Research Papers on Criminal Justice

Click on any of the research paper to read a brief synopsis of the paper. The essay synopsis includes the number of pages and sources cited in the paper.


Research Papers on Criminal Justice

Click on any of the term papers to read a brief synopsis of the research paper. The essay synopsis includes the number of pages and sources cited in the paper.

  • Criminal Justice System and Fairness

    A 6 page paper assessing one author’s view of racial and ethnic unfairness in the American system of criminal justice. Author and Georgetown law professor David Cole argues in his book, “No Equal Justice: Race and Class in the American Criminal Justice System,” that the inequality inherent in our legal system originates not with those who enforce and carry out the laws, but rather with the decisions that emanate from the Supreme Court. Cole’s system of criminal justice is fair in its methods after an individual enters into it; it is the method of entry that preserves its inherent unfairness. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Psychology and Criminal Justice Processes

    This 3 page paper discuses some of the processes found in criminal justice and psychology. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Law Enforcement, Cultural diversity and Community

    This 9 page paper discusses the ramifications of integrating diversity training and cultural education into the criminal justice system. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • DNA A Tool in Criminal Justice

    This 3 page paper considers the value that DNA has had in the criminal justice system. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Samuel Walker, the Wedding Cake, and Criminal Justice

    A 4 page paper which examines and discusses Samuel Walker’s theory of criminal justice as it involves the wedding cake. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Alternative Punishments in the Justice System

    This 7 page paper discusses possible alternative punishments in the criminal justice system and victims’ likely reaction to them. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Technology and the Criminal Justice System

    In six pages this paper examines the impact of technology on the criminal justice system an overview of biometric identification, fingerprinting, palm printing, DNA analysis, and intra-agency databases, their advantages and disadvantages, and also assesses the effects these technological advancements have had on the criminal justice system as well as its impact upon the constitutional rights of the accused. Seven sources are listed in the bibliography.

  • Purposes of Criminal Justice

    A 3 page research paper that discusses the four principal purposes associated with the criminal justice system, which are deterrence, incapacitation, rehabilitation and retribution. Examining the efficacy of each of these purposes reveals that their implementation in today's criminal justice system is seriously flawed, particularly in regards to the current focus of that system, which is on incapacitation. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Criminal Justice and the Development of New Technology

    3 pages in length. It used to be that tracking down and apprehending criminal suspects required a combination of psychological outsmarting and a whole lot of physical legwork. Today, while still necessitating the ability to outsmart criminals, the legwork has all but been replaced by new technology, particularly when dealing with assault crimes. Pertinent to today's ever-expanding criminal justice system is the implementation of computer technology as a means by which to accomplish such objectives as criminal investigations, intelligence gathering, crime-mapping and analysis, DNA identification, predictions, personnel management and administration. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Overview of Recidivism

    In 26 pages the author discusses the subject of recidivism, paying particular to recidivism among blacks in Baltimore, MD. 'The rate of recidivism is high when the problems of the incarcerated individual is not addressed properly. With the disproportionate number of Blacks arrested there is a high rate of recidivism in the Black criminal population of Baltimore, MD. The African-American is getting a bum rap. The criminal justice system gives minorities harsher treatment than others receive.' Bibliography lists 62 sources.

  • Criminal Trial of O.J. Simpson and its Legacy

    A well-argued 5 page look at how the O.J. Simpson criminal trial may have had harmful implications for the American legal system. The writer feels that this historic case was decided more on emotion than on fact.. that is was adversely affected by the media.. and that it will likely have a lasting impact on our criminal justice system. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Islamic Law, Aboriginal Customary Law and Queensland Law; a Comparison of Criminal Law and Criminal Justice Systems

    This 13 page paper looks at the Queensland criminal justice system, Aboriginal customary law and Islamic criminal law in order to compare each system according to their origins and characteristics, such as standards of evidence and the way in which punishment is determined, for crimes committed. The bibliography cites 8 sources.

  • Higher Education For Police Officers

    6 pages in length. The psychology of crime requires significantly more than law enforcement officers brandishing loaded weapons at and physically apprehending offenders. Indeed, the extent to which contemporary police forces must also incorporate some level of psychological interface with the perpetrator is both grand and far-reaching; that obtaining a degree of higher education in order to better understand the criminal mind while in the field speaks to a much greater scope of law enforcement than many people realize exists in today's criminal justice system. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Minorities and Prisons

    This 5 page paper provides an overview of the inequities in the current criminal justice system based on assessments of prison populations. This paper assesses the conflicts that occur as a result of attempts to weigh the protection of public rights while also supporting the personal freedoms of individuals and the necessary equality in the application of the law. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Open and Closed Organizational Systems

    3 pages in length. All organizations of every type and size function within the context of two systems: open or closed. To understand the difference between these divergent systems is to realize the importance it has upon criminal justice operations. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • A Review of the California Foster Care System

    This is a 7 page paper that provides an overview of the foster care system. The interactions of the system with the criminal justice system are emphasized. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Systems Management, Human Relations, and Scientific Management Styles

    A 4 page paper that describes and explains three management styles: scientific, human relations and systems management. The writer ends by commenting on the management style that is appropriate for the criminal justice system. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • DNA and the University of North Texas Center for Human Identification Project

    A 4 page overview of the importance of DNA testing in criminal justice. This paper reviews this importance from the perspective of expanding DNA databases. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Equality, Women, and the Criminal Justice System

    A 15 page examination of women in the criminal justice system and how their treatment is inferior to that received by men in the same situations. Bibliography lists fifteen sources.

  • Criminal Law Considered in 4 Questions

    5 pages in length. The writer briefly discusses racketeering and money laundering, four components of the U.S. criminal justice system, community-oriented policing and constitutional protection of prisoner rights. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Exploring Transsexuality and its Modern World Implications

    A 6 page contention that insurance plans should pay for sex change operations in that these operations serve to correct error in human physiology, just as other types of medical approaches correct errors which manifest themselves as diseases or psychological disturbances. Furthermore, the contention is presented that society is obligated to treat those transsexuals who have undergone sex change operations as they treat others of the sex which has been chosen by the transsexual. This obligation extends, in fact, to placing those surgically altered transsexuals who enter the criminal justice system in prisons which correspond to their chosen sex.

  • Time to Dig Out (Case Study Analysis)

    This 4 page paper examines a case study entitled "Time to Dig Out," from a book called Criminal Justice Organizations. Questions posed by the case are answered. No additional sources cited.

  • An Urban Planning/Criminal Justice Case Study

    This 4 page paper provides an overview of the case of Junction City, a community that has issues in the implementation of planning related to their criminal justice system. Bibliography lists 2 sources

  • Exploring Transsexuality and its Modern World Implications

    A 6 page contention that insurance plans should pay for sex change operations in that these operations serve to correct error in human physiology, just as other types of medical approaches correct errors which manifest themselves as diseases or psychological disturbances. Furthermore, the contention is presented that society is obligated to treat those transsexuals who have undergone sex change operations as they treat others of the sex which has been chosen by the transsexual. This obligation extends, in fact, to placing those surgically altered transsexuals who enter the criminal justice system in prisons which correspond to their chosen sex.

  • Management of Criminal Justice

    This 5 page paper deals with the managment of the criminal justice operation and the human resources departments in them. Views from leading experts such as Stojkovic and Fisher/Sirianni. Quotes and examples given. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • United Kingdom's System of Criminal Justice and Mental Illness

    This 10 page paper looks at the way the mentally ill are treated in the UK criminal justices system. The paper is a literature review for a larger study and includes the definition of mental illness, occurrence and type of mental disorders and the treatment of the mentally ill offenders under the law. The bibliography cites 10 sources.

  • Police and its Main Functions

    5 pages. Police are given a wide range of responsibilities in the criminal justice system, from directing traffic to solving homicides. For the most part their work is made up of three primary functions: order maintenance, law enforcement and service. This paper explains the importance of these functions and explains which function is the most important to our society and why. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • A Legal Courtroom Visit

    A 5 page description of what the casual observer would encounter in a court of law. The author provides a general description of the courtroom and the various people who occupy it as well as the relative duties of these people. The popularized media version of the criminal justice system, versions reflected both in the fictional content of television and in the factual rendition of high-profile cases such as the O.J. Simpson case, is contrasted with the realities of the everyday local courtroom. No sources are listed.

