Research Papers on Political Science

Click on any of the research paper to read a brief synopsis of the paper. The essay synopsis includes the number of pages and sources cited in the paper.


Research Papers on Political Science

Click on any of the term papers to read a brief synopsis of the research paper. The essay synopsis includes the number of pages and sources cited in the paper.

  • Concept of Human Relations

    8 pages in length. Human Relations practice is based upon an eclectic mixture of theories from different academic disciplines such as psychology, sociology and political science; while each discipline indicates divergent methods to the overall approach of human relations, they all share a common denominator of empowerment and reassurance. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • 'Hard Science' and Psychology

    A 3 page essay that examines the question "Is psychology a hard science?" The writer first defines "hard science" as a term that refers to sciences in which facts and theories can be quantified, that is, measured, tested and proven. Then, the writer argues that psychology has aspects of hard science, but that this term does not describe the field as a whole. No bibliography is provided.

  • Cyberpunk Lit: “Neuromancer”

    This 4 page paper discusses the science fiction/cyberpunk novel “Neuromancer.” Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Elementary School Mathematics, Science, and the Internet

    A 9 page literature review that addresses the use of the Internet in teaching math and science in the elementary classroom. Elementary school teachers today are confronted not only with the sometimes daunting task of instructing a diverse student population in the intricacies of science and mathematics, but they are also frequently required to incorporate new technology into their pedagogy as they do so, such as the Internet. This review of relevant literature on this topic examines several questions. First of all, it asks if use of the Internet helps or hinders the instruction of elementary student in regards to studying science and math, or is it simply one more item to be addressed in an overworked teacher's busy agenda? Assuming that the use of the Internet facilitates educational goals for elementary schoolchildren studying math and science, what are the best pedagogical practices in regards to Internet instruction? Bibliography lists 15 sources.

  • Mathematical Contributions of Albert Einstein

    In 5 pages the author discusses Albert Einstein's contributions to the field of science and mathematics while explaining such theories as E=mc2. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • High School Science Teaching

    A 7 page paper that represents a college student's ability to blend theory with practice. This essay begins by identifying two themes that emerged from both the literature and coursework - students have different learning styles and science curriculum and methods of teaching need to change. The essay discusses why science education needs to change with an emphasis on secondary schools. The paper identifies the courses the student enjoyed the most and relates that to the literature on the need for the active engagement of students with the curriculum and materials. Gardner's multiple intelligences theory is outlined with an example of a science teacher who used this framework. This is also related to theory and practice in teaching science. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Why Psychology Is Considered A Science

    6 pages in length. The evolution of psychology emerging as a science stemmed from the concept of behaviorism and what motivated conduct in certain situations. Was humanity merely bound by determinism without the ability to choose, or did he harbor free will with which to guide his own existence? These ponderings ultimately gave way to a more concrete concept termed cognitive science from which the basis of psychology inevitably developed. Bibliography lists xox sources.

  • If Shakespeare Wrote Science Fiction, Ariel Would Use a Transporter

    This 4 page paper discusses five short science fiction stories and what it is about each of them that classifies them as being in that genre. It also suggests ways in which Shakespeare could use science fiction techniques and themes to rewrite his play “The Tempest” as a screenplay for Spielberg to direct. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Christian Theology and Evolution

    A 7 page research paper that examines whether or not Christian theology can accommodate scientific theories about the evolution. The writer, citing the emerging science of chaos and complexity theory, argues that science and theology can be reconciled. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Current Perspectives/Math and Science Education

    A 3 page research paper that discusses the fact that the position of the United States in relation to other countries and math and science education has been a cause for concern for the last decades. This examination of literature looks at current perspectives on trends in US education, with a focus on math and science education and how this impacts the country as a whole. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Is Psychology a Science

    A 14 page paper that begins with a definition of science, then discusses whether or not psychology is a science. Other topics that are discussed are: how theories improve understanding of psychology, the APA standards for psychological research and the difference between quantitative and qualitative research, the rules for publishing research in psychology, current trends in the field, personal vision of psychology and how integration would strengthen the field. Bibliography lists 12 sources.

  • Science According to the Poems of Walt Whitman and Edgar Allan Poe

    A 4 page essay that compares and contrasts 2 poems by Poe and Whitman. Poe's "Sonnet--To Science" and Whitman's "When I heard the Learn'd Astronomer," address not only the same subject matter, but also they take an identical stand on the topic. While Poe's poem is the most overt in its message, Whitman also takes the stand that science, specifically astronomy, attempts to drain the beauty and mystery from life and turns the wondrous into the mundane. No additional sources cited.

  • Science According to the Poems of Walt Whitman and Edgar Allan Poe

    A 4 page essay that compares and contrasts 2 poems by Poe and Whitman. Poe's "Sonnet--To Science" and Whitman's "When I heard the Learn'd Astronomer," address not only the same subject matter, but also they take an identical stand on the topic. While Poe's poem is the most overt in its message, Whitman also takes the stand that science, specifically astronomy, attempts to drain the beauty and mystery from life and turns the wondrous into the mundane. No additional sources cited.

  • Political Reflections in 'The Inferno' and Divine Comedy of Dante

    A 5 page overview of the primary structure and plot of this fourteenth century classic poem. Discusses the literary classification of the poem and the historical and political circumstances under which it was written. The author contends that while Dante’s work is influenced to some degree by the historical setting, it is not limited to a discourse on politics. “Inferno”, in particular, is considered the greatest medieval poem and holds many political as well as religious parallels. No additional sources are listed.

