legacy and impact in the fields of mathematics and science as well as the world's beliefs about the nature of the universe are discussed. The writer also comments on the role of the apple in Newton's thoughts about gravity. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Overview of the Engine of a Jet

    This 7 page paper examines the jet engine. Various types are relayed. How the engine works is a primary part of this paper. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Human Brain's Recognition of Objects

    This 5 page paper considers the complex subject of how objects are recognised by the human brain. The paper starts with the concept of structural decomposition and recognition by components and then moves onto the ideas of Humphrey and multiple view theories. The bibliography cites 10 sources.

  • Nanotechnology: The Pros and Cons

    This is a 6 page paper that provides an overview of nanotechnology. Issues related to economics, ethics, and the environment are explored. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • European Union's Nanotechnology

    A paper which looks at the way in which technical assessment on nanotechnology in the EU might be carried out, in order to fulfill the requirements of all stakeholders and involve the public in dialogue on the issue. Bibliography lists 5 sources

  • Advantages and Disadvantages of Warfare Nanotechnology

    This 7 page paper looks at the science of nanotechnology that can create innovative and powerful tools for warfare. Its use in communications, maintenance and other factors are discussed. Potential positive and negative effects of this type of technology are included. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Carbon Cycle and Photosynthesis

    7 pages in length. The cycle of life is present in myriad forms -- from birds dispersing seedlings far and wide to bees pollinating flowers to animals propagating their respective species -- providing for the survival of every living thing on this planet. The symbiotic relationship that exists between each two elements in the above examples illustrates how the lifecycle could not perpetuate itself if one of them were missing, a point just as pertinent when examining how soil and seed make food as when analyzing the interdependence of photosynthesis and the carbon cycle, with coral reefs representing a most appropriate example of this association. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Soil and Photosynthesis Significance in the Growth of Plants

    A 6 page review of the importance of soil and photosynthesis to plant growth. The author identifies the nutrients of concern for plants as well as other environmental parameters that can affect their growth. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Overview of Photosynthesis

    A 5 page overview of photosynthesis. This paper provides a brief history of the early discoveries that were relevant to photosynthesis, an overview of the limiting factors affecting it, an outline of the light and dark processes, modern representations of photosynthesis, and a recap of the value of photosynthesis in nature. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Answers to five questions concering Photosynthesis and Other Topics

    A 4 page research paper that offers brief answers to 5 science questions. Topics covered include photosynthesis (why it's vital to life); what other source of energy could life have used (hydrothermals); lipids; difference between organic and inorganic molecules and difference between dominant and recessive genes. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Photosynthesis: Definition and Process

    A 3 page overview of photosynthesis and its important to plants and the world as a whole. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • A 'Smart' Antenna for Cell Phones

    A 6 page paper discussing the development and use of the “smart” antenna as a method of reducing the level of radiation exposure resulting from cellular telephone use. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Literature Review, Scientific and Ethics Research

    This 20-page paper evaluates the problems of ethics in scientific research. Issues discussed include misconduct (such as fabricating, falsifying and plagerism) as well as the tie between corporate funding and scientific research. The paper is mainly a literature review of the topic. Bibliography lists 20 sources.

  • Boiling Water and Salt's Impact

    A Literature Review: 5 pages. The effect of salt on boiling water is an interesting phenomenon. This literature review describes five articles that deal with this subject and give various fact and figures regarding salt and boiling water as well as explanations regarding the reason we have two types of temperature measurements, Celsius and Fahrenheit. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Gravitational Force and Mass

    A 5 page exploration of the hypothesis that " The mass of an object has no effect on the acceleration of a falling object". The author explores this hypothesis in relation to Newton's Constant for Gravitational force and pulls projects from the literature to illustrate that relationship. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Genetically Modified Plants/Pro & Con

    A 3 page research paper that discusses this issue of genetically modified (GM) plants. The writer discusses literature both pro and con and concludes that GM foods are a part of society's future, whether for good or ill. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Statistical Analysis in a Study

    A 3 page research paper that analyzes a specific study in regards to the researchers' use of ANOVA analysis. The writer describes the study's null and alternative hypotheses, citing literature that provides definitions for these factors. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Enzyme Rubisco and Cellular Transport

    A 4 page discussion of the function of the enzyme rubisco in regard to its importance in plant photosynthesis. The author describes the enzyme, detailing a molecular composition which enables it to interact with and be impacted by environmental constituents such as heat, carbon dioxide, and inactive rubisco. This same molecular composition plays an important role in the binding process which allows the enzyme to be transported throughout plant tissue. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • DOES OBJECTIVITY OR SUBJECTIVITY DESCRIBE HOW HUMANS GAIN KNOWLEDGE?

    5 pages in length. Man's understanding of his world is based within a dual foundation of finite concepts and varying interpretation. Mathematics and science, for example, are instrumental in establishing knowledge as an objective reality that rejects any semblance of subjectivity; its empirical nature requires the line from A to B to reflect a straight and unbroken line of evidences that no matter how many times reenacted will produce the same outcome. Philosophy, on the other hand, was created from the very essence of subjective opinion and could no more function under the stringent guidelines of objectivity than could math or science be considered intuitive. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Chapters Eight and Nine Summaries of Warren McCabe, Julian Smith, and Peter Harriott's Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering

    This 7 page paper is a summary of Chapter 8; Transportation and metering of fluids and Chapter 9 Agitation and mixing of liquids from the book Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by Warren McCabe, Julian Smith and Peter Harriott.

  • Pest Management Integration Benefits

    5 pages. The purpose of integrated pest management is to utilize the management of destruction by pests to crops and other agriculture with as little damage to the environment as possible. By using a system of integration we can cut down on the harmful chemicals and poisons that often harm the ecological balance. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • The Mathematical Contributions of Albert Einstein

    A 5 page paper that reports Einstein's first three papers that led to a new perception of the universe, from evidence for the existence of molecules and atoms to his general theory of relativity that led to a new understanding of the universe, including space, time, motion and gravity. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Field of Biopsychology

    This 5 page paper discusses the field of biopsychology, as well as the connection between it and ADD. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Cross Membrane Transport and Molecular Mixtures in Joe Alper's Article 'Drug Delivery Breaching the Membrane'

    A 5 page review of “Drug Delivery: Breaching the Membrane”, an article by Joe Alper published in the May 3, 2002 edition of “Science”. Alper’s (2002) research concentrates on the cell membrane and the manner in which cross-membrane transport occurs, specifically the manner in which membrane-bound protein transporters function to allow various nutrients and hormones across. Alper’s paper adds insight to both the structure and function of the cell membrane and its components and how each relates to the molecular structure of the body’s complex mixture of chemicals. No additional sources are listed.

  • Copernian Revolution and Pseudoscience

    This 3 page paper discusses pseudoscience. An example is made of a website sporting claims about the prehistory of mankind and UFOs. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • Overview of Oceanography

    A 5 page paper. Oceanography is the study of the earth's oceans. The different subfields are explained. Chemical oceanography is emphasized and discussed. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Benthic Storms

    A 7-page paper that defines the undersea disturbances known as benthic storms and examines the causes and effects of these disturbances. Included is a discussion of the components of the sediment existing in the benthic zone and how these components are suspended and transported by way of the undersea currents that create and push benthic storms. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Salt Water Ocean of Jupiter's Europa

    A 5 page discussion of the data which points to the existence of an ocean on Europa, one of Jupiter's sixteen moons. Detected by the space probe Galileo, such an ocean provides promise of evidence of past life on the planet. Outlines the types of exploration which could be utilized to more fully explore this possibility. Emphasizes the need for such exploration in terms of the potential benefit to man. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Overlying Atmospheric Circulation System and Ocean Currents

    A 5 page discussion of the relationship between ocean currents and the overlying atmospheric circulation system. Both ocean circulation systems and atmospheric systems have definitive patterns which are comparable in their nature and both function in much the same way in regard to the manner which they move through the world. The author discusses the causes and effects of this interrelationship, noting important phenomena like hurricanes and the ability of the world’s currents to transport not only sedimentary material but man himself. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Ocean Floor's Hydrothermal Vents

    A 9 page overview of this recently discovered geologic phenomena. This paper provides a description of hydrothermal vents as well as a detailed overview of their geology and the biology which they drive. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Hypoxia in the Ocean

    Hypoxia is the serious phenomenon of water bodies suffering depletion in oxygen levels. This 7 page paper explains what hypoxia is, how it occurs including the impact of issues such as water mix, temperature and pollutions with nutrients before looking at the results of hypoxia. The paper is made up of 4 pages of text followed by three pages with PowerPoint slides for a presentation on the subject. The bibliography cites 2 sources.