  • American Criminal Justice Policy and 'On the Waterfront'

    This 5 page report discusses the 1954Elia Kazan film "On the Waterfront" starring Marlon Brando. The paper focuses on the film's impact in terms of increasing the awareness of the American public regarding organized crime and policies related to criminal justice policy. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Policy Implications of the Film Cool Hand Luke

    A 3 page essay that discusses the impact that the film Cool Hand Luke (1967) had on criminal justice policy. The writer discusses how this film contributed to the spirit of penal reform that existed in the 1960s and 70s. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • In Search of Respect Selling Crack in El Barrio by Phillipe Bourgois

    6 pages in length. The writer discusses criminal justice issues and the notion of drug dealing for survival as they relate to Bourgois' book. No additional sources cited.

  • Garrett and A Criminal-Addict's Story

    A 7 page analysis of the life story of a career criminal and heroin addict, Manual Torres. In and out of prison throughout his life, Torres finally turns his life around through a rehabilitation program in the California penal system that provided him with educational opportunities and encouragement. Co-authors Richard P. Rettig and Gerald R. Garrett, give an added dimension to Manny's life history by relating it to current thinking regarding theories on criminal behavior. Extensively researched, these chapters give perspective on Manny's story and place it within the wider framework of criminal justice theory. No additional sources cited.

  • The Importance of Forensic Psychology

    5 pages in length. The field of psychology is comprised of many subcategories in order to address various and distinct aspects in a more appropriate way. Forensic psychology is somewhat different from other sectors of the field by virtue of its intrinsic connection to the criminal justice system, an alliance that provides for better understanding of "the vast psychological perspectives" (Diviny et al, 2000) inherent to the law. More than that, however, is the fact that forensic psychology deals in myriad aspects of the legal component, not the least of which include helping to set policy and create laws, determining offender competency, establishing a defendant's mental condition at the time when the crime was committed, criminal profiling, attorney consultation for jury selection, treating mentally unstable offenders, acting as expert witness in court and "analyzing a criminal's mind and intent" (Diviny et al, 2000). Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • The Computer In Criminalistics

    3 pages in length. Staying one step ahead of the criminal has long been the first line of defense for law enforcement officers; when intelligence is gathered that precludes the ability for the offender to actually commit the crime, it serves to establish a pattern by which subsequent foils can also be utilized. However, technology has created quite a significant challenge for law enforcement to maintain that critical step ahead of criminal activity by virtue of the wholly comprehensive nature of cyber crime. As such, the entire criminal justice field has come to incorporate the very instrument that has facilitated so many crimes as part of its arsenal for thwarting those offenses and ultimately catching the lawbreakers. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Juvenile Crime and Programs of Shock Incarceration and Boot Camps

    8 pages in length. Re-training juvenile criminals to become positive, contributing members of society has always proven to be a challenge for officials in charge of rehabilitation. Myriad programs have been implemented throughout history to achieve this goal but according to those in the field, none have proven as effective as the boot camp and shock incarceration programs currently in use by a number of juvenile criminal justice systems. The writer discusses how boot camps and shock incarceration programs attempt to put the missing elements of a stable and productive person back into maladjusted youths. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Forensic Pathology Of Sudden Unexplained Death

    8 pages in length. Death of any origin requires a legal certificate that denotes the cause of demise, however, the reason for a death that is sudden and unexpected can keep prevent that cause field on the certificate blank for many months. Determining cause of death in this instance - which is defined as "those that do not result from a diagnosed terminal illness or other debilitating or deteriorating illness or condition where death is anticipated (natural death) unless the illness or condition is the result of an injury, whether intentional or not" (Washington State Department of Health, 2005) is the task of forensic pathologists who are not only trained in identifying the nature of disease and injury but also the "mechanisms of sudden death and subtle forms of homicide" (Washington State Department of Health, 2005). The criminal nature of forensic pathology provides the conduit between difficult police investigations and an appropriate criminal justice outcome. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • The Criminal Justice System and the Issue of Racism

    6 pages in length. One of the most damning aspects of racial stereotypes as it relates to the criminal justice system is the manner in which all members of a particular race become grouped together for the actions of a relative few. By casting a negative light toward being Black, Mexican, Asian or any number of other ethnic races, the criminal justice system clearly demonstrates a great deal of ignorance and disrespect for that individual; just because someone is a member of a certain race does not mean that he or she represents any of the negative connotations associated with that race. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Race Concept and its History

    14 pages in length. Drawing upon the work of David Goldberg's "Racist Culture: Philosophy and the Politics of Meaning," one can readily argue that idea of race has always combined references to what is seen as natural (fixed) and social construct, suggesting that very divergent discourses have been implemented over time as a means by which to account for human diversity within the colonial context of European and non-European differences. Furthermore, the notion of race is not inherent to biology, but rather it is a social and cultural classification that has been erroneously attributed to biological implication. The writer discusses the concept of race from the Puritan colonization to present-day criminal justice system. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • Individual Rights Usurped by the U.S. Supreme Court

    A 5 page paper that argues the following: over the years, individual rights have been denied by the Supreme Court. In the criminal justice system, this has lead to the relaxing of laws to the extent that our Fifth and Sixth Amendment rights have been seriously infringed upon. All rights to personal freedoms in the workplace have been taken away by the Supreme Court, and women's rights to abortion have been substantially reduced. The remaining issue for many of us is the Supreme Court's decision on First Amendment rights in regards to imposed decency on the Internet. This decision is expected within the next month. We can only hope it is not their desire to usurp further rights from United States citizenry. The affect on global Internet business is inestimable. Bibliography lists 4 sources. Copies of sources included.

  • Social Change is Not Reflected by Statutory Law

    Brown v. Board of Education passed into law in 1954, Miranda v. Arizona in 1966, and the Warren court has been out of existence for decades. New laws passed in the U.S. include all kinds of dictatorial aspects including the issue of Homeland Security where the Privacy Act has usurped all rights to an individual’s privacy. This is similar to reasoning behind the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, which requires public corporations to keep an electronic copy of every type of correspondence ever passing in or out of a company (including email and post it notes) so that a companies records are complete in case the company investigated by the Federal government. As this shows, statutory controls have gotten out of hand, not the least of which includes an ancient criminal justice system. 4 works cited. jvStatut.rtf

  • The Use of Technology in the Criminal Justice System

    This 5 page paper discusses mobile data terminals and Livescan technology. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Criminal Justice I

    A 15 page paper in two parts. Part 1 discusses conflict vs consensus perspectives of the origin of criminal law and how the perspectives can affect social, legal and political policy. Part 2 lists 10 perceptions common in popular media (primarily television), followed by the reality of those impressions. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Criminal Justice, Social Justice, and Morality

    This 10 page document is series of 4 small articles (and relevant bibliographies) concerning due process, corruption, use of excessive force by the police, and criminal justice administration.

  • Criminal Justice VI

    A 9 page paper in two parts. The first part, 3 pages, discusses the differences between juvenile and adult courts, and reviews some of the more effective means of waging the war on drugs. The second part of the paper is a brief presenting arguments both for and against legalization or decriminalization of marijuana. Part 2 makes no conclusion, but rather presents arguments used by those on both sides of the issue. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Using Drugs and Juvenile Delinquency

    4 pages in length. Lowry et al's (1999) article entitled School Violence, Substance Use, and Availability of Illegal Drugs On School Property Among US High School Students seeks to uncover what – if any – correlation exists between the presence of drug use and the incidence of criminal activity on America's high school campuses. Utilizing nearly eleven thousand high school students, this study examined the availability and use of tobacco, alcohol and marijuana and other illegal drugs as potential inciters of school violence, which was described as any of the following: weapon-carrying, physical fighting, having property stolen or damaged, being threatened or injured or absenteeism due to feeling unsafe. No additional sources cited.

  • Case Study Analyses in Criminal Justice

    This 5 page paper provides an analysis of two case studies in criminology. Both involve juveniles. REcommendations are made. Two risk assessment scales are used. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • English Criminal Law and Whether Mandatory Sentences Are Justified

    This 8 page paper considers if there is any justification for mandatory sentencing in the English criminal law, the paper considers this from the perceptive of increased justice, increased efficiency and social interests. The bibliography cites 4 sources.