  • Political Reflections in 'The Inferno' and Divine Comedy of Dante

    A 5 page overview of the primary structure and plot of this fourteenth century classic poem. Discusses the literary classification of the poem and the historical and political circumstances under which it was written. The author contends that while Dante’s work is influenced to some degree by the historical setting, it is not limited to a discourse on politics. “Inferno”, in particular, is considered the greatest medieval poem and holds many political as well as religious parallels. No additional sources are listed.

  • A Political History of Cuba

    An 8 page paper discussing Cuba's oppressive political history. The Cuban people are hard working and strive to maintain optimism. The fact is, however, they have suffered centuries of political and economic oppression. Cuba presents perhaps the finest example of the consequences of inept government based on unworkable ideology rather than on the realities of life. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Medieval Literature and Portrayal of Political Issues

    A 7 page paper which examines how two Medieval works offer us an examination of the political structure of the time period. Though the works do not directly discuss politics, they get a great deal of information across to the reader through such political examinations as gender, social class, and the issue of power. The stories examined are "Guigemar" by Marie de France and "Erec and Enide" by Chretien de Troyes. No additional sources cited.

  • Environmental Protection Agency and Management Theory

    An 8 page paper discussing the political and management climate at the Environmental Protection Agency. The EPA is a government agency that has overreaching authority over business operation and frequently has the final word on whether processes will be allowed. It is a political entity, however. Though it can and should use modern management techniques, its nature as a government agency keeps it grounded in classical theory. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Theoretical Foundations for Nursing, Various Issues

    This 6 page research paper addresses a variety of issues in regards to the theoretical foundation of nursing. Topics covered include the definition of emancipatory knowledge and praxis, differentiating between science and philosophy, strategies for transformational leadership, among other issues. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Interdisciplinary Unit on Earth Day

    This is a 4 page paper that begins with a general introduction of the need for children to understand the dangers to the earth. The unit, which is appropriate for grades 2 and 3, begins with an explanation of how Earth Day originated and why. Activities for this unit are outlined under multiple headings to provide an interdisciplinary unit. The headings are: Reading/Literature/Writing/Science/Environmental Health and Science/Environmental Education/Math/Writing/Reading/Art/Music. The essay also includes a brief outline of which Pennsylvania standards are included in the activities. Bibliography lists 4 sources.


    5 pages in length. Man's understanding of his world is based within a dual foundation of finite concepts and varying interpretation. Mathematics and science, for example, are instrumental in establishing knowledge as an objective reality that rejects any semblance of subjectivity; its empirical nature requires the line from A to B to reflect a straight and unbroken line of evidences that no matter how many times reenacted will produce the same outcome. Philosophy, on the other hand, was created from the very essence of subjective opinion and could no more function under the stringent guidelines of objectivity than could math or science be considered intuitive. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Practice of Psychology

    A 3 page research paper that discusses psychology. Psychology has been defined as "the study of human behavior." However, even a brief examination of the science and practice of psychology demonstrates that this social science discipline encompasses a broad expanse of territory and that the practice of psychology is continually evolving as it changes to meet the needs of contemporary society, both now and in the future. An overview of psychology's history that this factor is particularly true in terms of psychology's purposes and goals. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Psychology Professionals and Ecological Awareness

    A 4 page essay/research paper that addresses questions that illustrate the usefulness of psychology as an environmental science. Bibliography lists 1 sources.

  • Psychology as Science According to Wilhelm Wundt

    This 10 page paper provides an overview of the life and works of Wilhelm Wundt as they defined the progression of psychology as a science. This paper integrates a view of Wundt's works, the viewpoints of psychologists and historians and the assessment of change that occurred during Wundt's greatest period of development as a psychologist in the later part of the 19th century. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Abnormal Psychology: Amnesia

    A 6 page research paper that, first of all, summarizes an obituary for H.M., a man who suffered from permanent amnesia due to an operation on his hippocampus in 1953. The article explains H.M.'s significance to science and the writer speculates on how his problems relate to the student's abnormal psychology course information. The second part describes parts of the textbook that relate to H.M. and the third section offers the writer's personal reflection on what she thought was most interesting. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Psychology and the Importance of Facts

    This 4 page paper argues that there are no real facts in social science. The field of psychology is utilized as the most prominent example. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Patient Depression and Nursing

    This 18 page paper considers the way in which a patient with depression in nursed. The paper is written with reference to a fictitious practice experience, considering the use of application of knowledge (both art and science) which is used by the nurse to nurse to assess, plan, and implement patient care. The paper considers the underling medical knowledge and how this is observed, the presence of influences such as stress and outlines a suitable nursing model that would be appropriate for the treatment of this patient. The bibliography cites 15 sources.

  • Nursing Knowledge: Development And Utilization

    12 pages in length. The philosophy of nursing is something much grander and more complex than most people realize; not only does it incorporate views, metaparadigm, paradigms and theories, but it also includes the consideration of nursing as a discipline and profession as well as an art and science. Indeed, the basis of nursing knowledge is founded within the synthesis of all these elements which - when taken as a unit instead of individually - serves to synergistically encapsulate the very nature of nursing philosophy. Bibliography lists 13 sources.