  • Why Ocean Exploration Should be Funded at the Same Rate as Space Exploration

    This 3 page paper argues that although space exploration has discovered products and processes that are important, the study of the oceans, and particularly their connection to global warming, is at least as important, and should be funded. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Why California Won’t Fall into the Ocean

    This 3 page paper explains why California will not fall into the Pacific, though it will continue to experience earthquakes. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • The Ocean Basins

    This is a 5 page paper that provides an overview of the ocean basins. Ecological concerns involving polar ice cap reduction are cited. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Avoiding Most Devastating Tsunami Effects

    A 3 page paper discussing the Indian Ocean tsunami. On December 26, 2004, two tectonic plates that have been opposing each other for millennia shifted under the earth’s surface, resulting in an earthquake under the Indian Ocean. The earthquake shook the earth enough to change time, albeit only by microseconds. The greater consequence was that the earthquake displaced an immense volume of water. The final result was that the tsunami created by the earthquake killed more than all 20th century tsunamis combined. There was no warning. There were, however, actions that people in the affected areas could take. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • "The Way of a Ship"

    This 3 page paper takes its inspiration from the novel "The Way of a Ship" by Derek Lundy to explore the ocean conditions around Cape Horn. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Hydrothermal Vents' Geology

    A 9 page discussion of the unique geology of hydrothermal vents. The subterranean processes which result in these vents also results in the expulsion of numerous minerals to the surface of the ocean floor. These mineral deposits form distinctive features which are potentially valuable not only from an aesthetic and ecological standpoint but mining standpoint. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • Gender, Brain Structure, and Sexual Dimorphism

    A 10 page discussion of the differences which exist between males and females in terms of brain structure. There is no contesting the fact that there are structural differences between male and female brains. These differences are found in numerous species of vertebrates and, in fact, in human beings themselves. Just what these differences mean, however, is a subject of considerable debate. While brain size in particular seems to be linked to greater intelligence for many species, no definitive proof exists that human males are any more intelligent than human females. The manner in which males and females process information, however, does differ significantly. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • An Infrared Light Exploration

    An 8 page discussion of infrared as it relates to the color spectrum, astronomical phenomena, gemstone coloration, and even psychology. This paper defines infrared light and describes its importance to mankind and the workings of our universe in general. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Misunderstanding Homosexuality and Gay Relationships from Psychological, Biological, and Social Perspectives:

    In seven pages this paper examines the impetus for the gay riots and subsequent Gay Revolution that took place in June-July 1969 at Greenwich Village’s Stonewall Inn as chronicled in David Carter’s Stonewall and also examines the misunderstandings associated with homosexuality and gay relationships from biological, psychological, and social perspectives. Four sources are listed in the bibliography.

  • The Biological, Psychological, and Social Obstacles to Understanding Transsexuality

    In five pages this paper examines transsexuality within biological, psychological, and social contexts with references to Joyce Meyerowitz’s How Sex Changed: A History of Transsexuality in the United States and George Chauncey’s Gay New York: Gender, Urban Culture, and the Makings of the Gay Male World, 1890-1940, with the theme of misunderstanding transsexualism also addressed within the context of Sigmund Freud’s essay, ‘Sexual Aberrations.’ There are no additional sources listed in the bibliography.

  • Darwin's Theory and Genesis

    A 4 page paper which examines the theme of harmony in Charles Darwin’s “On the Origin of Species: Chapter IV Natural Selection” and Chapter 1 of Genesis in the Bible. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Children's Neurology and the Effects of Music

    A 10 page research paper that explores the impact of music on the neurology of children. The writer explores research that addresses benefits derived from music instruction and also the neurological impact of listening to music. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Evolutionary and Creation Scientific Theories

    A five page paper which looks at the creation scientists’ theories of the origins of the universe and life on earth, as delineated in the Christian Bible, and the way in which these relate to other theories such as the Big Bang, Darwin’s explanation of natural selection, and the evidence of fossil records. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Christian Theology and Evolution

    A 7 page research paper that examines whether or not Christian theology can accommodate scientific theories about the evolution. The writer, citing the emerging science of chaos and complexity theory, argues that science and theology can be reconciled. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Ice Sculpture, Science, Theology, and Sensations

    A 4 page overview of the processes we go through to justify and vocalize beliefs. Centering around our observations and belief regarding an ice sculpture being used as an Easter Meal centerpiece, this paper contrasts esoteric belief and scientific belief. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Comparing Human Learning and Reasoning Capacity to Artificial Intelligence

    10 pages in length. How mankind uses his infinite wisdom, ability to learn and progress his species has long been a determinant of how advanced human beings have become throughout the ages. Fire established man as an inventor but perhaps more importantly, it solidified his existence upon this earth; each invention or discovery since that time has helped to perpetuate that survival, as well. Now, at the dawn of the twenty-first century, the question is not do we continue upon this ever-broadening road of tremendous technological discovery, but how far do we take our ability beyond reason? This question could not be anymore pertinent than when contemplating the concept of artificial intelligence (AI) as it compares to the human mind's capability for reasoning and learning. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Neuroanatomy and Learning

    This is a 3 page paper that provides an overview of learning. Learning is explored from the viewpoint of neuroanatomy and neural processes. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Types of Advanced Machining Processes

    A 6 page overview of several types of advanced machining processes, approaches that use non-traditional machining tools for non-traditional machining needs. Types of advanced processes briefly discussed include chemical and electrochemical machining; electrochemical grinding; electrical-discharge machining; laser-beam machining; electron machining; water-jet machining; and abrasive-jet machining. The paper also discusses the economics of these advanced machining processes. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • Chemical Structure of Water

    A 6 page description of water. The author details the chemical structure of water and how this structure determines its behavior in response to temperature and in response to other substances. A brief history on temperature measurement with specifics of the distinction between the Fahrenheit scale, the Celsius scale, and the Kelvin scale is provided as well. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Water Quality Reviewing

    This 4-page paper is a general review of water quality and includes topics such as acidity, alkalinity, hardness and softness as well as water quality standards and distribution. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Water Supply Problems and the Kankakee Basin Projects

    A five page paper which looks at the problems of water supply in the Kankakee basin region, in terms of the effect of pollution on local aquifers, the way in which dredging of the local marshlands has caused erosion and flooding, and the various projects which are being undertaken to restore the structure of the marshlands and thereby improve both the local ecological environment and the community. Bibliography lists 4 sources

  • Overview of Nucleic Acids, Structure, and Function

    A 7 page research paper on nucleic acids. There are two nucleic acids -- deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA)--that provide the "blue prints" or templates for building all of the hundreds of thousands of proteins required by the bodies of living organisms. This paper provides a basic introduction into their structure and function. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Drug Ionization, Absorption, Excretion

    A 4 page overview of the relation of drug ionization, specifically of whether the drug is a weak acid or a weak base, to its absorption into the body and consequent excretion from the body. Notes a differential absorption and excretion, according to physiological pH, as to where the drug is absorbed and when it is excreted. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Biological Functions of Lipids

    This 7 page paper examines lipids, what they are and their constituent fatty acids. The paper discusses the chemical structure of the fatty acids and the various lipids as well as where they are found and their functions. The bibliography cites 10 sources.

  • Differences In The Way A Mammalian Cell And Yeast Cells Coordinate Cell Growth And Cell-Cycle Progression

    This 3 page paper summarizes an article by Colon and Raff (2003) entitled “Differences in the way a mammalian cell and yeast cells coordinate cell growth and cell-cycle progression” which looks at the role of cell check points and the importance of extracellular signalling for mammalian cells when researched with the use of Schwamm cells. The bibliography cites 1 source.

  • Emergence The Connected Lives of Ants, Brains, Cities, and Software by Steven Johnson

    A 5 page book review that offers a summation of the major points of Steven Johnson's text Emergence: The Connected Lives of Ants, Brains, Cities, and Software (2001). This is a fascinating book that offers its readers insight into the latest paradigm on how the natural world is organized. According to this radical perspective, complex adaptive systems (such as ant colonies-- or large cities) provide examples of complex order emerging from a series of small-scale interactions. No additional sources cited.