  • UK Criminal Law and Intention

    A 12 page paper discussing intention as it was nearly redefined in Woollin. The question to be evaluated here is “At last, it seems, the meaning of intention in the criminal law is cogent and stable.” When the death of a child results from the unbridled rage of an adult and a verdict of murder is “unsafe” as claimed by one of the appellate court justices, it is unlikely that the issue of intent is far from being anything that approaches being “cogent and stable.” Bibliography lists 15 sources.

  • England's Crime and Crime and Punishment from 1800 to 1850

    This 16 page paper considers hat does criminal law history before 1850 tells us about the processes of change in the law and legal institutions. The paper looks at the period 1800 – 1850 and examines four areas of law and the justice system; capital and corporal punishment including the “Bloody Code”; imprisonment and transportation to Australia; juvenile and women Offenders and the fringes of criminality including vagrants, drunkards and prostitutes. The bibliography cites 17 sources.

  • Should The United States Become A Member Of The International Criminal Court?

    19 pages in length. America's involvement in the International Criminal Court - while helping to facilitate a broader spectrum of accountability across the globe where the International Court of Justice leaves off - creates a vacuum of vulnerability too evident to ignore. From checks and balances to due process to the exclusion of certain offenses that most definitely belong but are somehow protected, these troublesome inconsistencies provide the United States with a solid foundation upon which to stand apart from the Court involvement. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Judicial System of the State of Texas

    This 5 page report discusses the State of Texas’ judicial system and how it is organized and administered. The highest courts in Texas are the Supreme Court and the court of criminal appeals, each with nine justices popularly elected to six-year terms. The state's intermediate court of civil appeals is composed of 80 judges popularly elected to six-year terms, and the major trial courts, called district courts, are made up of 385 judges popularly elected to four-year terms. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Juvenile and Adult Courts: A Comparative Study:

    In ten pages this paper compares and contrasts the juvenile and adult court systems in a study that includes an overview of the juvenile justice system, point comparisons between juvenile and adult courts, pros and cons of juvenile court from a youth offender’s perspective, societal implications of abolishing juvenile court, and future juvenile justice system recommendations are also included. Three sources are listed in the bibliography.

  • Commonwealth Caribbean Jurisprudence, Natural Justice, and Fairness

    This is a 10 page paper discussing the concept of fairness and natural justice in regards to the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth Caribbean. The concept of fairness adds to the law of natural justice especially in its application of the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth Caribbean. The Commonwealth Caribbean, comprised of over 15 island and mainland nations in the Caribbean, has a system of law based primarily on that of the United Kingdom and on each nation’s colonial history. Some nations have components of the colonial Dutch and French systems as well because of historical ties. Regardless of the nation however, the Commonwealth Caribbean was considered one of the areas of the world in which basic laws of human rights, natural justice and natural law, were not being followed in regards to fairness, justice and equality within the judicial system. Prisoners unable to afford representation were not always provided with legal aid and were therefore not offered fair trials, decisions or appeals. With an international push for fairness in judicial systems, organizations were formed providing representation for criminals in the Commonwealth Caribbean in the mid-1990s and more recently constitutional amendments have been included providing for legal aid representation in all cases. Several amendments have been enforced within the judicial system as well to follow constitutional law to provide fair and just representation in regards to decisions pertaining to court justices and despite the power of the Chief Justice within the judicial system, he must also follow the concept of fairness in his application of justice within the judicial system itself. Bibliography lists 12 sources.

  • Criminal Profiling and Other Issues

    A 19 page paper that discusses numerous issues related to the topic. Some of those issues are: antisocial personality, criminal and non-criminal psychopathy, compulsive behavior, addictions, history of forensic evaluation, methods of criminal profiling, types of forensic evaluations, characteristics of serial predators and more. Bibliography lists 23 sources.

  • The Nature and Purpose of Criminal Law

    This 4 page paper discusses criminal law; its functions; its sources; and how criminal responsibility can be limited. It also touches very briefly on the constitutional safeguards that limit the exercise of criminal law. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Criminal Psychology and Amnesia

    A 10 page paper discussing claims of amnesia in criminal cases. Though there have been several cases of complete and total amnesia documented over the years, those cases are exceedingly rare. In considering amnesia in the light of criminal activity, it is the victim, rather than the criminal, who is far more likely to experience loss of memory surrounding a criminal event. Amnesia has been used as a defense in criminal prosecutions, but there is question of whether the accused have truly forgotten or otherwise repressed memory surrounding the event of which they have been charged. Research is pointing a clearer path to true assessment of the validity of many of the claims. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • Do Genes or Environment Determine Crime

    This 4 page paper evaluates the role genetic makeup and factors such as testosterone play in criminal behavior. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Sports and the Connection to Crime

    This 5 page paper discusses some of the criminal issues that intersect with the sports world. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • 'Blame Game' and Criminal Law

    This 7-page paper attempts to prove the assertion that blaming is an important factor in criminal law. Bibliography lists two sources.

  • Justice Concept

    An 8 page paper. Defining justice is a difficult task, at best. It means different things based on one's perspective. It also means different things in different settings. The origin of the concept of justice is one of the topics in this paper and it is traced back to Cephalus. Ancient theories regarding justice through Plato are then discussed. The writer also discusses the concept of social justice as found in the Bible. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Alcohol and Drug Use/Juvenile Crime

    An 8 page research paper that includes a brief abstract, which investigates literature on alcohol and drug consumption in order to discern the relationship between these factors and juvenile involvement in criminal behavior. First of all, the writer summarizes four relevant research studies; then, findings are summarized and discussed and conclusions are drawn, which argue that, rather than a causal effect of criminal behavior, alcohol and drug consumption is a symptom of the social and mental health issues with which juvenile offenders have to cope. Bibliography lists 5 sources.


    Understanding the depth and scope of what on-the-job hazards exist for police officers is an instrumental way in which to help mitigate the detrimental outcome when they do occur. Dealing with the criminal element is not the only connection police officers have with on-the-job hazards inasmuch as their responsibilities also include domestic disturbances, traffic stops and health-related emergencies. The purpose behind this research proposal is to determine the greater propensity of hazards as they relate to criminal and noncriminal situations. 6 pages and 6 sources.

  • Criminal Theory and Crime's Psychological Correlates

    A 4 page overview of the contemporary views on criminal psychology. This paper distinguishes between psychology which is used in the therapeutic treatment of criminals and that used to demonstrate guilt or innocence in a court of law. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Criminality Theoretical Development

    6 pages in length. Understanding the fundamental reasons behind criminal behavior is based upon more than just a single theory; rather, criminal psychology recognizes myriad theories that help to define the various elements inherent to why certain people commit crimes while others do not. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Criminal Behavior and Criminology Theory

    An 8 page overview of the relationship of environment, genetics, and psychology in predicting the propensity of criminal behavior. Some theories contend that it is an individual’s genetic makeup which translates into crime, others that it is the presence of a psychological illness. Researchers agree, however, that criminal behavior most often results from a conflict between societal and individual values. While some of the root causes of these conflicts are indeed genetic or psychological, others can be culturally based, some may differ even between families. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Abnormal Psychology Study and Law Enforcement

    A 5 page paper discussing the benefits that this study brings to law enforcement. Both crimes and criminals are becoming more sophisticated each year. The study of abnormal psychology cannot be a be-all and end-all measure for law enforcement, but it can help even the playing field between criminals and law enforcement. It can assist in avoiding wasted investigative time, and it can be instrumental in making local law enforcement more productive in their investigations. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Juvenile Justice: The Importance of Separating Juveniles and Adults

    A 20 page overview of the reasoning behind llinois' recent move to create a separate Department of Juvenile Justice. The value of this move is supported by the literature on juvenile justice. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • Order, Law, and the Salem Witch Hunts

    This 12 page paper takes a thoughtful look at law and order, and whether or not society really metes out justice fairly. The Salem Witch hunts are looked at as an example of when society unfairly applied what it construed as justice. The unfairness of how women are treated in today's prisons is also another topic addressed in this paper that is chockfull of information and research. Sociological and philosophical perspectives are used to explore how society has tried to maintain order. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Society through the Lens of John Landis’s “Trading Places”

    This 8 page paper discusses the film “Trading Places” as a cultural artifact, and explores what it says about the law, justice, and society. It also discusses whether the film made its points and if so, was it done badly or well. Finally, it discusses why and how justice was served at the climax of the movie. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Learning Lessons in Billy Budd and Antigone

    A 3 page essay that argues that the main theme in both Sophocles' Antigone and Herman Melville's Billy Budd is a warning that the society that ignores humanitarian issues does so at its own peril. These narratives warn us that the society that puts punitive justice ahead of all else may be enacting a certain kind of justice, but it does so at the expense of its own soul. In a country that is prosecuting children to the full extent of the law, it is a lesson that should be noticed. No additional sources cited.