  • Profile of an Equitable Math/Science Classroom

    A 3 page summary of an article by Joy Wallace entitled "Profile of an Equitable Mathematics and Science Classroom and Teacher." The writer summarizes and analyzes the various categories. No bibliography is offered.

  • Article Critique/Effects of Remembering/Nursing Home Residents

    A 10 page critique of a study article by Cook (1998) entitled "Effects of Reminiscence on Life Satisfaction of Elderly Female Nursing Home Residents." The writer summarizes and analyzes each section of this study report and finds it overall to be a positive contribution to nursing science. No additional sources cited.

  • Nursing's Philosophical Issues

    This 9 page paper delves into ethical issues in medical science. Several aspects of nursing care are discussed inclusive of the DNR order and medication errors. Several ideologies are included and discussed as they relate to the field of nursing. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Accreditation in Nursing

    A 9 page research paper that consists of 2 smaller papers. The first paper, 5 pages, has to do with the processes involved in nursing accreditation, which compares these processes, between two agencies, with the accreditation process as it applies to forensic science. The second 4 page essay discusses how a background of employment in the pharmaceutical industry aids the nursing student. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • New Methods of Instruction for Teachers at all Levels

    This 7 page reviews five different methods of instruction in the classroom that involves engaging students in reading, math and science, as well as those with behavoral and poorer performance levels in these areas. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Sixteenth Century Literature and Parody

    The sixteenth century was the beginning of the Renaissance, where the yoke of the Church was being thrown off and the possibilities of science were balanced with a humanitarian outlook toward the future. Under these conditions, it is easy to see why the writers of this era would resort to parody in order to ask, "do we need to continue believing this message?" This 6 page paper looks at a number of sixteenth century works in terms of the use of parody. Bibliography lists 12 sources.

  • BSN Degree Problems

    A 4 page research paper that discusses the problems encountered in pursing a BSN degree. Registered nurses (RNs) face specific challenges that concern their multiple roles and responsibilities due to the processes involved in transitioning from RN status and earning their Bachelor of Science degrees in nursing (BSN). Whatever the BSN candidate's nursing status, LPN or merely an undergraduate student, the transition toward BSN nursing can offer problems and challenges. Nursing literature on this topic indicates many common problems and concerns. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Technology In Middle And High Schools

    A 12 page paper. There is still controversy about the use of technology in math classes. This essay discuses and reports research regarding the use of technology in math and science classes in middle schools and high schools. The writer discusses barriers to using technology, including access and teacher preparation. The results some teachers have had with certain technology is also reported. Bibliography lists 12 sources.

  • Intelligences and Intelligence

    Charles Spearman (1904) defined and developed a unilinear testing approach to general intelligence (g), which is based on a positive correlation among varying subjects like math, earth sciences and vocabulary. Gardner (1983) proposed there were multiple intelligences (MI), or seven areas of intelligence.... These are compared and contrasted. Bibliography lists 4 sources. jvIQmster.rtf

  • Women and Men in the Sciences: Is There Any Difference in Ability?

    This 8-page paper argues the likelihood that Harvard president Larry Summers was right when he proclaimed that women weren't very good in the math, science and tech fields because of innate abilities. The paper also discusses, however, that women tend to be discriminated in these fields, as well, so it's hard to tell. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Shortcomings of Math and Science Textbooks

    This 5 page paper outlines the problems with science and math textbooks and shows the movement with Project 2061 to reform the nation's textbooks. Specific examples of textbooks shortcoming, underlying issues of standardized testing reforms and more. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Grades First through Fourth Content Area Writing and Reading Instruction

    This 9 page paper emphasizes grades 1-4 but the concepts and strategies discussed may be used at any grade level. The focus is on strategies to teach reading and writing in content areas. General strategies that may be used in any content area and at any grade level are outlined and described. The paper also comments on teaching reading and writing in specific content areas: social studies, math, science and geography. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Apocalyptic Representation Supporting Authoritarianism in Science Fiction Movies

    This 5 page paper discusses U.S. science fiction films and how they use apocalyptic representation to present authoritarian arugument in support of authoritarianism. This paper uses many specific film examples. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Report on Cyber Crime

    This 8 page report discusses the fact that the “consensual hallucination” (a term coined by science-fiction writer William Gibson) of cyberspace must, of necessity, include a “consensual” understanding that the realm of cyberspace is no less vulnerable to the negative aspects of human nature such as deceit, fraud, and theft. In many ways, the opportunity for criminal activity in cyberspace is heightened due to its very nature which supports anonymity and a certain freedom of action that few people would ever act on in their “real” lives. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Gene Therapy and Shaywitz and Ausiello's Back To The Future

    Shaywitz and Ausiello, in their article, Back To The Future, Medicine and Our Genes, argue that the emerging gene sciences will reunite the patient, doctor and researcher in ways not seen since the 19th and early 20th centuries. This 5 page paper proposes that, in exploring the issues concerned with gene therapy, it seems as though the judgment of Shaywitz and Ausiello is well within the ethical bounds of religious and medical tenets. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Sci-Fi Films: Radiation Monsters and Homestick Aliens

    This 8 page paper compares two classic science fiction films, “Them!” and “E.T. The Extraterrestrial” and what they tell us about the times in which they were made. Bibliography lists 12 sources.