  • Aquatic to Terrestrial Transitions in Plant Evolution

    This 3 page paper considers the various adaptations that were needed in order for plants to move from the seas to land. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Biology from Philosophical Perspectives

    This 8 page paper relates the concept of the developmental challenge relative the philosophical perspectives on biology. In particular, this paper considers whether genic selectionists are guilty of ignoring the developmental process, and as a result, this paper outlines the developmental systems theory as a part of this argument. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Avian Flu 2

    This 10 page paper examines the occurrence and reporting of bird flu cases. The paper starts by looking at the different reports from the World Health Organization and what data is contained in the reports, how it is collected and the barriers to effective collection. The paper then looks at the spread and mortality rate of the disease and trends in the way the disease is spread in different patients, considering age, gender and locations, the paper also looks at the current research. The bibliography cites 2 sources.

  • Bird of Paradise

    A 4 page paper on the bird of paradise. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Supermassive Black Holes

    This 6 page paper explores two theories that explain how supermassive black holes are formed. The black hole is defined and explored. Theories about the creation of the universe, and when black holes originated are a part of the discussion. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Black Holes

    An 8 page discussion of this fascinating astronomical phenomenon. This paper emphasizes that we know black holes exist not because that we can see them but rather because we can observe their effects. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Examination of Black Holes

    An 8 page paper which describes black holes and examines their increased importance in astrophysics of the 20th and 21st centuries. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • A Review of Research Evaluating Green Tea Extract

    A 3 page critique of a research study conducted by researchers at the Biological Sciences Laboratories of Kao Corp., Tochigi, Japan. This study reports a correlation with green tea consumption and improved physical endurance. The author of this paper points out some important considerations in regard to experimental design and the researcher's affiliation that make these findings less impressive. No additional sources are listed.

  • A Civil Engineering Overview

    This 9 page paper provides an overview of civil engineering, inclusive of its history. The past, present and future are examined, and there is attention paid to the influence of CAD on the development of this important field. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Cloning

    A 5 page paper which examines reproductive cloning v therapeutic cloning. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • History of Cloning

    A 5 page paper discussing the history of cloning and the untimely death of Millie, the first cow to be cloned in the US. Cloning has reached the point at which protocol is set and there is no anticipated reason that researchers could not produce a human clone. We have reached the brink of ethics, however, and it is yet unclear whether science should proceed. This debate forms the core of discussion surrounding cloning today. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Fossil Formation and Why Fossil Records can be Misleading

    This 3 page essay looks at how fossils are formed and reviews three specific examples within the literature concerning the argument over the efficacy of the fossil record. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Robots' Limitations and Scientific Method

    A 4 page contention that uncreative robots can never be expected to be able to employ the scientific approach that we characterize as the scientific method. The author relies on the book "No Stone Unturned: Reasoning About Rocks and Fossils" by author E. Kirsten Peters to support this contention. No additional sources are listed.

  • Cleaner Plastics; Lifecycle and Recycling

    Plastics are associated with poor environmental practices consuming fossil fuels in their production and disposal. This 20 page paper considers the way in plastics production and recycling may be undertaken in a cleaner way. The paper focuses on recycling looking at the lifecycle from the recycling perspective including the creation of plastics using plants that result in biodegradable plastics as well as the ways in which plastics may be recycled. The bibliography cites 50 sources.

  • Reducing Green House Gas Emissions in Irish Dairy Farming

    There is little doubt that green house gases need to be reduced. This 15 page paper summarizes an article that assesses the potential of different dairy herd management systems to reduce the direct and indirect green house gas emissions. The reseach also looked at the impact on profit levels. The paper summarises the findings of the reseach and then offers a neutral opinion on the reseach. The bibliography cites 1 source.

  • Types of Fluid Flows

    This 5 page paper is written in two parts. The first looks at pressurised flows and the equations that will be used in the design of the systems, looking mainly at Pascal’s Law. The second part looks at an open flow channel and the issues of design, such as friction and Bernouilli's Principle. The bibliography cites 3 sources.

  • DNA Replication

    A 9 page paper which examines DNA replication. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • DNA - Protein Interactions: An Overview

    This is a 4 page paper that provides an overview of DNA - protein interactions. Views of protein synthesis and DNA replication are included. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Equilibrium and Drinking Water Purification

    A 5 page exploration of the chemical factors that facilitate the use of reverse osmosis to purify drinking water. Bibliography lists 3 sources

  • Albert Einstein's Theories of Relativity and Their Legacy

    This paper examines, in tutorial form, the life of physicist and mathemetician Albert Einstein, and how his findings and theories impacted the scientific community. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • The Violent Gene

    A 5 page paper which examines the violent gene. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Issues Investigation and Genetic Engineering

    An 8 page review of the controversy surrounding genetic engineering. The author points out the success and failures of the technology in agriculture and outlines the arguments of the two opposing camps in regard to its use. Bibliography lists 12 sources.

  • Future Possibilities of Foods That Are Genetically Engineered

    A 4 page consideration of the promise of genetic engineering. This paper describes the potential benefits of the technology in improving the production, nutrition, and marketability of four common food crops, corn, wheat,tomatoes, and avocados. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Genetically Modified Plants/Pro & Con

    A 3 page research paper that discusses this issue of genetically modified (GM) plants. The writer discusses literature both pro and con and concludes that GM foods are a part of society's future, whether for good or ill. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Designing an Automobile Clutch and Clutch Plate

    A 5 page paper describing the structure and function of the automobile clutch and suggesting alternative materials that could be used to increase friction for both racing and street applications. Racing clutch manufacturers already are using a ceramic-metal alloy; the paper proposes eliminating the metal component. A ceramic material also is lighter weight, contributing to reduced stress on the engine’s crankshaft as well as on the transmission’s input shaft. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • The Central Elements of Chaos Theory

    This 8 page report discusses the fact that, at its core, chaos theory and its direct relationship to physics, since it is the science of physics which determined that all movement can be defined as being determined, random, or chaotic. The concepts as well as the history of how those concepts were reached are presented. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Energy Concerns

    A 3 page paper which examines elements of energy concerns such as where energy (gas etc.) goes after use and renewable resources. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • Ethanol and Biomass Conversion

    This 5 page paper examines the use of ethanol as a fuel. The writer starts with a description of how crops may be converted into ethanol, and then considers the arguments for and against using food stuffs in this way when there are food shortages in some parts of the world. The bibliography cites 8 sources.

  • Evidence for Evolution

    A 3 page overview of the theory of evolution. This paper outlines the usefulness of the fossil record, biogeography, comparative anatomy, comparative embryology, and molecular biology as evidence that evolution is a valid concept. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Fingerprint Analysis and the Scientific Method

    This 4 page paper discusses the formation of friction skin; it also defines the scientific method and how it is applied to fingerprint analysis. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Notch Protein Linked With Alzhiemer's Disease

    This 8 page paper examines the potential link between Notch protein and Alzheimer’s disease. The paper looks at the symptoms and biological characteristics of Alzheimer’s and roles of amyloid precursor protein (APP), the presenilin proteins and amyloid beta proteins. The bibliography cites 9 sources.

  • Garlic Growing Protects Against Cancer and Vampires

    In four pages (3 pages plus a 1 pg. outline) this paper provides a background on the benefits of growing garlic and provides instructions on how garlic can be grown easily, inexpensively, and without any organic gardening prowess. The outline is in MLA format and there are no bibliographical sources included.

  • Frisbee Aerodynamics

    A 5 page overview of the various forces that work to give a Frisbee its characteristic flight. This paper discusses the Bernoulli Principle, gravity, angular momentum, orientational stability, and more. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Exercise and Biochemistry

    11 pages in length. Exercise, along with proper nutrition and an otherwise healthful lifestyle, helps make the body and mind a sound working relationship. Not many people stop to consider the physiological implications of exercise beyond their muscular appearance and heart performance, yet there are myriad considerations to be made when it comes to understanding just how the body functions while exercising. Bibliography lists 16 sources.

  • Biochemistry of Creatine Phosphate

    A 5 page research paper that discusses the biochemistry of creatine phosphate, a crucial element in the production of muscle energy. The writer discusses its function, structure, and pathways. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Type I Diabetes' Biochemistry

    This 5 page paper focuses on the biochemistry of this disease but also discusses treatment, etiology and symptoms. How insulin therapy works is also included. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Fly Ash's Strength

    This 8 page paper provides an overview about the strength of fly ash. Positive and negative aspects are also discussed. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Article Review on Bioremediation

    A 3 page review of a December 2003 interview of Dr. Barbara Methe, the collaborative investigator at the Institute for Genomic Research in Rockville, Maryland, and Dr. Derek Lovely, the head of the University of Massachusetts (Amherst) microbiology department. These researchers clarify the benefits of using bacteria, especially the Geobacter bacteria, in the cleanup of hazardous waste. No additional sources are listed.