  • U.S. Judicial System and Prejudice

    This 12 page paper considers a 1996 article by Peter David Blanck entitled ‘The appearance of justice revisited’. The paper considers the content and alternatives to ensure that justice is served in the courts by the non-prejudicial behaviour of the judges. The bibliography cites 5 sources.

  • Organized Crime Syndicates and Commercial Burglaries

    In this 15 page paper, the question of what is meant by 'organized crime' is explored with particular reference to commercial burglaries and robberies. Several different types of criminal organization are discussed, from the organized efforts of individual criminals and affiliated acquaintances ('teams' or 'partners in crime') to more professionally organized 'gangs,' 'rings,' and finally to international sydicated crime with contracted criminals who conduct robberies and burglaries. It is argued that a new approach is needed to this significant risk to businesses from burglaries and robberies of all these types. This would, like new approaches to physical health, include attention to the causes as well as the symptoms of the worldwide crime disease, and to the general health of society as a preventative measure. Bibliography lists 30 sources.

  • Film Noir, Complexity And Gangsters

    3 pages in length. The intrigue of living outside the law serves as a basis upon which gangsters films harbor a certain complexity. A criminal element coupled with dark, seductive and intelligent antagonists whose sole purpose in life is to get something for nothing leads viewers on a nonstop chase whereby the gangster usually has the upper hand; it is rare for this social nonconformist to be outwitted as he exists within a covert infrastructure that allows for easy movement into and out of his targets. Classic films like High Sierra, White Heat and The Killers embody a significant change to the gangster/criminal film after 1940 with a distinctive move toward the mysterious complexity of film noir. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Pedophiles and Abnormal Psychology:

    6 pages in length. Pedophilia, the compulsion to have sexual relations with children, is a subgroup of sexual disorders associated with abnormal psychology. Identified as a problem of sexual aim, those who struggle with and ultimately succumb to their urges to sexually violate children are considered so socially abhorrent that even hardcore criminals doing life for dismembering another person cannot tolerate the idea of innocent kids being inflicted with such abuse and often make prison life a living hell for convicted pedophiles. Clearly, there is a hierarchy of offence within the criminal community whereby other felons condemn pedophiles for heathenish behavior with such a taboo as vulnerable children. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Piety, the Bible, Sophocles, and Plato

    A 4 page essay that contrasts and compares Plato's Euthyphro, Sophocles' Oedipus and the Book of Genesis, chapter 22. The writer points out that all of these works concern the perspective of ancient peoples on issues of piety, justice and the manner in which these issues intersect with religion. Examination of these texts shows that Sophocles and the author of Genesis agree that divine authority demands and deserves unquestioning obedience. However, Plato, in representing the philosophy of Socrates, presents a more ambiguous picture that emphasizes the unreliability of a purely religious foundation for issues of justice. Analysis of these positions shows that Plato's stance in Euthyphro is the most logical-- and just-- by modern standards. No additional sources cited.

  • Six Great Ideas by Mortimer Adler

    5 pages in length. Mortimer Adler’s “Six Great Ideas” helps one to truly grasp the myriad representations of life, democracy and existence. According to the author’s insights in chapter 28 -- whose six great ideas include liberty, truth, goodness, beauty, equality and justice -- liberty, justice and equality are by necessity inadequate and an almost endless process. The writer discusses how Adler’s staunch quest to return to absolute values allows him to purport that humanity has strayed considerably far off the path that ultimately leads to a life of ethical expression. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Crimina. Deviance

    A 5 page paper examining deviant criminal behavior. Is this an absolute personality profile? Factors which may influence this behavior are discussed. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • 3 Strikes Legislation and its Ineffectiveness

    In 6 pages, the author discusses the ineffectiveness of the three strikes law. The three strikes law is ineffective. People continue to commit criminal offences as though this law did not even exist. The three strikes law, therefore does not stop recidivism. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Communication and Resolution in Interpersonal Conflicts

    In 6 pages, the author discusses interpersonal conflict resolution and communication. Whether it is between husband and wife, co-workers, or even criminals and their victims, interpersonal conflict resolution is vital for effective communication, and effective communication is vital for interpersonal conflict resolution. The two are juxtaposed. Without effective communication, interpersonal conflict resolution cannot occur. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Drug Trafficking and the Impact of the United States

    This 10 page paper examines the facts brought to light during the past several decades of US impact on drug trafficking in Mexico. The government of the United Criminal organizations of all kinds increasingly layer illegal profits through investments in legitimate businesses. Unilateral, bilateral and multilateral forms of pressure, intervention and collaboration are proliferating between states in the name of suffocating the ever swelling drug economy. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Determinate Proposal on Death Penalty Propensity and a Juror's Gender

    A 10 page paper that argues the thesis that women jurors are less likely to vote for capital punishment than are male jurors and presents a basic determinate proposal projecting results that will substantiate this claim. Discussed are the maximalist and minimalist approaches that have been taken in the study of gender differences in criminal sentencing, with emphasis being placed on the effectiveness of the minimalist approach. The proposed research involves the study of a sampling of first and second level university students and outlines the steps necessary to carry out this survey. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Analysis of a Kidnapping Case and Questions Involving Hijacking, Force, and Intent

    A 5 page paper that presents a kidnapping case analysis that examines the three questions of necessary intent, applied force, and what constitutes charges of hijacking within the criminal charge of kidnapping. These three questions are examined and answered in regard to applicable rule of law and a subsequent altered set of charges is offered. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Forensics

    A 9 page overview of forensics. The author defines forensics and illustrates its history. Examples from criminal investigations are emphasized along with forensic psychology. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • A US Prison Reform History

    This paper examines the history of both prisons and prison reform in the United States. The paper also discusses the effectiveness of incarceration as a tool for detering criminals, and examines what critics have said about prisons through the ages. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • The Breakfast Club/A View of Adolescence

    A 5 page research paper/essay that discusses The Breakfast Club, directed by John Hughes for Universal, which is an insightful film that offers more substance and analysis of adolescence than the typical Hollywood teen movie. This film rises above the banality of the teen movie genre by exploring in more depth the psychological ramifications of the various high school stereotypical characters, i.e., a “brain, an athlete, a basket case, a princess and a criminal” (Hughes, 2007). Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • The Films Taxi Driver and Angels with Dirty Faces and the Portrayals of Antiheros

    A 5 page paper which defines the concept of an antihero, discusses its characteristics, and then applies them to an examination of how criminals are portrayed as antiheroes in these films. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Post 1950 West and Marijuana

    An 11 page discussion of the history of marijuana usage in countries like Great Britain, Canada, and the U.S. since the mid part of the twentieth century. The author reviews some of the critical laws regarding marijuana usage, inclusive of the 2002 decision by Great Britain to lessen the criminal penalties for possession of marijuana and to in effect look the other way, to conclude that while countries like Great Britain and Canada are slowly preparing for the leap toward legalization, the U.S. is holding back and looking at the edge. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • Cyberspace Crimes and the Law

    This 9 page paper examines cybercrime and how the law is involved. This paper argues that while the law is important, it is sufficient. The problem with catching the criminals who participate in this type of activity is that technology in law enforcement is not up to par. Research is provided to support the assumptions. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Juvenile Delinquency, Youth Culture, and Renegade Kids, Suburban Outlaws by Wooden

    A 5 page paper that provides an overview of the major points in Wooden's work. No additional sources cited. The suburbs of the United States have been experiencing a steady increase in criminal activities, especially crimes committed by youth offenders, and Wayne Wooden's Renegade Kids, Suburban Outlaws demonstrates this problem and proposes possible routes towards resolution

  • Burglary, Common Law and Criminal Statute

    In 8 pages, the author discusses Virginia's common law of burglary and Tennessee's common law of burglary, and whether the outcome of common law has been as effective as the outcome of a criminal statute. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • English Criminal Law's Function

    This 5 page paper discusses the statement The only De Facto function of the English criminal law is to achieve a minimum degree of conformity of behaviour to the laws expectation... the rest are purely academic'. The writer makes reference to English Law, but the arguments may be seen as universally valid. The bibliography cites 2 sources.