  • Reason Plus Spirituality Equals Enlightened Theology

    A 5 page paper that examines the integration of the sciences of philosophical thinking and theological belief beginning with the Age of Enlightenment in the eighteenth century. The progression of this integration is traced across the nineteenth century and through the 1960s racial tensions of the twentieth century. Included are the philosophies of Jonathan Edwards, Ralph Waldo Emerson, William James, W.E.B. DuBois, Martin Luther King, Jr. and Malcolm X. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Scientology and Its Impact on Actor Tom Cruise

    A 6 page discussion of the so-called religion Scientology and its effect on actor Tom Cruise. This paper contends that in reality Scientology is nothing more than a lucrative cult, the premises of which verge more on science fiction than theology. Although Cruise is blessed with good looks, money, and tremendous professional success, his personal life has fallen apart in more than one area over time and much of the turmoil surrounding his failures can be linked with Scientology. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Is Scientology a Religion or a Cult?

    A 5 page denouncement of the so-called religion of Scientology. This paper exposes the basic premises of the cult as being based more on science-fiction than theology. Despite its high-profile membership which makes the sect appear glamorous and appealing a more objective investigation of its teachings reveal many discrepancies, shortcomings, and outright fallacies. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Cognition and Solving Problems

    The ability to assess a problem and formulate solutions has been a subject within such varied disciplines as mathematics, psychology, linguistics, neurobiology and computer science. The fact remains that problem-solving is a complicated procedure that merits study. This 10 page paper explores information processing and memory in terms of problem solving. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Psychological and Sociological Perspectives on Smoking

    A 3 page consideration of this perplexing question. The author points out that, of all the social sciences, the disciplines of sociology and psychology are best suited to answer this question. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • Sociology Q and A

    This 5 page paper answers three questions posed by a student. Topics covered include the application of Freudian psychology to social science, functionalism, conflict theory and interactionism and the application of feminism to social theory. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Philosophy of Nursing and Future Plans

    An 8 page research paper/essay that offers a guide to a student, using tutorial language, that provides a guide to writing a personal philosophy of nursing and then turns its focus to the crucial role that obtaining a Bachelor's degree in nursing science can play in a nursing career before closing with a discussion of author's short-term and long-term professional goals, which includes becoming a trauma nurse practitioner. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Pain Management Choices and Patients Rights

    This 5 page paper addresses issues surrounding pain management. Should a patient be allowed to die if medical science cannot properly manage his or her pain? The Dax Cowart case is referenced in the discussion. Other issues are addressed such as addiction to opiates and just how much influence a patient should have in his or her own medical care. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Cross Membrane Transport and Molecular Mixtures in Joe Alper's Article 'Drug Delivery Breaching the Membrane'

    A 5 page review of “Drug Delivery: Breaching the Membrane”, an article by Joe Alper published in the May 3, 2002 edition of “Science”. Alper’s (2002) research concentrates on the cell membrane and the manner in which cross-membrane transport occurs, specifically the manner in which membrane-bound protein transporters function to allow various nutrients and hormones across. Alper’s paper adds insight to both the structure and function of the cell membrane and its components and how each relates to the molecular structure of the body’s complex mixture of chemicals. No additional sources are listed.

  • Is Walking Beneficial for Human Health?

    This 5 page paper examines the benefits of walking. The only source used is a 2008 issue of Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. Three articles are cited. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Science and Art of Management

    This 8 page paper explores management paradigms along with the debate of management being science or art. This paper concludes that it can and should be both. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Clinical Psychology and Scientific Practice

    This 9 page paper discusses the history of clinical psychology, its origins and the reciprocal relationship between science and clinical practice. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Psychology and the Ongoing Debate Between Quantitative and Qualitative Research Approaches

    This 8 page paper examines the quantity/quality debate. The concept of social science is discussed but the paper focuses primarily on psychology. Examples are provided. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Consciousness

    A 3 page paper that discusses Titchener’s contributions to the field of psychology and explains his concept of consciousness as compared to Freud’s and James’. The writer also comments on how psychology became a science. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Psychology as a Science?

    This is a 6 page paper that evaluates the claim that psychology is not a science. It examines the 'duality theory' and the 'machine' theory in respect to their impact on this argument. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Theology and Psychology Integration

    A 10 page research essay discussing the how and why psychology and theology, or religion, should be integrated. Beginning with some statements and citations about the integration of science and religion, or theology, and moving into specific examples of the integration of religion and psychology, the writer offers evidence from the literature to support the premise these two should be integrated. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Theorist and Martha Rogers a Science of Unitary Human Beings Application

    This 9 page paper provides an overview of the perspectives of nursing theorist Martha Rogers, with an emphasis on Rogers’ Science of Unitary Human Beings. This paper outlines the background of the theorist, the theory, and the application for nursing practices, especially in regards to the way in which Rogers has influenced the development of holistic nursing. Bibliography lists 10 source.

  • Psychology and Friedrich Nietzsche

    This 7 page paper considers the development of Nietzsche's premise that psychology is the queen of sciences. This paper considers Nietzsche's premise, and seeks support for this argument through distinctions made by other psychologists. This paper underscores the justification of Nietzsche's claims. Bibliography lists 15 sources.