  • Networks And The Science Of Interconnectivity

    This 3 page paper outlines the way in which network and interconnectivity may be studied. The paper starts by looking at different forms of networks and the way that interconnectivity is seen. The influences on the way networks operate and the links with modern technology are also explored. The bibliography cites 4 sources.

  • Article Analysis: Evolutionary Biology and Human Health

    This 3 page paper analyzes an article that reports on an October, 2007 conference on human health and evolutionary biology. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • Face Recognition

    This 4 page paper discusses face recognition, both in humans and in automatic systems. Bibliography lists 22 sources.

  • The Phenomenon Known as Ageing

    An overview of the phenomenon of ageing from a biochemical perspective, looking at the programmed and random damage theories and the ways in which these might be approached in order to take into account both genetic and stochastic causes of ageing. Bibliography lists 5 sources

  • Artificial Intelligence v. Human Brain

    This 6 page paper discusses the possibility of Artificial Intelligence as compared to the reasoning and learning capacities of the human mind. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • The Hydroxyl Group and Aspirin

    This 5 page paper considers the development and composition of aspirin, paying special attention to the hydroxyl group. The bibliography cites 4 sources.

  • Astronomy and Astrology

    A 7 page historical survey of the bond of Astrology and Astronomy and how as the result of the scientific method that bond was broken. And how both are still influencing us today. Lists four sources in bibliography.

  • Johannes Kepler and His Contribution to Astrology

    This 4 page paper examines the reforms that were proposed by Johannes Kepler during the sixteenth century and why he made these proposals that revolutionised the practice of astrology. The bibliography cites 5 sources.

  • Astrology as a 'Fringe Science'

    This 3 page paper investigates whether or not astrology has a scientific basis. The discipline is explored. The scientific link for this "fringe science" is explained. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • An Engineering Problem

    This 20 page paper looks at this specific engineering problem. A history of the problem is included. Various companies providing solutions are discussed as well as the specific resolutions. Bibliography lists 12 sources.

  • Arguing Against Genetic Engineering

    A 4 page contention that holds as many or more threats for society as it does promises. This thesis is supported through a discussion of the direct and indirect impacts genetically engineered species have to the hundreds, perhaps thousands, of species that are currently unutilized but which hold promise for the cures of disease and illness. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Questions on Electrical Engineering

    A 3 page answer to 2 questions: (1) Indicate recent trends and future challenges of these fields: Novel RF Concepts; Ultra High Frequency Integrated Multi-Antenna Wireless Systems; and Fundamentals of Communication Circuits and Systems; and (2) Application of Meso-optics in Photonics. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Bald Eagles No Longer Endangered

    This 3 page paper uses the definition essay to determine whether or not the bald eagle is an endangered species. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • 'Yellow Rocket' and Alfalfa and 'Yellow Rocket'

    This 6 page report discusses the interaction between alfalfa crops and a common weed. The weed chosen for examination is Barbarea vulgaris, most commonly known as 'yellow rocket.' Yellow rocket is usually biennial or perennial with some plants flowering, setting seed and dying after their first growing season; reproducing only by seed but the seeds are notable for their ability to germinate with minimal soil requirements. Yellow rocket and other weeds reduce alfalfa production during establishment by competing with and choking out young alfalfa seedlings, invade established alfalfa fields, and reducing forage quality and yield. Several aspects of intervention and eradication are discussed. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Overview of the Bottlenose Dolphin

    This 4 page paper provides an overview of the dolphin, its behavior with humans and its general behavior. Specifics about the mammal are provided and information about feeding, migration and reproduction is included. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Overview of Dolphin Therapy

    An 18 page paper which examines what this controversial treatment is, who developed it, its benefits, where one can go to receive this therapy, how dolphins communicate with patients, how dolphins are trained for such a program, and evaluates the results of this therapy. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Human Implications of Dolphin Communication

    This 12 page paper provides an overview of dolphin communication. How it affects humanity, and its potential to do so, is the focus of the paper. Research on dolphin communication is included. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • Bowling's Kinesiology

    A 5 page paper that provides an overview of the kinesiology of bowling, including a look at the sagittal view, extension, flexing, eccentric and concentric movements, and the relationship between the bones and muscles during the game. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Brain Response/Males & Aggression

    A 10 page research paper that examines research on brain chemistry and aggression that differentiates between the responses of males and females. This review of literature examines research that pertains to brain research and the neurotransmitters in the brain that have been shown to affect aggressive behavior. This body of data suggests that there are a discernible differences between the response of males and females to aggression and competitiveness that can be traced to differences in brain chemistry. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Global Warming And Methane Hydrate

    A 4 page paper. The writer suggests that the exact location and time when global warming began cannot be determined but it does appear to have begun millennia ago, even prior to the industrial revolution. Recent research from drillings in Greenland suggest a new theory for past ice ages and warming trends. Data are reported when available. Both carbon dioxide and methane hydrate cause this greenhouse effect; this is discussed. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Electricity Generation; Coal Fired Power and Hydropower

    This 8 page paper compares and contrasts two different methods of generating electricity; coal fired electric power and hydroelectricity. Each is defined and the processes described, along with relevant areas of consideration, such as general usage and environmental factors. The bibliography cites 11 sources.

  • Deafness, Genetics, and Metabolism

    A 4 page paper containing 2 distinct sections: 1 page on carbohydrates and weight gain, 3 pages discussing the Cx26 gene (GJB2/DFNB1). This gene is associated with autosomal recessive deafness, ranging from moderate to profound. The paper lists and discusses several of the allele variants of this gene. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • A Cancer Constellation Overview

    This 4 page paper takes a look at the constellation of Cancer. While some astrological references are made, the paper focuses on astronomy. The history of constellation naming and other historical references regarding Cancer are included. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Research Methodology Issues

    An 11 page research paper that addresses multiple issues pertaining to how research is conducted. The writer defines numerous terms and discusses the differences between quantitative and qualitative research, inductive and deductive reasoning and also the advantages of mixed method research studies, among other topics. Bibliography lists 26 sources.

  • Stem Cell Research/Not an Ethical Issue

    A 6 page research paper/essay that argues that embryonic stem cells research is ethical. The writer bases this argument on the facts of reproduction and also presents the supposition that the real issue here is not stem cell research, per se, but the movement against abortion. The details of stem cell research are presented, along with relevant arguments supporting it. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Genetically Modified Food

    A 6 page discussion of this technology. This paper defines this technology, lists some of its applications, and discusses the controversy surrounding it. Bibliography lists 5 sources

  • Genetically Modified Food: Two Views

    This 3 page paper compares two opposing viewpoints about the use of genetically modified foods. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • HURRICANE KATRINA AND THE 1900 GALVESTON HURRICANE: A COMPARISON

    This 9-page paper compares and contrasts the 1900 hurricane that hit Galveston, TX with Hurricane Katrina, which decimated the Gulf Coast in 2005. Bibliography lists 15 sources.

  • Chapters Eight and Nine Summaries of Warren McCabe, Julian Smith, and Peter Harriott's Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering

    This 7 page paper is a summary of Chapter 8; Transportation and metering of fluids and Chapter 9 Agitation and mixing of liquids from the book Unit Operations of Chemical Engineering by Warren McCabe, Julian Smith and Peter Harriott.

  • Ossification and Chemical Processes

    This is a 3 page paper that provides an overview of chemical processes. The chemical formulae and equations involved in ossification are presented. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • "Chemical Analysis By Observation Of Spectra" - Summary

    4 pages in length. The purpose of the experiments is to illustrate how important spectrum analysis is within the context of chemical reaction where various substances are concerned. For the chemicals in this experiment, all have the ability to create specific bright lines when brought into contact with the flame. The inherent value of performing these experiments, therefore, is to establish the importance of spectrum analysis in relation to further discover of elements that may not be detected without the influence of certain light properties. No bibliography.