  • Criminal Intent and Inter Vivos Trusts

    5 pages in length. The writer briefly discusses criminal intent and inter vivos trusts. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • 3 Strikes Legislation and its Ineffectiveness

    In 6 pages, the author discusses the ineffectiveness of the three strikes law. The three strikes law is ineffective. People continue to commit criminal offences as though this law did not even exist. The three strikes law, therefore does not stop recidivism. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Sex Offenders and the Correctional System

    This 5 page paper discusses the conditions sexual offenders face in prison; treatment options; and the rate of criminal sexual offenses. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Criminal Recidivism and High School Dropout

    This 20 page paper provides a methodology section for an IRB on the topic of the effects of high school dropout on criminal recidivism for African American males. Bibliography lists 15 sources.

  • Issues in Psychology

    A 25 page paper that begins with definitions or abnormal and trends in treatment approaches. The writer comments on and discusses numerous issues including: clinical interview questions, clinical assessment of a child, anxiety disorders, fears and phobias, depression, eating disorders, theoretical viewpoints in abnormal psychology, criminal insanity using an article, A Matter over Mind, schizophrenia, anxiety in children, ADHD, and a case study plus other topics. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Gumdrop Northern: A Business Ethics Memorandum

    This is a 7 page paper that provides an overview of business ethics. A hypothetical case study is used to analyze various breaches of ethics, both civil and criminal. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • The Many Impacts of Domestic Violence

    This 3 page research proposal contains an outline and focuses on methodology. The purpose of this paper is to render a proposal about conducting one's own research on the topic of how domestic violence affects juveniles and possibly prompts them to engage in criminal activity. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Criminal Recidivism

    5 pages in length. The author discusses environment, gang activity, lack of or ineffectual rehabilitation in prison, and inability to garner successful employment as proponents that contribute to the recidivism of criminals. No bibliography.

  • Crime and Hate

    A 9 page argumentative essay pertaining to 'hate crimes' and whether or not enhanced criminal penalties should exist for those who commit them. Used as a constant reference is the relevant Supreme Court Case of R.A.V. vs. St. Paul and various tenets of the First Amendment. The writer concludes that free speech must be protected at virtually any cost in the U.S. even if it means that hate speech and 'hate crimes' will continue to cost lives.

  • The Feminist Movement and Criminology

    This 10 page paper traces the impact the feminist movement has had on understanding why crimes are committed, who is the criminal, and who is the victim. Bibliography lists 20 sources.

  • Forensic Science and DNA Testing

    6 pages in length. Technological advancement has changed the very foundation upon which mankind lives; while some of this tremendous progress is questionable in nature, the vast majority has allowed for significantly more convenience, speed and result. DNA testing within forensic science is one of the most important examples of how technology has enabled law enforcement officials to identify criminals much more accurately and in much less time. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • DNA in Investigations and as Evidence

    A 5 page research paper that explains what DNA and DNA analysis are and then discusses the role of this criminal law enforcement tool investigations and as evidence in court. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Does Animal Cruelty in Childhood Result in Violence in Adulthood

    This 3 page paper provides an overview of an experiment on the impacts of animal cruelty and hunting in childhood on adult criminal behaviors. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • 4 Theories of Criminology

    7 pages in length. The writer discusses biological determinism, labeling, rational choice and operant conditioning as they relate to criminal theories. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Delinquency Topics

    This 4 page research paper addresses 4 topics pertaining to criminal behavior and theory, beginning with the neutralization theory of Matza and his associate Gresham Sykes, which describes how juveniles "drift" into delinquent behavior. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Terrorism and Wartime criminal law

    An 8 page research paper that discusses crime and criminal law in general and then focuses on terrorism and changes in constitutional law, arguing that this is not a good idea. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • The Ethics of the Phillip Morris Company

    A 9 page paper based on a case study provided by the student. The headings include: principal facts of the case, ethical issues, primary stakeholders, possible alternatives, evaluation of each alternative according to utilitarian, justice/fairness and right/duty perspectives, constraints, implementation of selected alternative. Case has to do with Phillip Morris expanding its cigarette market to Third World and East European countries. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • Social Justice : Hiv/Aids, Obesity, Aging

    A 4 page paper divided into two parts. The fist part discusses social justice and HIV/AIDS and obesity; the second part discusses the aging population and how social workers can help. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Sutherland's Theory of Executive Crimes

    This 3 page paper explains White-Collar Deviance, Corporate fraud, and mortgage fraud and explains why these are White Collar crimes. The paper also discusses sociologist Edwin Sutherland who coined the term “white collar crime in 1949 and in so doing changed much of the justice system. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Utopia from One Writer's Perspective

    A 5 page paper on a Utopia that offers a combined virtual and social education system, a justice system without lawyers, housing, food and clothing for everyone, no guns, community involvement in daily governance, and hierarchies of volunteer councils of twelve (to infinity). Income is earned and taxed--equally at 10 percent. Money and credit are dispensed with in favor of living according to means with debit cards. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Establishment Clause, the 1st Amendment, and School Prayer

    A 6 page paper on the double edged sword of religious liberty in the First Amendment to the Constitution and the prohibition of establishment of religion as it relates to the controversy over mandated prayer or "moments of silence" in the classroom. Social, political, theological, & U.S. Supreme Court arguments are examined and the writer ultimately concludes that the State must not be allowed to coerce us into acknowledging any religion -- Banning school prayer will ultimately serve a greater good and contribute to the provision of true Democratic justice in America. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Pertinent Issues in First Amendment Law

    A 10 page research paper that concerns First Amendment issues suggested by a scenario regarding the trial of a group of right-wing extremists known as the "Montana Freeman." The scenario presumes that this report is a document prepared for the Justice Department addressing possible First Amendment issues/problems concerning the trial and its repercussions on the activities of various right-wing groups. The writer discusses the "clear and present danger" test, and other case precedents that pertain to the issues addressed. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Ancient Greece and the Worshippers of Zeus

    A 4 page analysis of the appeal of Zeus to Greek society. The paper argues that Zeus changed from a fickle and furious weather-god to a champion of justice, as his worshippers changed from illiterate tribesmen to the highest culture of the ancient world. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Crime, Justice, and Changing Lenses by Howard Zehr

    A 10 page paper that considers the major points presented in Zehr's book, especially the concept of restorative justice, and provides a critical analysis of his argument. Bibliography lists no additional sources.

  • Popularity of Turkey's AKP Truth and Justice Party

    This 10 page paper is an outline for a project or dissertation that examines how and why the AKP (Truth and Justice Party) in Turkey have become so popular. The paper outlines the area of research with primary and secondary research questions and then undertakes a brief literature review to indicate the direction of the the proposed research. The bibliography cites 7 sources.