  • State of Science, Nursing Ethics

    A 22 page research paper that examines the state of the science of nursing ethics. This investigation endeavors to offer a broad, exploratory overview of how professional nursing is addressing the numerous ethical challenges that characterize modern healthcare systems. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • An Analysis on an Article About Caring and Science

    A 3 page article analysis that examines "Science, technology, caring and the professions: are they compatible?" by nurses Hawthorne and Yurkovich (1995). These authors express their concern that caring has declined as a value among various professions. The writer summarizes the article and then critiques it, comparing it to two nursing theories that emphasize caring. Bibliography lists 3 sources, but one reference is incomplete.

  • Science and Art of Nursing

    A 4 page research paper that examines the debate over nursing as an art or a science. The writer argues that nursing is a combination of both, and offers references and a case study to support this argument. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Political Agendas of the Islamic Salvation Front

    3 pages in length. Arguing how the Islamic Salvation Front (FIS) is a political organization supported by Algeria's voting constituency, Remli contends that FIS cannot be classified as a terrorist group. FIS received votes from the vast majority (84%) of Algerians during both the 1990 and 1991, clearly illustrating how its acceptance by the people precludes the likelihood that FIS is a terrorist organization. Instead, Remli argues, the political nature of FIS is meant to "solve the crisis" that currently exists; with the likes of doctors and engineers comprising FIS, he contends that people from all walks of life have banded together as a means by which to fix this political problem. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Political Geography Defined

    5 pages in length. Helping the world to better understand itself, Martin Ira Glassner's "Political Geography" clearly illustrates -- both verbally and graphically -- the essence of what it is to live on this planet. His in-depth personal, anecdotal and factual accounts offer extensive observation as to why things are the way they are in contemporary society, much of which helps to clear up common confusion people often harbor with political explanation. From the very first chapter, Glassner occupies the reader's foremost attention with insightful issues and logical application. The writer discusses the concept of political geography. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Examination of Cybervoting

    5 pages in length. The technological revolution has brought about myriad social changes, not the least of which includes the concept of cybervoting. In its purest form, this alternative to physical ballot voting stands to revolutionize the entire democratic process; according to proponents, cybervoting will give back to the people what has long been gone from the political process. Additionally, the implementation of cybervoting will benefit individuals who might not otherwise make the effort to vote, inevitably increasing the ultimate turnout. That cybervoting stands to get more people involved with the political process is reason enough to support its acceptance; however, there are even more fundamental reasons why cybervoting is an idea whose time has arrived. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Jewish History and Spain's 'Golden Age'

    7 pages in length. Major changes occurred in the 11th century when the Umayyads steadily lost power as the Berbers rose in influence after capturing Cordoba in 1013 CE; the passing decades served as their barometer of progressing power. Cultural and commercial prominence became their focus as capitals and other cities were transformed into Meccas for the two very important elements. As these significant changes were taking place, one more addition would serve to establish an entire population as being both welcomed and honored: the Jews. Indeed, these individuals did not come empty-handed into their newfound environment; rather, they brought with them such important endowments as financial aptitude, politics, economic advisory, as well as a vast amount of humanities-related knowledge in the form of literature, academia and science. The blending of art, linguistics, philosophy, science and medicine rounded out a society that was heretofore underdeveloped in many of these areas. As such, the influence of so many learned Jews soon saw intellectuals and doctors alike holding some of the most important social/legal/political positions in the land. No bibliography.

  • Political Activism and Nursing

    A 3 page research paper/essay that discusses the importance of political activism as facilitated by professional nursing organizations. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Conflict, Balance, and the Tea Ceremony in Rikyu

    This is a 5 page paper discussing Rikyu and the formal tea ceremony as important aspects of balance and conflict in the film “Rikyu”. In the 1990 film “Rikyu”, the importance of Rikyu and the traditional tea ceremony provide a reflection of the political balance and conflict going on in Japan during the leadership of Emperor Hideyoshi in the late 1500s. Rikyu was the respected tea master at that time and had formed a close alliance with the emperor. The emperor who enjoyed his power and wealth realized the importance of the tea ceremony in the life of Japan and proceeded to organize a large ten day tea festival. Throughout the development of the well orchestrated ceremonies, led by Rikyu, the emperor experienced conflict between the political forces around him, his need for tranquility, his alliance with Rikyu, his desire to invade Korea and the presence of other powerful political men present, such as Ieyasu. When Rikyu and Hideyoshi conflicted on the political aspects of Hideyoshi’s rule, such as the invasion of Korea, and Hideyoshi realized Rikyu’s growing influence in the country, he knew he had to remove Rikyu from the growing threat to his authority and through the ceremony insinuated that Rikyu must commit suicide; which he did to fulfill his commitment to the emperor and retain the balance in the country. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • The European Miracle by E.L. Jones

    A 6 page book review of E.L. Jones' The European Miracle. In this text, Jones endeavors to answer the following question, which is "How to account for the ascendancy...of the First World" (Kellas 330). In his search for answers, Jones looks at European history and geography and contrasts and compares its development with the history of Asia, which he pictures as taking a different socio/economic path. Jones characterizes the Ottoman empire as "intellectual backward" and speaks of India's "total lack of political inspiration," pointing out the social structure in India "impaired political stability and the resulting instability impaired development (Kellas 330). As this suggests, in answer to the questions that the text poses, Jones presents a multitude of elements as contributing to the miracle of European development. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • The Chancellors A History Of The Leaders Of The British Exchequer, 1886-1947 by Roy Jenkins

    12 pages in length. Roy Jenkins' purpose for penning The Chancellors: A History of the Leaders of the British Exchequer, 1886-1947 was not so much to chronicle the political contributions of each of the nineteen men who held office during this particular period; rather, the author chose a more personal approach as a means by which to portray the psychological and political components of each protagonist. Unlike similar accounts on the subject, Jenkins employs a significant sense of humor, not-so-subtle irony and rather unflattering perspective of what he calls a disparate lot of British Chancellors who had no more in common with one another than somewhat more than average ability and substantially more than average ambition. Indeed, The Chancellors' essays do not represent the typical and stuffy account of history's British moneymen. No additional sources cited.