  • Civil Engineering and Mechanics of Materials Study

    This is a 3 page paper discussing the mechanics of materials as used in civil engineering. The mechanics of materials is an important area of study within the civil engineering discipline which examines the properties of materials under a variety of conditions which may be present in the field. In order for materials to be used within design, industrial and other projects, materials must be tested for their structural strength in the areas of stress, strain, fatigue and types of deformation and other aspects before being applied in any operational system. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Developing New Medicines through Neural Networks and Expert Systems' Pattern Recognition and Diagnostic Abilities

    6 pages in length. The extent to which diagnostic and pattern-recognition abilities of expert systems and neural networks aid bioinformatics research and the development of new medicines is both grand and far-reaching. That artificial intelligence (AI) has become an integral component of medical advancement speaks to the growing need for machines that can start with a basis of man's knowledge and aptitude and expound upon it with self-learning abilities. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • Overview of Evolutionary Robotics

    This 6 page paper discusses evolutionary robotics, current work in the field, and what we might see in the future. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • ISO 9000, CMMs, and Software Engineering Improvement Models The Use of Process Improvement Models in the Software Engineering Industry Including the Capability Maturity Model (CMM) and the Importance of the ISO 9000

    This is an 8 page paper discussing process improvement models in the software engineering industry. Process improvement models in the software engineering industry are important in the development of consistent and improved output of software. Many of the early models were based on generic manufacturing models and were difficult to apply in the software engineering process. A useful process however is defined in the capability maturity model (CMM) while allows for five stages of maturity in a project over the course of conception and the expected development in the first years of the process. The final stage of the CMM, level 5, allows for further change and improvements to continue. Regardless of the improvement model chosen for a software engineering company, its compliance with international standards, the ISO 9000, are also considered essential for the guarantee of continued high standards and improved quality. The documentation aspects of the ISO 9000 are also considered useful models in the establishment of a software development process. Bibliography lists 17 sources.

  • Favoring Stem Cells

    This 6 page paper explains what stem cells are, their potential for healing human diseases, and why they are controversial to some. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Stem Cell Research Addressing the Challenges

    This 3 page paper delineates the benefits of stem cell research and the challenges that it faces. The author presents the opinion that the future of this research rests on the identification of alternatives for harvesting that do not involve human fetuses. Bibliography lists 4 sources

  • Parkinson's Disease Research

    This is a 9 page paper that provides an overview of the research process. Each step of the research process is documented, including an annotated bibliography, using Parkinson's disease as an example. Bibliography lists 15 sources.

  • Aloe's History and Use

    A 10 page paper which presents an examination of the history and the uses of the aloe plant. Bibliography lists 15 sources.

  • QUESTIONS ABOUT ENERGY AND FUEL SOURCES

    This 3-page paper answers various questions about energy, fossil fuel and alternative energy. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • Regenerating Limbs of the Urodele Amphibians

    10 pages in length. Urodele amphibians hold a unique place within the scheme of biological diversity, in that unlike other living creatures they have the ability to regenerate their limbs. That various parts of the body can also be regenerated, such as the jaw, lens, retina, spinal cord and much of the heart, speaks to the notion that urodele amphibians are significantly more biologically advanced than virtually all other species known to man. The distinction between young and adult urodeles is that the adults possess the ability to regenerate their lost anatomical structures. Epimorphosis is the scientific term that describes the rebirth of cellular structure in order to develop a missing limb. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Amphibian Mortality Caused by Chytridiomycosis

    A 5 page paper that discusses the causes of the dramatic decrease in the numbers of amphibians in Australia and Central America. The essay describes a study conducted by a group of scientists who not only found the cause of the declining population but who discovered a new fungus. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • Nuclear Power

    A 4 page paper which examines nuclear power. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Great Barrier Reef's Blue Ring Octopus

    A five page paper on the venomous blue ring octopus of the Great Barrier Reef, describing the creature’s appearance, habitat and life-cycle and the reasons why it is one of the most dangerous marine creatures despite its small size and lack of overt aggression. Bibliography lists 4 sources

  • The Petrochemical Industry in Saudi Arabia

    This 6 page paper examines the petrochemical industry in Saudi Arabia looking at the level of importance of the industry, the types of oil, locations of the oil fields and the level of oil reserves and the current and future capacity of the industry in Saudi Arabia. The bibliography cites 4 sources.

  • Role of Minerals Human Physiology

    A 7 page research paper that discusses the functions of six essential minerals in human physiology: sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, iodine and sulfur. Then, the writer describes the functions of 3 buffer systems in metabolism. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Discussion of Extra Solar Planets

    7 pages in length. Man has long believed that his presence cannot be the only one to exist in the vastness of space, and this speculation has been rewarded by the recent discovery of extra-solar planets hinting at the possibility of other life forms. For the time being, however, uncovering eight new planets has given scientists the motivation to continue such pursuits. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Overview of Extrasolar Planets

    This 7 page paper discusses the last decade in terms of extrasolar planets. Specifically, this paper examines the technology which allows such detection in terms of its strengths and weaknesses, as well as the direction of future efforts. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • New Planet Discovery Through Radio Astronomy

    This 10 page paper provides an overview of radio astronomy, what it is and when it came about. Newly discovered planets are discussed. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Earth: History And Comparison With Other Planets

    6 pages in length. The writer discusses earth's geological history and briefly compares it with the other solar planets. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Human Brain Development

    This 7 page paper looks at some of the theories that try to explain who and why the human brain has developed into the current large and complex organ seen today. The paper loos at the arguments of bipedalism, the use of tools and development of language and the radiator theory. The bibliography cites 6 sources.

  • The Use of Lasers to Drill Gas and Oil Wells

    This 8 page paper looks at different aspects of laser use to drill oil and gas wells. The paper starts by comparing laser and traditional methods, then looks at formation perforation, spalling and the use of lasers for casing. The bibliography cites 7 sources.

  • Overview of the Canis Lupus Species

    A 6 page overview of the behavior, ecology, and management concerns which exist for this fascinating carnivore. The gray wolf (Canis lupus) is not only one of the most impressive of the large North American mammals it is also one of the most misunderstood. Recent conservation efforts have been successful in reviving an almost extinct population but this success has not been without its problems. As wolf populations expand their threat to man, whether perceived or real, grows. This paper emphasizes that proper management of the gray wolf involves not just species specific management but ecosystem management as a whole. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Concepts of Mechanical Engineering

    This paper defines some mechanical engineering concepts including hydraulics, pressure vessels and heating loads. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Cross Membrane Transport and Molecular Mixtures in Joe Alper's Article 'Drug Delivery Breaching the Membrane'

    A 5 page review of “Drug Delivery: Breaching the Membrane”, an article by Joe Alper published in the May 3, 2002 edition of “Science”. Alper’s (2002) research concentrates on the cell membrane and the manner in which cross-membrane transport occurs, specifically the manner in which membrane-bound protein transporters function to allow various nutrients and hormones across. Alper’s paper adds insight to both the structure and function of the cell membrane and its components and how each relates to the molecular structure of the body’s complex mixture of chemicals. No additional sources are listed.

  • Gram Positive Bacteria and Microbiology: Gram-Positive Bacteria Cells

    This is a 3 page paper discussing Gram-positive bacteria. In the study of microbiology, common Gram-positive bacteria cells are Straphlyococcus aureus or Streptococcus cremoris often used in dairy production. Gram-positive bacteria are considered distinct in their multiple layered cell walls almost made up entirely of peptidoglycan. Gram-positive bacteria have four associated families which include Bacillaceae, Micrococcaceae, Mycobacteriaceae, and Peptococcaceae all of which vary in their growth rates, motility, and the media on which they grow. In addition, some Gram-positive bacteria have the ability to produce specific biochemical activities and/or specific toxins. Because of this, Gram-positive bacteria are sometimes used for fermentation, the reduction of nitrate or the production of coagulase or catalase among other uses. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Migraine Triggers and the Scientific Method

    A 4 page description of a student's use of deduction and induction to figure out what triggers migraine attacks for one of their friends. The author distinguishes between a hypothesis and a theory. No sources are listed.

  • Defense Mechanism of Nicotine

    A 5 page paper discussing the phytochemical nicotine. More than 50,000 phytochemicals have been identified in angiosperms; nicotine is only one. It appears to have evolved as a protection device against herbivores, bacteria and fungi, but the struggle that farmers make against tobacco hornworm and blue mold indicate that nicotine is not always successful as a deterrent against attack. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Carbenes And Nitrenes In Organic Chemistry

    4 pages in length. The basic composition of carbenes is such that as electron deficient molecular species, their uncharged state plays an integral role in containing a sextet of electrons that surround a divalent carbon atom. By comparison, nitrenes - uncharged electron deficient molecular species as well - harbor a sextet of electrons that surround a monovalent nitrogen atom. Single state is presented as electrophilic character, trigonal planar geometry, while triple state is diradical-like in nature, linear geometry (Wieder, no date). For nitrene insertion to occur, chiral alkane concentration is separate from observed rotation. Triplet nitrene is formed in greater measure when chiral alkane concentration is under one-hundred percent; this occurs, however, to the detriment of initially produced singlet nitrene. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Osmosis Defined

    This 5 page report discusses and explains the concept of osmosis which is how one element or ingredient of a solution flows through a membrane while other components of a solutuon are shut out and unable to pass through the membrane. In order to determine which membranes allow the flow of which constituents of a solution requires experimentation since not all membranes act the same way. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • OZONE DEPLETION AND TECHNOLOGIES FOR MEASUREMENT

    This 3-page paper examines technologies used for the study of ozone depletion. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Stephen Jay Gould Panda's Thumb

    This 5 page paper reviews this intriguing collection of essays by the controversial scientist Stephen Jay Gould. Evolution is discussed. No additional sources cited.