  • Product Safety Management and the Infamous Ford Pinto Case

    This is a 10 page analysis of the entitled Harvard case study. The Pinto debacle happened in the 1970s. This essay identifies the facts of the case, provides a legal analysis and an ethical analysis. Rawls' theories of due care, responsible person and moral justice are included in the discussion. The writer provides concluding remarks. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • A Case Study: The Restorative Justice Process

    This 3 page essay focuses on a case study published by Prison Fellowship International, which offers insight into the benefits for all involved parties that can be derived from the restorative justice process. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Dante’s Inferno/Canto XX

    A 3 page essay that analyzes Canto XX from Dante Alighieri’s epic poem “The Divine Comedy,” which begins with the book entitled “Inferno” and records how Dante journeys through Hell led by the specter of the ancient Roman poet Virgil. In Canto XX, Dante, the poet as opposed to the character in the poem, reasons that piety lives but that pity is dead. This may seem hard-hearted to the modern-day reader, but it fits with the theological reasoning of Dante’s era, which believed that God’s justice should be accepted unequivocally and with complete faith, that is, with piety. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Concepts in Short Stories

    This 3 page paper discusses Kafka's short story "In a Penal Colony" and whether or not it represents procedural justice and argues that it does not. Then it discusses Willa Cather's work "Paul's Case," "The Country Doctor" by Balzac and "The Swimmer" by Cheever, and argues that only Neddy in the swimmer would be considered to have a life that Sisyphus would applaud. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • A Matter of Interpretation Federal Courts and the Law by Antonin Scalia

    A 5 page research paper that analyzes A Matter of Interpretation: Federal Courts and the Law by Justice Antonin Scalia. The writer first discusses Scalia's position and then addresses what others have to say about the issues that are in the book, before concluding that Scalia's position is correct. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Life's Complexities and Tort Law

    A 9 page paper defining tort law as a civil wrong resulting from an act or omission which has caused damage to other persons or property. The author contends that the law has to accommodate all the untidy complexities of life, and there are circumstances where considerations of practical justice impel us to reject a general imposition of liability for foreseeable damage. Numerous examples are provided which clarify tort liability. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Racial Equality and Tort Law

    A 4 page paper discussing the progress of racial equality over the past century as it applies to tort law. Beginning with Justice Harlan’s dissent in the 1896 case of Plessy v. Ferguson and continuing to the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the paper discusses the ineffectiveness of tort law before the mid-1960s. America still has not achieved full equality, but the tort possibilities introduced with the Civil Rights Act of 1964 have provided a means by which it can continue to be promoted. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Commontary on Herbert L.A. Hart's 'What's Important In Law In A Society Is Social Facts And Not Morality Or Justice'

    3 pages in length. Herbert L.A. Hart's (1997) assertion of "what's important in law in a society is social facts and not morality or justice" (p. PG), goes against the very grain of the entire legal process. In order to accept this accusation, it is important to understand how and why the notion of law first developed. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Maintaining Order Through Law

    This 8 page paper acknowledges that the primary goal of law is to maintain order. The paper then considers the argument that there are other ways of maintaining order. Issues such as magic, beliefs, natural law, justice, process, gender and equality are all considered within this context. The bibliography cites 9 sources.

  • European Union Law and the Direct Effect Concept

    The notion of the effectiveness of European Community law has been developed by the European Courts of Justice (ECJ)into an obligation on national courts to ensure that they give adequate effect to EC in cases arising before them. This 8 page paper examines the way in which the “direct effect” concept has been applied by the ECJ, and contrasts its’ effectiveness with any alternative way of enforcing EC law. The bibliography cites 4 sources.

  • Lawmaking and the ECJ

    This 10 page paper considers the question “do the European Court of Justice have as much influence on the development of community law as the council of ministers”. The bibliography cites 6 sources.

  • History and Impact of the 1967 President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice

    This paper examines the 1967 President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice, the history of the commission and the impact of its recommendations. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Questions on United Kingdom Law Pertaining to the Human Rights Convention

    This 10 page paper answers 8 question provided by the student looking at different aspects of the Human Rights Convection and how it is impacting on UK Law. Issues covered include the clash between security measures and articles 5 and 6 of the convention, the right to silence, the impact of the Macpherson Report, the youth justice system and the legal perception of entrapment. The bibliography cites 15 sources.

  • Educational Management Business Model

    A 7 page paper. This essay is based on one book: "The "Business" of Reforming American Schools" by Denise Gelburg. The writer addresses the issue of adopting private sector business and management models to public education. the writer comments the effect of this practice on social justice and equity and also on the profession of teaching. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • Forensic Psychology and Juvenile Justice

    This 14 page paper explores the roles forensic psychologists play in juvenile justice. Their role in determining competency to stand trial and whether or not a juvenile should be trialed as an adult is of particular focus. This paper includes an annotated bibliography which lists 15 sources.

  • Discrimination and Justice in Public Education

    Ju An 8 page paper. There are three general elements in this paper. First, there is a discussion of the growing diversity in the public schools and the discrimination that exists against "minority" students; next, is a discussion of what the Bible says about discrimination and justice; third, there are recommendations regarding changing the situation. Data are provided. Bibliography lists 12 sources.

  • Summaries of Articles by Rawls, Mills, and Dworkin

    5 pages in length. The writer summarizes three articles: Ronald Dworkin's 'Is affirmative action doomed?,' Mills' 'Of the limits to the authority of society over the individual,' and John Rawls' 'A theory of justice.' No additional sources cited.

  • Criminology Foundations

    This is a 3 page paper discussing the foundations of criminology in relation to contemporary developments. The study of criminology is important in contemporary society because crime affects everyone within society either directly or indirectly. Criminology uses expertise from a variety of disciplines such as law, sociology, psychology, anthropology and economics among others to try and understand the societal processes of the making of collective laws, the breaking of these laws, and society’s reaction to the breaking of the laws. While a crime is basically considered as the breaking of the criminal code, there are many other dimensions to crime which must be considered in order to understand its effect on society. The breaking of the criminal code is only the legal aspect of crime while normative, deviant, social, and basic right perspectives must also be included. Without these intensive studies in criminology, societal laws will not reflect the needs of society or the causes of ongoing criminal behavior. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Individual and Societal Effects of Organized Crime

    A 9 page paper discussing how both organized crime and society have changed since its early-20th century origins in the US. The Great Depression gained far more attention than did flamboyant criminals, as has been the case with the rapid rise of organized crime in Eastern Europe since the fall of communism. Violence formerly was limited to that between organization members, but today's spills over into a broader area. Ultimately, it is political corruption that provides the environment in which organized crime can thrive. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • The Juvenile Justice System Literature Review

    This 5 page paper examines the concept of juvenile justice and reviews literature on the topic. Suggestions are made. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Phil Spector's Murder Trial: Evidence

    3 pages in length. Fame and fortune do not preclude the potential for criminal activity, even a crime as heinous as murder. Phil Spector - a celebrated music producer from the 1960s whose claim to fame includes Cher and the Ramones - has been charged with the February 3rd murder of Lana Clarkson, a struggling actress who had taken a hostess job at the House of Blues. The famous music club located on Los Angeles's Sunset Strip was where Clarkson was last seen alive after leaving with Spector in his private vehicle; they later arrived at his mansion where she was found two hours hence with a single shot to the head. Six months and myriad forms of evidence later, Spector was charged in the case; he bailed out on one million dollars bond and is scheduled for trial in September 2007. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Literature Review on the Value of Mentoring

    This 40 page literature review is divided into four relatively equal sections as follows: I. Does Mentoring Decrease Criminal Involvement for African American Girls? II. What needs does mentoring address in African American girls? III. Is one on one mentoring more effective than group mentoring? IV. What are the long term results of mentoring for African American girls ages 12-18? Many studies are cited throughout the course of the paper and sources include journals, books, newspaper articles, magazine articles and web sites. Bibliography lists 75 sources.

  • Digital And Psychological Profiling Of Cyber Crime

    10 pages in length. Witnesses are often the single most important elements of securing a conviction or realizing an acquittal; without these observers to testify as to what they saw, heard or know, myriad court cases would either go unsolved or erroneously resolved. With the technological age, however, has come an entirely different type of witness who - by virtue of its unique position to collect incriminating data - does not have the capacity to lie. Computers have become some of the most critical tools law enforcement agencies have encountered, inasmuch as they provide a clear-cut path to criminals who use them as cyber weapons. Bibliography lists 13 sources.