  • Progress as Defined by American History from 1867 until 1909

    (5 pp) In the last portion of the nineteenth century Americans progressed at an uneven gait. In the West, men took giant steps across the country as they explored and claimed land; often walking over others such as the Native Peoples in the process. These same men "brought their" women with them through incredible difficulties, but then saw no reason to give them any political allowances. Children were "owned" as much as women were. Racial differences, although somewhat equal on paper made little progress. In the East labor and management systems, political patronage, and social reform began to demand attention, and progressive attention.

  • Traditions, Culture and History of Burma

    This is a 5 page paper discussing Burmese history, culture, and traditions. Burma (Myanmar) is a country rich in culture, religion, history and traditional festivals and beliefs. Over 89 percent of the population is Buddhist and this provides a great deal of traditional structure and family values to the way of life in the country. Most of the population belongs to the agricultural sector which further retains the traditional rituals of the small communities. The political situation in Burma however is turbulent as a militant government has controlled the country for several decades which has led to a great deal of rioting, controversy and violation of human rights. Because of the political situation and record in Myanmar, some countries have imposed trade sanctions against the country which impacts the economy considerably. Despite the poor conditions however, the cultural and religious basis of Burma and the Burmese remains intact and a significant and central aspect of lives of the people. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Literature and the Element of Science

    This 5 page paper discusses the scientific concepts presented by Daniel Quinn's protagonist, Ishmael. His unique perspective brings out the dire straits that mankind has put himself in, and offers solutions. Quotes cited from the text. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • Fantasy Literature and Science Fiction

    This 3 page paper considers the idea that fantasy appeals to that part of our minds that doesn't believe in fate, but insists that everything that happens to us must have a reason, and whether or not that statement makes sense. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Romantic Era and History of Science

    A 5 page paper discussing the qualities of the period of 1770-1830 in scientific advancement. The age of enlightenment is associated with order and reason; progress and change belongs to the 19th century. A.L. DeJussieu (1748 – 1836), C.F. Mirbel (1776 – 1854) and K Sprengel (1766 – 1833) all quietly contributed to the advancement of science in general - and botany in particular – during this time that would prove to provide preparation for rapidly-occurring advances in the future. Growing knowledge of what was ultimately led to speculation of what could be. By the end of the Romantic Period in 1830, the focus shifted toward work that could effect change, rather than merely explain why things existed as they did. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • Science Fiction Cinema's Portrayal of Society's Fears and Hopes

    A 5 page paper which discusses the films “The Day the Earth Stood Still” and “Close Encounters of the Third Kind” as they relate to the hopes and fears of the eras in which they were produced. Bibliography lists 2 additional sources.

  • A Cybernetics and Systems Science Overview

    This 5 page paper provides an overview of the concepts, and explores the differences between first order and second order cybernetics. Family systems are explored. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Portrayals of Good Science Gone Bad in Works of Robert Louis Stevenson, H.G. Wells, and Mary Shelley

    A 10 page overview of the factors which existed in the Victorian era to spawn such works as “The Island of Doctor Moreau” and “The Invisible Man”, “Frankenstein” and “Dr. Jeckyll and Mr. Hyde”. This paper describes the quest for understanding and scientific experimentation which captivated this era and speculates as to how this captivation extended to the literary world as well. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Evolutionary and Creation Scientific Theories

    A five page paper which looks at the creation scientists’ theories of the origins of the universe and life on earth, as delineated in the Christian Bible, and the way in which these relate to other theories such as the Big Bang, Darwin’s explanation of natural selection, and the evidence of fossil records. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Ice Sculpture, Science, Theology, and Sensations

    A 4 page overview of the processes we go through to justify and vocalize beliefs. Centering around our observations and belief regarding an ice sculpture being used as an Easter Meal centerpiece, this paper contrasts esoteric belief and scientific belief. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Journal Article Review on Teaching Fifth Graders Science

    This 3 page paper presents a review of a journal article. The article reports a case study of four fifth-grade teachers. This review reports the type and purpose of study, an overview of the study, the conclusions of the authors and the relevance of the article for teachers. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • Psychology, Science, and Research Approaches

    A 5 page discussion of the relationship of the scientific approach in the field of psychology. This paper contends that psychological research is characterized by two separate yet integrated approaches. These approaches are that of qualitative and quantitative investigation. In the place of statistical findings revealed with quantitative research, qualitative research illuminates and provides understanding. Each approach is an important component of the field of psychology. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Psychology: Informal Practice To Bona Fide Science

    3 pages in length. The field of psychology has not always been held in such high regard within the scientific environment, having had the task of proving its worth and validity as a legitimate discipline and not merely an ambiguous offshoot of philosophy. As the field began to expand and notable theorists established what are now standard principles, psychology ultimately earned its place within the scientific community alongside other closely controlled fields of study. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Psychology and its Meaning