  • Physics Applications

    A 3 page paper reviewing 3 articles about physics and physical principles. It was Einstein’s position that “God does not play dice.” There has been a sense for a long while that perhaps we know less than we think, a sentiment expressed by many current articles. The purpose here is to review three articles about physics in general. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Basketball and Physics

    This 5 page paper provides an overview of the physics of basketball. Both the physics of bouncing the ball as well as shooting hoops are discussed. The advantage of the underhand throw is emphasized. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Insights into Bacteria - Quorum Sensing

    This is a 3 page paper that provides an overview of Dr. Bonnie Bassler's accomplishments. The insights into bacterial quorum sensing are emphasized. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • U.S. Nuclear Power Industry and its Historical Development

    A 12 page paper which examines the origins of its development and concentrates on the critical period between 1970 and 1990. Specifically considered are current reactor research programs, current state of nuclear power plant design, radioactive waste, plant licensing extension, decommissioning, government oversight, and future prospects. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • 19th Century Physicist Albert Michelson and Basic Physics Principles

    A 4 page examination of Michelson's contention that in regard to physics "most of the grand underlying principles have now been firmly established and that further advances are to be sought chiefly in the rigorous application of these principles to all the phenomena which come under our notice". The author contends that Michelson's contention is still applicable even today. While we continue to make "astonishing" discoveries, we have yet to conclusively demonstrate that the basic physical processes underlying those discoveries significantly deviate from the basic physical principles known by Michelson. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Tsunami: The Physics and Possible Prevention

    This 6 page paper provides general information to come from three articles on tsunamis. Preventative measures are discussed along with a discussion on causes. Tsunamis are compared with tidal waves and differences are noted. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Overview of Pneumonia

    A 3 page overview of pneumonia. Pneumonia can be caused by a variety of factors. These include both bacterial and viral organisms. The epidemiology of each of these organisms vary as does the specifics of the treatment regime. One of the most important aspects of dealing with pneumonia is prevention. Prevention is especially important for community acquired pneumonia. Effective prevention requires accurate diagnosis of the cases that do exist, isolation of infected patients, and strict attention to hygiene both by the patient and by those that move between patients. While antibiotics can be used to treat bacterial pneumonia, treatment for viral pneumonia is normally supportive in nature. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Qualitative Data Collection Tools and Probability Distribution Subjectivity

    A three page address of two specific questions. The first questions regards the usefulness of probability distributions in terms of statistical analysis. The second question asks for the delineation of three specific tools that are useful in the collection of qualitative data. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Pros and Cons of Animal Testing

    This 3 page paper discusses the pros and cons of using animals in tests for products and medicines intended for ultimate human use. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • The Process of Making Protein

    This 5 page paper considers the existing research that has been undertaken in converting non-protein nitrogen into protein. The bibliography cites 10 sources.

  • Progression from Classical to Quantum Mechanics

    A 6 page paper that provides an overview of the progression from classical mechanics to quantum mechanics. This paper begins with the developments of Max Planck and considers a number of major theories, including Einstein's theory of relativity, and their application for quantum theory. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Overview of Remote Sensing

    This 7 page paper defines what remote sensing is, traces its history briefly, and explores some of its uses and what it might become in the future.

  • An Overview of Body Systems and Function

    This nine page paper is broken into nine specific sections covering the circulatory, respiratory, muscular, skeletal, nervous, endocrine, renal/urinary, digestive, and reproductive systems. Bibliography lists 18 sources.

  • Science And Religion: History's Ultimate Test

    13 pages in length. Science and religion - perhaps in another place and time - would never have the occasion to infiltrate each other's unique worlds, inasmuch as no matter how hard people attempt to bring them together as complementary forces, they are - and have long been - destined to remain at opposite ends of the spectrum. Annotated bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Universe Understanding, Technology and Science

    This 5 page report discusses the idea that science does not yet have a full understanding of the universebut that technology will enable humanity to reach that understanding in the next few decades. The writer of this paper takes exception with such a statement and notes that as knowledge has increased and resulted in ever-advancing levels of technological capabilities, scientists have come to understand that earlier questions may have been too simplistic or too limited in the scope of what was being asked. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Revolutions in Science and Technology

    A 7 page research paper that discusses advancements and innovations. This examination of scientific creative innovation begins with the medicine and the penicillin revolution, but then looks also at the examples of creative revolutions that have occurred in the contemporary era and concludes with observations bout the way in which scientific and technological creativity tends to overlap. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Comparing Potting Soil to Starter Soil (Science Fair Project)

    This 3 page paper is a tutorial that may help a student create a science fair project. This one provides specific information on soil comparisons. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Three Lethal Diseases

    A 10 page overview of three potentially fatal diseases. Includes their effects on cattle and man as well as discussions on possible treatment methodologies and preventions. Outlines research efforts to develop vaccines and gives an overview of the different types of legislation which has evolved in response to the threat of these and other diseases. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • Single Cell Protein Success

    A 3 page paper which discusses how the single cell protein has been called an instant 30 year success. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Scholastic Performance and Sleep Deprivation

    A 4 page research paper that examines circadian rhythms and sleep deprivation in regards to the student tradition of "all nighters" in order to cram for tests. The writer argues that research shows this practice to be detrimental to academic performance and explains the scientific facts behind this assessment. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Mold Growth and Environmental Conditions

    This 5 page paper is representative of a typical science fair report that might be submitted with a science fair project. It is written on a middle school level. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Smoking and Loss of Hearing Correlation

    A 6 page paper investigating the relation of hearing loss to cigarette smoking. Hearing loss and smoking would appear not to be related physically, given the information we have about the effects of smoking. The purpose here is to review the few studies that have been done and to draw some conclusions about the possible relationship. Research shows that it may be that hearing loss and smoking are closely related, not in biochemical relations but in the common environments in which both exist simultaneously. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Mountain Dew, Dr. Pepper, and Coke Soft Drinks Compared

    This 5 page paper compares and contrasts ingredients and amount of carbonation in each drink. Some history of each soft drink is provided. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Practice of Soil Reinforcement with Steel

    A 5 page paper discussing the practice of reinforcing soil with narrow steel bands, a technique that provides immense benefit in soil stabilization for construction projects and can reduce costs as much as 50 percent. This method of reinforcing soil for construction purposes has been found to be useful in a variety of settings and for a wide range of purchases. It is useful in virtually any setting in which there will be static or dynamic stresses on supporting soil, such as bridge abutments or roadways running along the top of sloping terrain. It is also useful in areas in which earthquake activity is common. Includes 2 figures. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Soil Salinity in the Imperial Valley

    This 5 page paper discusses soil salinity in the Imperial Valley of California, including what it is, why it’s prevalent in this location, what effects it has, how it’s formed, what its benefits are (if any) and what can be done to change the amount of salt in the soil. Bibliography lists 6 sources

  • Theory and a Solar Energy Overview

    This 10 page paper offers an overview of solar energy beginning with the theory underlying solar power and the two major types of solar energy. The technology of solar power cells is explained, beginning with the two major categories of solar energy. The most common materials and elements used to produce photovoltaic cells, how these cells work and their output are then reported. Four of the most common types of collectors are explained. Innovations in the production of solar cells are reported. Comments are made regarding the costs and the savings gained from using solar power. Bibliography lists 14 sources.

  • THE OORT CLOUD, KUIPER BELT AND UNDESTANDING OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM

    This 6-page paper discusses the Oort Cloud and Kuiper Belt, and the objects contained in these two regions of the solar system. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Theoretical Overview of the Solar System

    An 8 page overview of our Solar System. The author reviews the theories relating to its origin and distinguishes between its major components, A distinction between planets, asteroids, and comets is provided and the theories regarding Pluto’s status as a terrestrial verses a Jovian planet discussed. Bibliography lists sources.