  • IT Forensics: Digital Evidence

    5 pages in length. The article entitled "Computer Forensics" by Peter Sommer delves deeply into the advantage law enforcement officials have in the ongoing pursuit of apprehending cyber criminals. Discussing each component of IT forensics in a comprehensive yet understandable manner, the author provides a beginning-to-end overview of why computer forensics has become a necessity in today's high-tech world, how police carry out the often-tedious task of finding virtual evidence and when said evidence is considered permissible in a court of law. In short, Sommer offers an encapsulated yet thorough glance at the inner workings of an entirely unprecedented element of technological law enforcement. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • UK Criminal Law and the Intent to Kill

    A 14 page paper that discusses criminal law in the United Kingdom. Specifically, this paper discusses how the Court of Appeals have clarified the meaning of intention in terms of acts that cause grave bodily harm or death. Four cases are explained, R v Moloney; R V Hancock and Shankland; R v Nedrick; and R v Woollin. These cases of appeal worked to clarify the meaning of intention. Two hypothetical cases are then discussed for which the other four cases are used to determine if the defendants' actions met the requirements for mens rea. At this point, further cases from the Courts of Appeals are brought into the discussion. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Spielberg/Catch Me If You Can

    A 10 pages research paper/essay that examines Catch Me If You Can (2002, directed by Stephen Spielberg), which is the most-or-less true story of Frank W. Abagnale Jr., a disturbed, but ingenious adolescent who successfully impersonates being an airline pilot, a lawyer, and a doctor, while also forging 2.5 million dollars in checks, all between the ages of 16 and 21. There is arguably nothing more appealing in film than the hero who has the ability to do anything. However, this film also provides insight into deeper, more poignant truths about human nature than are evident in Frank's flashy criminal lifestyle. The writer discusses cinematography, editing, sound design and other aspects of the film. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Program Proposal on School Violence Prevention

    10 pages in length. The scope of gratuitous violence, which has typically extended only as far as the mutinous fringe of society, has crossed over into a heretofore untouchable population and spawned a new and alarming perspective upon violent behavior. The extent to which schools are now faced with the dual task of preventing brutal attacks while at the same time addressing the issue of violence from its core is both grand and far-reaching; that children and adolescents are committing acts of unspeakable brutality upon their classmates and teachers speaks to a tremendous breakdown in social and cultural principles. If adults are doing such a poor job at precluding school violence, the only logical alternative is to employ those who are more like-minded to those committing the criminal acts. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Manslaughter and Criminal Law

    This 7 page paper considers a case provided by the student and advises to potential defendants. The paper assesses the requirements of actus reus and mens rea that establishes the case of manslaughter is established and the defences of provocation and diminished responsibility. The second part of the paper concerns involuntary manslaughter and causing death by dangerous driving. The bibliography cites 6 sources.

  • Cybercrime, Privacy, and Security

    A 14 page paper. Cybercrime is increasing every year. The costs are staggering, as much as hundreds of millions of dollars each year plus the cost to human dignity and morale. The crooks have had more tools to use than our law enforcement agencies and law enforcement has been consistently thwarted in their attempts to gain authority to use the kinds of programs and strategies that could result in capturing the criminals. That changed on September 11. The Attack on America woke up the public and the Congress and resulted in a number of new laws that give expanded authority to specific agencies to "listen" in on the Internet. This essay discusses Cybercrime and then, the issue of security versus privacy. The writer takes the position that more security is worth less privacy. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Stereotypes Involving Organized Crime and Italian Americans

    5 pages in length. At no time can New York's Italian Mafia defy the legitimacy of its association with violence, inasmuch as news report after news report finds its members involved in one kind of killing spree or another. There is little support in disputing that primary to its objective as a self-imposed social overseer, the New York Italian Mafia showcases the violence and power that renders its members fully able to take possession of whatever they want any way they can obtain it. One might readily surmise that written into their clandestine constitution are the words that give them the power to obstruct justice, play by their own rules and literally attend to life in any manner they see fit. That ordinary Italian-Americans are automatically branded with this stereotype when, in fact, they have nothing to do with organized crime speaks volumes regarding the powerful image their violent counterparts have erected. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • America's System of Justice and Women

    A 16 page research paper. The topic of women and the US Justice System is indeed a broad one, containing several aspects that cannot be ignored by any discussion of both the role of and the effects on women. It is necessary to look at women on each side of the judicial bench—how those in judging positions perform their duties and the contributions they make, and how those embroiled in legal issues common to women are faring today compared to past times. Also important is the fair and unbiased evaluation of the effects and the realized results of laws specific to women, such as sex discrimination of women and reforms of rape laws that have been in place in several jurisdictions for several years, while are still under discussion in others. Bibliography lists 12 sources.

  • Emergency Room and Making Ethical Decisions

    A 9 page paper discussing the philosophies of Kant, Mill and Rawls to inform decision-making in nursing, but perhaps the philosophy of Rawls is most directly applicable to nursing. Though wholly unworkable on a national scale, using Rawls’ philosophy in teaching nursing ethics and values works beautifully with nursing’s reason for being. From the nursing perspective, the “least advantaged member of society” is that one confined to a hospital bed. Ethics of choice does not require a great deal of time to process, for it is intent – rather than outcome – that carries greatest weight in determining the morality and justice of a decision. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • Six Stories and Lower and Upper Classes

    A 5 page essay that addresses six works by six authors: Orwell, Dostoevsky, Goldsmith, Goldstone, Huxley and Jackson. The writer argues that literature is, among other things, a reflection of an author's perception of society, its values and concepts of knowledge and truth. As this suggests, through the medium of literature, readers can gain insights about their society, and particularly its class structure, which they may not perceive in the course of their everyday lives. This examination of six works illustrates this principle, as each tale focuses on a different aspect of class structure, informing the reader, but, more importantly, causing the reader to reflect on the justice of taken for granted societal norms. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Chronic Pain Management and Nursing Philosophy

    A 5 page paper considering management of chronic pain within the framework of basic nursing values. Management of chronic pain can be as frustrating for the nurse as it is for the patient. Though the patient suffers the pain, the nurse’s aim is to help him cope with it. There are growing numbers of alternatives available, most of which work only with a few specific individuals. Calling on nursing philosophy within the framework of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, justice and fidelity can inform decisions surrounding pain management. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Human Resource Management Changes

    A 29 page paper that responds to the question of whether or not human resource management has changed over the years or does it just appear to have changed? To respond to the question, this essay provides a historical overview of the evolution of personnel administration in the 1920s to strategic human resource management today. Strategic human resource management is then described and explained. The essay then addresses human resource development and the complexity of HRM. Employee motivation is discussed, including theories of equity, expectation and justice. The writer also comments on incentives and rewards as motivational processes. The writer reports the need for a human resource measurement framework and the activities that need to be measured. Bibliography lists 31 sources.

  • Characterization in Moby Dick by Herman Melville

    10 pages in length. The characterization of Herman Melville's 'Moby Dick' has a great deal to do with the author’s ability to express greater meaning through Ishmael and Captain Ahab. This particular aspect of the book is especially associated with Melville's ongoing attempts at establishing a symmetrical ambiance throughout the story. Indeed, the fact that he is so completely able to represent this concept of greater meaning in such a fashion as to give the reader a sense of connectedness speaks volumes regarding the author's inherent talent. Employing the use of characterization as a means by which to assert the story's overall theme and central figure cleverly masks the fact that Melville's Captain Ahab follows a path not unlike Job in his search for justice and Oedipus in his search for truth. The writer discusses that the author's purpose with such characterization is to effectively document the rise and fall of the human spirit through the novel's tragic hero and richly symbolic language. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Prevalence of the Exclusionary Rule

    This five-page-paper presents a discussion that explores the exclusionary rule, the exception to that rule , and the alternative that was suggested by Chief Justice Burger. Several scenarios are suggested if he exclusionary rule were to be dropped. Bibliography lists two sources.

  • Interpersonal Negotiation Variables and Pawn Shops

    6 pages in length. Verbal interpersonal communication in a pawn shop setting is unique from most other environments, inasmuch as the merchant maintains the upper hand throughout the entire transaction. The fact that people appeal to him out of desperation is the primary variable with regard to verbal interpersonal communication, allowing for the scales of justice to tip quite heavily in his direction and permitting him to often utilize an unpleasant, unsympathetic, almost caustic attitude with troubled patrons. The writer discusses the variables that affect verbal interpersonal communication in a pawn shop setting. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • United Colors of Benetton Ethic Uses of Death Row Criminals

    A 6 page paper which discusses the recent campaign of United Colors of Benetton which chose to use the slogan 'We on Death Row,' and implement the use of criminals on death row to promote their products. The paper argues that such an advertising approach is very unethical and highly offensive to the public for a variety of reasons. And, while Benetton claims they wish to make a political statement about human rights and capital punishment, such a statement could be made in other more appropriate ways. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Operant Conditioning, B.F. Skinner, and Criminal Behavior

    A 5 page review of Skinner's theories and their application to criminology. This work has applications in many arenas. These include such diverse facets of our lives as learning and distinguishing right from wrong. Although Skinner has had many critics over the years, much of this criticism revolved a misunderstanding of the man and his theories. His work is, in fact, supported by many that both preceded and followed him in history and has many applications in criminal psychology in particular. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Capital Punishment and Michel Foucault's Discipline and Punish The Birth of the Prison

    A 6 page paper which provides a general overview and illustration of Michel Foucault's "Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison." Bibliography lists 1 additional source.