    This examines what the meaning of psychology is, and four different psychological approaches; psychoanalytical, behavioral, humanistic and cognitive. The paper also uses examples of each approach. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Detrimental Effects of Coeducational Schools on Females

    10 pages in length. The social benefits of coeducational schools may provide an important conduit for students who have only attended single-sex schools in the past, however, it has become more than apparent how this particular academic environment lends itself to scholastic shortcomings where female students are concerned. The extent to which girls are more inclined to pursue math and science courses in a single-sex environment is both grand and far-reaching; the pressure and intimidation inherent to performing as well as their male counterparts in the coeducational setting speaks to the reason why the female gender fails to thrive in these academic areas, illustrating how coeducational schools are not always the best choice. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Environmental Scientific Principles and the Hunting Issue

    5 pages in length. By the inherent rights of being human, man believes he has the privilege to impose dominion over the animal world. Nowhere is this more evident than with the sport of hunting. However, there are myriad implications with what many consider to be an innocent pastime; inasmuch as recreational hunters upset the natural progression of species and their predators, they place the delicate balance of nature in grave danger. In reviewing this article, it is clear to see that there is a definite injustice going on in the name of fun. The writer discusses how the principles of environmental science that apply to the issue of hunting reach significantly deeper into the fundamental framework than most people realize. No additional sources cited.

  • Cinematic Explanation of Sciences' Gender Gap

    This 7 page paper examines the portrayal of strong women scientists in two films: Laura Dern as Ellie in Jurassic Park and Margaret Sheridan as Nikki in the 1950s classic, The Thing from another World and why, despite the popularity of such women in film, they do not hold comparable positions in the real world. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • The Psychological, Biological, and Social Science Obstacles in Understanding Bisexuality

    In six pages this paper addresses the past and present confusion that exists within scientific, psychiatric, and social literature which impacts the acceptances of bisexuality by society. Two sources are listed in the bibliography.

  • The 'Science' of Human Behavior According to B.F. Skinner

    A 5 page analysis of the principles of behavioral psychology as discussed by B.F. Skinner, a pioneer in this field. The writer gives a summation of Skinner's theories relative to the dynamics of operant conditioning and operant behavior. No additional sources cited.

  • Aftermath of the 1789 French Revolution

    5 pages in length. In the aftermath of the French Revolution of 1789, the problem of political and social authority was of central concern to European intellectuals. The author discusses this topic as it relates to Burke, Kant and Hegel. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Impediments to the Utilization of Nurse Wives

    A 5 page research paper that explores the impediments to practice, historical and current, that affect the utilization of nurse-wives. The writer looks as social, cultural, political, legal and economic aspects of this situation. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Christianity and War

    A 6 page paper on the connection between Christianity and war — the proclivity to bring religious elements into the war game by such deadly leaders as Hitler, Stalin, etc. The writer posits that most of this can be blamed on misinterpretation of The Bible to meet the leaders' political desires, but that 'the masses' are those who are actually capable of peace. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • National Identity and Ethnic Music

    A 6 page research paper that explores the use of ethnic music by political ideologies in the construction of national identities. The writer also discusses the use of ethnic music to preserve the cultural identity of an ethnic minority within a larger diverse society. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Shared Governance and Collective Bargaining Issues in Nursing

    3 pages in length. The fundamental reason for incorporating collective bargaining and shared governance within the nursing environment is so decision making becomes a more mutual outcome where nurses have greater contribution toward daily undertakings and management readily facilitates this input. Examining the political, legal, ethical and social issues of this relatively new concept exemplifies how a feasible, much-needed model of cooperation might still be fraught with difficulties when implemented. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Political Issues in Nursing

    A 3 page research paper that briefly examines some of the political and economic issues facing nursing and healthcare and how nursing impacts these issues. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Egypt and Mesopotamia: Geography

    A 3 page paper which examines the geographical influence on the political and intellectual outlooks of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Jason Meyer's Article 'No Idle Past: Uses Of History In The 1830 Indian Removal Debates'

    A 4 page review of the Fall 2000 article by Jason Meyers summarizing the political discord surrounding the Trail of Tears, the nineteenth century forced removal of the Cherokee people from their traditional land in the state of Georgia. No additional sources are listed.

  • External Factors and Effects on Management Decisions

    This 5 page report discusses the ways in which external factors such as the economy, prices, socio-political atmosphere, competition, and much more, influence management decisions in business. Just as people do not operate independent of their peers, businesses and other organizations do not operate independently from the environment in which they exist. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Outsourcing by American Firms; A Literature Review on the Political and Economic Issues

    This 6 page paper is a literature review looking at the political and economic issues that arise where outsourcing takes place within the United States. The impact on companies and their employees as well as the theory of comparative advantage discussed. The bibliography cites 9 sources.

  • Political Matters Literature Review

    This 10 page paper is a literature review covering the meaning of public trust, political reputation and campaign promises, and the Republican victories in 1994. Bibliography lists 15 sources.

  • First World War and its Aftermath

    A 14 page overview of the social and political environment that resulted after World War I ended. This paper illustrates the relationships between European nations in the 1920s, contending that probably even less chance of global peace existed in post-war Europe than existed prior to the war. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • Mandatory Overtime for Nurses

    A 10 page research paper that discusses the issue of mandatory overtime for nurses and its effects and ramifications. The writer discusses the background to this issue, as well as political, social, and economic aspects. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • This 2.5-page paper analyzes political correctness in sports and why it is a bad influence in the sporting world. There are 3 sources cited.