  • The G-Spot, Real or Myth?

    A 5 page research paper that presents evidence that refutes the existence of the G-spot. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Considerations in Stem Cell Research

    A 3 page discussion of the most recent developments in stem cell research. These developments are accentuated by the discovery of the potential utility of amniotic stem cells. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Animal and Plant Evolutionary Examples

    A 7 page overview of the marvels of evolution as reflected in six very different representatives of the plant and animal kingdom. This paper notes the lessons mankind might learn from birds, insects, and even the lowly parasitic worms as well as food crops such as corn, medicinal plants such as foxglove, and ornamentals such as the exotic water hyacinth. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • TECHNICAL WRITING AND EXPOSITORY WRITING

    This 4-page paper explains differences between technical and expository writing. Also discussed are differences betwen technical and creative writing. Technical writing samples are presented. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Overview of the Central Nervous System

    This power point presentation includes six slides and two pages of speaker notes on the central nervous system, complete with diagrams. Please contact the company to ensure that the PowerPoint file is sent: MHcennersy.doc Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • The Human Digestive System

    A 7 page review of the human digestive system. This paper provides a look at the mechanical and chemical components of digestion. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Grand Canyon's Geological History

    A 6 page paper discussing the stratification and geological history of this haven for geologists. The allure for geologists is that the canyon itself is geologically very young, but that the formations through which it is cut are very old. This gives insight to the geological record that otherwise would not be possible. The paper discusses the stratification and geological history of the canyon. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Serving a Volleyball and its Kinesiology

    This 10 page paper provides an overview of the kinesiology of the volley ball serve, with a focus on the upper extremities. This paper assesses things like skill, balance and an anatomical analysis as well as a mechanical analysis. Bibliography lists 15 sources.

  • Physiology and Anatomy of the Human Eye

    A 5 page review of the eye's structure and function. This paper reviews the major parts of the eyes and provides a detailed description of how it passes the information that it receives on to the brain. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Shape of the Moon and its Orbit

    5 pages. The student's assignment was to research the orbit of the moon by noting the shape of the moon, recording the date and time, and by using various forms of measurement formulating an opinion as to the shape of the moon's orbit around the earth. This paper gives some excellent information regarding the relationship of the moon to the earth and the sun, and the reasoning behind eclipses. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Overview of the Moon and a Lunar Eclipse

    This 10 page paper describes the mechanics of a lunar eclipse, and gives information about the Moon itself. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Time Travel: Possibilities

    This 8 page paper examines various sources that discuss the possibility of time travel, and concludes that while it is unlikely, it is impossible to say definitively that it will never be possible to travel in time. Because we cannot say “no” in all cases, we have to leave the possibility open and say that yes, time travel might be possible, though not for a very long time and then probably with technology we cannot currently imagine. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Transgenic Genetically Engineered Plant Applications

    A 3 page overview of the applications of transgenic genetically engineered plants. This paper discusses transgenic plants from a pharmacological perspective, noting the importance of plantibodies and plantigens in treating human disease. No sources are listed.

  • Overview of the Tsunami Phenomena

    A 3 page overview of the phenomena of a tsunami. The author defines tsunami and details the factors that enter into their formation and relative strength. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Avoiding Most Devastating Tsunami Effects

    A 3 page paper discussing the Indian Ocean tsunami. On December 26, 2004, two tectonic plates that have been opposing each other for millennia shifted under the earth’s surface, resulting in an earthquake under the Indian Ocean. The earthquake shook the earth enough to change time, albeit only by microseconds. The greater consequence was that the earthquake displaced an immense volume of water. The final result was that the tsunami created by the earthquake killed more than all 20th century tsunamis combined. There was no warning. There were, however, actions that people in the affected areas could take. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Male Mice Singing to Female Mice as Ultrasonic Music to Their Ears

    5 pages in length. In Ultrasonic Songs of Male Mice, Timothy E. Holy and Zhongsheng Guo seek to determine the extent to which male mice emit ultrasonic songs when in the vicinity of female mice. They discover, through scientific methodology, the conditions upon which this occurs, the varied nature of syllables used and the vastly superior scale upon which these songs are delivered. The hypothesis, therefore, seeks to determine the equivalency to what equates to song, as well as the level of diversity with regard to the individual male mouse, which results indicate a "small but significant difference in syllable usage and the temporal structure of their songs" (Holy et al, 2005, p. 386), suggesting how mice communication may hold myriad more complexity than has been understood. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Temperature and Viscosity

    A 4 page overview of the phenomena of viscosity and how it is affected by temperature. This paper provides an elementary review of these basic concepts. The author describes experiments that can be carried out using simple tools and materials found in every home. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Water Quality and Groundwater Hydrology

    This 5 page paper relates the nature of groundwater studies, including groundwater hydrology and issues of water quality. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Agricultural Needs for Water in California

    This 5 page paper discusses water scarcity, and how water should be reserved for agricultural needs primarily as opposed to urban centers in these situations. This paper uses California as an example, as well as other global locations to show the need for making agriculture a priority. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Cloud Formations and Weather Patterns

    A 5 page research paper on weather patterns. Topics included are types of clouds and cloud formation, global warming and the effects of El Nino. The writer also discusses how weather patterns can be predicted by observation, listening and a barometer. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Climate Change and Weather Forecasting

    This 3 page paper provides an overview of the factors influencing climate change and weather forecasting, especially in relationship to the Earth's energy budget. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Overview and Structure of the Human Hand

    A 4 page paper that provides an overview of the structure of the human hand. This paper considers the role of muscles, ligaments, tendons and bone in creating the movement of the hand. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Overview of the 5 Main Muscle Groups

    A 10 page paper describing the five major muscle groups and providing specific information for a representative muscle from each. Includes six drawings of various muscles as well as information regarding their origin, insertion, function, and innervation. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Overview of the Endocrine System

    A 10 page overview of the endocrine system. Includes specific information on the Ovary (follicle and corpus luteum), Testis, Pancreas, Adrenal glands (medulla and cortex), Thymus, Parathyroid gland, Thyroid, Posterior pituitary gland, Anterior pituitary gland, Hypothalamus and the Pineal gland as well as on their function, hormones, and regulators. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Purposes and Effects of Oxytocin

    A 6 page research paper describing the purposes and effects of oxytocin. Oxytocin is one of two hormones produced in the hypothalamus and released by the pituatary glands. It is called the "touch hormone" because it has been found to be associated with the bonding that occurs between mother and child. Studies using this hormone in inducing labor are reported. Bibliography is included.

  • Overview of Primordial Black Holes

    A good, 6 page overview of the phenomena of primordial black holes. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Milky Way Explored

    5 pages in length. A comprehensive research paper-- explaining our galaxy (The "Milky Way") in great detail. The writer describes the history of man's early exploration via telescope, the distance and brightness of stars, attempts to assess The Milky Way's age, problems with matter, and the size/relevance relationship between our own solar system and others. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Evolution of the Hubble Space Telescope

    12 pages in length. In what has seemed like the blink of an eye, scientific technology has advanced the human race at such breakneck speed that scientists are forever attempting to outdo each previous discovery with a bigger and better replacement. Such is the case with the fantastic discoveries for which the Hubble Space Telescope has been responsible during the twentieth century. Had it not been for the creation of such a monumental piece of scientific machinery, the world would not have acquired the mountain of information, photographs and previously unknown details that have come forth over the last decade. Indeed, the proficiency of the Hubble Space Telescope has allowed mankind to delve far beyond the confines of conventional boundaries in order to encourage further exploration of outer space. The writer discusses revolutionary and evolutionary aspects of the Hubble Space Telescope. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Unmanned Space Travel and its History

    A 9 page paper that provides a history of unmanned space flight that has lead up to the Mars Pathfinder mission and the interrelationship of all of those missions to the eventual human habitation of another planets, namely, Mars. The quest for Mars was begun 40 years ago, and all of the space exploration to date, manned or unmanned, including discoveries about earth and the universe, have been made toward this purpose. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • European Space Agency's ISO

    This 10 page report on the European Space Agency's Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) gives an overview of what the ISO's investigations are revealing, why its observations are in demand, and how its discoveries are beginning to rewrite the textbooks on astronomy. Bibliography lists four sources.