  • Prostitution and Different Views

    A 5 page contention that the very act of making a particular activity illegal can create more problems than it solves. The author uses the issue of prostitution as an illustration of this contention, emphasizing that if the act was not illegal prostitution could be a positive means by which women could empower themselves and materially prosper by preying on the needs and desires of men. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Cases in Australasian Criminal Law

    This 9 page paper is written in two parts, The first part considers the case of mistaken identity in a homosexual sexual encounter and assesses if there is any potential liability for rape or sexual assault. The second part of the paper discusses the findings in the case of Crabbe (1985) 156 CLR 464. The paper is written with reference to Australasian law. The bibliography cites 5 sources.

  • The Law Regarding Sado-Masochism and Homicide

    This 10 page paper explores an interesting case concerning Australian law. Should a husband be charged with homicide if an incident results in her ultimate demise? Bibliography lists 15 sources.

  • The Origins of Criminal Behavior in Psychodynamic Theory

    This is an 8 page paper that provides an overview of the psychodynamic origins of antisocial behavior. A case study is looked at to demonstrate how interpsychic conflicts can manifest behaviorally. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Emily Mann's The Execution of Justice and Social Injustice

    A 6 page overview of the many injustices which exist within our justice system. Mann’s play is a theatrical recap of the trial of Supervisor Dan White who was ultimately convicted of voluntary manslaughter for the 1978 murder of liberal San Francisco Mayor George Moscone and Supervisor Harvey Milk. Mann reveals the homophobia which underlies the trial and the subsequent sentencing. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Poetry, Literature, and Justice and Freedom Themes

    A 5 page paper which examines a common theme in two pieces of literature and two pieces of poetry. The theme discussed is that of freedom and the works are “The Conversion of the Jews” by Philip Roth, “A Room of One’s Own” by Virginia Woolf, “Ego Tripping (There May Be a Reason Why)” by Nikki Giovanni, and “How We Carry Ourselves” by Jimmy Santiago Baca. No additional sources cited.

  • Iris M. Young's Justice and the Politics of Difference and Susan M. Okin's Justice, Gender and the Family

    (7 pp) This discussion addresses the nature of social politics and diversity through the work of two feminist scholars: Susan Muller Okin: Justice Gender and the Family (1989), and Iris Marion Young: Justice and the Politics of Difference (1990).

  • Overview of the 'New South Africa'

    A 10 page paper which examines South Africa today focusing primarily on David Goodman’s book “Fault Lines: Journeys into the New South Africa.” Also examined is George Bizos’ “No One to Blame: In pursuit of justice in South Africa.” No additional sources cited.

  • Integral Psychology by Ken Wilber

    This is a 5 page paper discussing the major concepts in Ken Wilber’s Integral Psychology. Ken Wilber’s “Integral Psychology: Consciousness, Spirit, Psychology, Therapy” (2000) includes a combination of various developmental psychological theories, -- “West and East, ancient and modern” to try and understand the “full spectrum” of the range of human consciousness. Through inclusion or integration of the various theories, Wilber develops a “brain-mind” theory that “does justice to both sides of the equation – the brain and the mind – because what follows can reasonably be expected to cover much of the ‘mind’ aspects that should be included, along with the ‘brain’ aspects derived from neuroscience, in order to arrive at any sort of sturdy and comprehensive model of consciousness”. Wilber’s work involves the discussion of holons, or hierarchical levels, or waves, which progress through three realms (prepersonal, personal and transpersonal) of development. The holons build on and yet are an interactive part of the other levels in development as well as including an integral relationship within the four-quadrant model representing phenomenon as relationships between the intentional, behavioral, cultural and social perspectives. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Evil and Theodicy

    (5 pp) According to Nichols (1998), theodicy (from theos and dikê, 'justice,' hence 'enquiry into the divine justice') is 'doubly relevant in theology, to fundamentals and to systematics. In fundamental theology, theodicy is important because we need to show that the existence of God is compatible with the existence of evil.' Our initial thought is if God equals goodness and love, what is the need - or is there one - for evil in the world? this discussion will examine that question.

  • Cinematic Examples of the Model of Due Process and the Roles Played by Community and the Law

    This is a 6 page paper discussing the concepts of the role of law in a community and the due process model as found in examples in film. Tutorial language appears in square brackets throughout the text to assist in the writing process. Several factors which are relevant to the law and crime are often well depicted within the cinema. In many cases within films which center on a community’s involvement in a local legal trial evidence can be found as to the understanding of the role of law within a community and within society. Basically, the law is meant to reflect society’s attitudes and values. While mostly, this role of law is beneficial to individuals within those communities as found in the films “Brother’s Keeper” and “Erin Brockovich”, in the case of conflicting communities within the same area, often one community can override the needs of another as seen in “To Kill a Mockingbird”. Other elements which are revealed within films dealing with legal cases are those which explore the criminal models of crime control and due process. Historically, due process may be difficult to find or non-existent such as in Henry VIII’s treatment of Sir Thomas More in “A Man for All Seasons” or the idea of completing the trials with expediency in “Judgment at Nuremberg”. More recent films, however, such as “The Verdict” try to show the benefits of due process within the legal system. Bibliography lists 11 sources

  • Report on Cyber Crime

    This 8 page report discusses the fact that the “consensual hallucination” (a term coined by science-fiction writer William Gibson) of cyberspace must, of necessity, include a “consensual” understanding that the realm of cyberspace is no less vulnerable to the negative aspects of human nature such as deceit, fraud, and theft. In many ways, the opportunity for criminal activity in cyberspace is heightened due to its very nature which supports anonymity and a certain freedom of action that few people would ever act on in their “real” lives. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Contemporary Racism in Germany

    (10 pp) Although the upsurge of violence in Germany has been well publicized in international media and condemned by the German government, it continues to grow. Violent crimes are far above pre- nification levels. Meanwhile, non-violent crimes such as criminal harassment and intimidation have also significantly increased in the last two years. Bibliography lists 15 sources.

  • Report on Cyber Crime

    This 8 page report discusses the fact that the “consensual hallucination” (a term coined by science-fiction writer William Gibson) of cyberspace must, of necessity, include a “consensual” understanding that the realm of cyberspace is no less vulnerable to the negative aspects of human nature such as deceit, fraud, and theft. In many ways, the opportunity for criminal activity in cyberspace is heightened due to its very nature which supports anonymity and a certain freedom of action that few people would ever act on in their “real” lives. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Microsoft and Applicability of Antitrust Laws

    A 9 page paper discussing the theory and history of antitrust laws and monopoly designation, and the reasons that theory and reality rarely meet on common ground. The Justice Department has found Microsoft to practice predatory pricing based on the fact that it gives away its products for free; Microsoft's competitors want the government to force Microsoft to compete on price, as they do. The paper looks at Standard Oil, Ford Motor Company in the 1920s and RCA. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Abortion and the Law

    In 1973, Roe Versus Wade defined the parameters of legality for abortion as the first trimester of pregnancy. The decision was written by Justice Harry Blackmun and based on the rights of privacy. This 5 page paper explores a number of issues involved in helping the student to decide whether that decision was legally correct. Bibliography lists 5 sources. Footnotes are utilized.

  • Antigone and the Old Testament

    (5pp). The literature of the Hebrew Bible (the Old Testament), is the scripture that Jews and Christians share. This literature can be examined both in the historical context in which it was written and in some of the contexts in which it has been read (such as its religious, literary, psychological overtones). These biblical ideas that have had a profound impact on Western culture: creation, covenant, commandment, monotheism, idolatry, chosenness, history, kingship, sin, prophecy, wisdom. Ancient Greek literature such as Sophocles' Antigone also addresses some of these same ideas, morality and justice being two of the most important. Bibliography lists 2 sources.


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