  • Planet Venus's Active Volcanoes

    A 2 page paper on findings from the early 1990's which show a number of geologic activities on the Earth's "twin" planet Venus,-- including live volcanoes and dramatic faulting. It is concluded that while the "case" of active volcanoes on Venus has not yet been entirely settled, there is indeed plenty of room for future research. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • A Historical Overview of the Apollo Space Program

    13 pages on the Apollo Space Program; Its mission, success & failures etc; Specifically covered are Apollo I, VIII, IX, & XIII. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • The Case for Mars by Zubrin and Wagner

    A 5 page paper that provides an overview of Zubrin & Wagner's book which examines the importance of Mars exploration. The writer demonstrates the applicability of their work in science and technology and demonstrates why it is important to the overall efficacy of the space program.

  • Short Petjolule Type Soybean Genetic Analysis

    5 pages in length. In this particular scientific analysis, the researchers sought to either prove or disprove the incidence of short-petjolule type soybean plants relative to that of a recessive gene that exists within the hereditary composition. Bibliography lists 1 sources.

  • Velocity and an Object's Displacement of Position and Traveled Distance

    A 7 page paper that provides an overview of these two elements as they relate to velocity. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Overview of Howler Monkeys

    10 pages in length. Howler monkeys face an uncertain future with regard to species survival. The tree-dwelling, fruit-eating primates who are indigenous to Central and South America make their home far within the rain forest, where they have been met with significant hardship and population decline on account of mankind's ongoing deforestation and logging pursuits. With little if any regard for the life forms that comprise the forest's diversity, man is slowly but surely sealing the coffin on a number of animal species as he continues to demolish their delicate living area, and the howler monkey is just one whose existence is threatened. People like ethologist Robert Horwich have set in motion conservation efforts that will aid the species' eventual survival. The writer discusses deforestation, logging and conservation efforts in relation to the howler monkey. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • Comprehensive Overview of Earthquakes

    A 9 page paper on earthquakes in which the writer explains their different classifications, the role of various seismic wave patterns & types, etc; Also discussed are causes, reasons for geographical distribution, and the effects of earthquakes at different proximities beginning with the meizoseismal area (most damaged region). A final section looks at some experimental and theoretical grounds for predicting earthquakes. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • 1987's Whittier, California Earthquake

    In this 7 page essay, the writer uses the Whittier Narrows Quake to show how frighteningly unpredictable and random California's earthquakes have become. The writer discusses the occurrence of that particular quake, its socioeconomic devastation, and most importantly-- describes what "lessons" we should have learned from this random example of geologic terror. Comparisons are also made between the Whittier quake and the Loma Prieta quake of 1989. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • Evolution, Dinosaurs, and Birds

    A 5 page outline of current paleontological thought regarding the evolutionary path of birds and the question of whether or not they descended from dinosaurs. Bibliography lists four sources.

  • Dinosaur Behavior Determination

    A 9 page paper outlining the methodology and tools used by paleontologist to gain an understanding of dinosaur behavior. Emphasizes computer modeling techniques. Bibliography lists five sources.

  • Hip Dysplasia in Dogs

    6 pages in length. Canine hip dysplasia is a condition that can strike any dog but is significantly more prevalent in a handful of breeds, such as the golden retriever, German shepherds, Labradors and Rottweilers. Dogs afflicted with the genetically-induced joint problem experience excruciating pain in their hind end as the hip sockets become deformed and improperly aligned. The writer discusses etiology and treatment of canine hip dysplasia. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Sacred Land Sacred Sex Rapture of the Deep by Dolores LaChapelle

    This 6 page report discusses deep ecologist Dolores LaChapelle’s 1988 book addressing the issues surrounding deep ecology. Her particular area of interest and expertise is the range of the Rocky Mountains called the San Juan Mountains in southwestern Colorado. Bibliography lists only the primary source.

  • Civilian Aircraft Crashes

    A 6 page research paper that examines some the common causes of crashes. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • 'Why Things Break' by Mark E. Eberhart

    A 5 page summation of an article by Mark E. Eberhart entitled 'Why Things Break.' In this article, Eberhart argues that all of technology is contingent on how things fail‹either by being brittle or ductile. After a discussion that places this topic in historical perspective, he discusses the latest developments in new alloy production and predicting metal fatigue. The writer demonstrates how this is a well-written, clear article that uses language easily understood by the average reader. No additional sources cited.

  • No Aging in India by Lawrence Cohen

    A 15 page analysis of Lawrence Cohen's book No Aging in India. Cohen's approach is essentially that of a medical anthropologist as he explores how cultures comprehend the body and its behavior in time. No additional sources cited.

  • The Aging Experience by Jennie Keith, et al

    A 5 page analysis of a book that concerns research which was performed over a ten year period as part of a collaborative study that addresses the meaning and experience of aging from a cross-cultural perspective. The writer contrasts the aging process in the !Kung villages of Botswana with aging in Swarthmore, Pennsylvania, using this research. No additional sources cited.

  • Cleaning Dentures

    5 pages in length. Maintaining one's own teeth is certainly a preferable alternative to having dentures; however, when the time comes to make such a decision, there are a number of considerations to be made beyond merely the fit. If dentures are not properly cleansed on a regular basis, this can lead to the same type of oral decay found in those without dentures. Denture cleansers are manufactured to help continue the process of good oral hygiene by effectively removing the build up of debris from prosthetic dental appliances. Powder, tablet or paste, the choice of material is solely a personal decision based upon past experience and preference. The write discusses various aspects of denture cleansers. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Overview on the History of Dental Fillings

    An 8 page discussion of the history of dental fillings. Traces the filling from ancient times to present exploring the various types of materials which were used. Explains that the choice of filling is related to performance but also to availability and cost. Notes that the evolutionary path of fillings is tied as well to the evolutionary paths of other dentistry aspects such as drill evolution and the development of molding techniques and materials. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Memory Parallels Between Animals and Humans or 'Monkey See, Monkey Do'

    A 5 page paper that explores the similarities and relations between the human processes of memory and those of the animal species, primarily the Chimpanzee. Arguments defending both the similarities and the differences in the behavioral habits of the Chimpanzee as compared to those of the human species are presented, as well as recent research findings. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Probability of UFOs

    A 9 page paper that argues that life on other planets, and therefore the existence of Unidentified Flying Objects, or UFOs, is not only possible but also probable. Discussed are the 1947 events surrounding what has become known as the Roswell Incident and the private sector interest and investigation into the existence of UFOs that stemmed from this incident. Included are the arguments of those who believe that the existence of UFOs and extraterrestrial life is a probability as well as the arguments of those who dispute this theory. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Future of Mars Exploration

    A 7 page discussion of the Mars exploration program. Emphasizes the reasons behind our obsession with Mars exploration and traces the revised plans for that exploration which have been fabricated since the loss of two U.S. spacecraft in 1999. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Breeding Plants in the Future

    This 6 page paper assumes that plant breeding progress will depend upon the efficient use of genetic resources. Genetic engineering is discussed and the future of plant breeding is looked at from both a practical and legal perspective. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Breeding Plants and Genetic Marker Uses

    This 6 page paper provides significant information in respect to the use of genetic markers in plant breeding. Consumer issues pertinent to the pitfalls of bioengineering are addressed. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Overview of Oceanography

    A 5 page paper. Oceanography is the study of the earth's oceans. The different subfields are explained. Chemical oceanography is emphasized and discussed. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Benthic Storms

    A 7-page paper that defines the undersea disturbances known as benthic storms and examines the causes and effects of these disturbances. Included is a discussion of the components of the sediment existing in the benthic zone and how these components are suspended and transported by way of the undersea currents that create and push benthic storms. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Issue of Ozone Layer Depletion

    A 5 page paper that examines the environmental problem of the depletion of the ozone layer. The opposing views of this issue are discussed, along with the initial goals and objectives set by the Montreal Protocol in 1987 and the present lapse in the fulfillment of those goals and objectives. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Overview of Plant Life and a Secondary Succession Time Line

    This 5 page paper provides a secondary succession time line and an exploration of the named plants. Requirements for plant life and how they interrelate with one another and their environment are the topics addressed. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • Overview of the Cassini Mission

    This 12 page paper provides an overview of the Cassini mission, demonstrating the scientific aspects of this astronautic endeavor. Environmental issues are addressed as well as the potential for making discoveries about Saturn's mysterious rings. An outline is included. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

 

Most Relevant Research Papers

Click on any of the term papers to read a brief synopsis of the research paper. The essay synopsis includes the number of pages and sources cited in the paper.

 

Copyright © 2000-2022 The Paper Store Enterprises, Inc. & Fast Papers On-line.
All rights reserved. Search for your essay here.

U.S. based premium essay, research and
term papers service since 2000.