  • The Relationship Between Sport And Politics

    3 pages in length. The writer briefly discusses, drugs, race and poverty as they relate to the political aspect of sport. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Not for Profit and Public Sector Management

    This 5 page report discusses how managers carry out their responsibilities in public and not for profit organizations and what unique considerations must be made regarding the implementing processes in a political environment. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Successes and Failures in the Management of Diplomacy

    A 7 page paper discussing reasons for diplomatic success and failure in today’s world, including the role of theory and systems thinking. Economic interconnectedness cannot be overlooked as one reason for diplomatic success in this era of crisis diplomacy. Rather than being a matter of greed or of “selling out” cultural or political ideological positions, one of the leading factors contributing to diplomatic success in today’s environment is the ability for all involved to take on a systems thinking approach to the problems at hand. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Healthcare Industry Financial Management

    This 5 page essay discusses issues revolving around effective and meaningful financial management in the health care industry. The political system of the United States is fundamentally responsible for the development of policy and no area feels the politicized nature of policy-making more than health care. As a result, comprehensive and effective financial management is the key component of the modern health care delivery process. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Business Ethics and Corporate Management

    This 10 page report discusses the fact that the high incidence of corporate fraud and scandal in the United States is indicative that ethical behavior is simply not being promoted enough in corporate America. “Corporate ethics” has become a catch phrase with enormous political and emotional, even economic clout. Corporate and management ethics encompasses an ever-widening array of issues, a number of which are discussed in the paper. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • U.S. Democracy and Worldviews

    Since the start of the most recent Gulf War, the countries of the world have placed the United States under close scrutiny. Once self-proclaimed as one of the foremost democratic countries of the world, recent events in political history have led some to believe that the American democratic process no longer represents the kind of legitimate democracy that American defends in their war against those opposed to democratic principles. This 5 page paper provides an overview of the issue presented and relates it to the current literature. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • ANA as a Political Action Committee

    This 5 page paper focuses in on the political action committee (PAC) affiliated of the ANA. The ANA's support of health care for the elderly is at the crux of this paper as well as the history of such issues affecting the aging population. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Politics and Nurses

    This 5 page paper discusses the importance of nurses getting involved in the political process and discusses the reasons why this is important. Furthermore this paper offers many specific examples of ways in which nurses can involve themselves. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Political Processes and Healthcare Regulations

    A 3 page research paper that deals with two topics. The first is how the political processes impacts nurses, which focuses on how nurses can become politically active and the second deals with the complexity of healthcare regulations. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • 'Over There, World War II,' and 'I Sing, Too, America' by Langston Hughes

    An 8 page research paper/essay that analyzes two of Hughes poems, "I, too, Sing America" and "Over there, World War II." First, the writer gives a brief biography of the poet, then discusses critical opinion of his work, and then, critically analyzes these two poems. The writer demonstrates how the political content of these poems was aimed at both a black and white audience. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • A Case Study to Demonstrate Influences on the Delivery of Mental Healthcare

    This 10 page paper uses the fictitious case of a mental health patient living in the community to illustrate the impact that political philosophies and statutory instruments have on the way care is provided for those suffering from mental illnesses. The paper is written with reference to policies and legislation in the UK. The bibliography cites 20 sources.

  • Patriarchal Societal Aspects of Great Britain

    This 6 page paper argues that Britain is still a patriarchal society despite the apparent levels of equality. The paper considers the cultural, political, social and sexual attitudes and the supporting societal structures. The bibliography cites 190 sources.

  • William Shakespeare's King Lear and Theology

    A 10 page research paper that examines the way that a theological perspective is necessary for truly comprehending the social and political culture presented in "Lear." Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Singapore History since WWII

    This 5 page paper evaluates the political history of Singapore. Many facts are included. Freedom of expression is discussed as a problem in this lucrative nation. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • The Battleship Potemkin and Birth of a Nation

    A 4 page research paper that examines American director D. W. Griffith's 1915 film Birth of a Nation and Russian director Sergei Eisenstein's 1924 film The Battleship Potemkin, which depict crucial periods during their respective nations' histories. The writer argues that these films rationalize the social and political status quo in each of the director's countries at the time the films were produced. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • 'Over There, World War II,' and 'I Sing, Too, America' by Langston Hughes

    An 8 page research paper/essay that analyzes two of Hughes poems, "I, too, Sing America" and "Over there, World War II." First, the writer gives a brief biography of the poet, then discusses critical opinion of his work, and then, critically analyzes these two poems. The writer demonstrates how the political content of these poems was aimed at both a black and white audience. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Issues of Reimbursement and Nurse Practitioners

    A 7 page research paper exploring the issues surrounding nurse practitioners and why they are not more available to patients. Despite their advanced training and certification in different specialties, few HMOs offer their services as an alternative to physicians as primary care providers. The issues are both budgetary in their favor and political in their opposition, still, they do not replace doctors but they can and do provide excellent health care services. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • The Aeneid: An Examination of Books 1, 4, and 6

    In three pages this paper examines how negatively Aeneas’ abandonment of Dido reflects on his character and whether “The Aeneid” is a political poem or an example of propaganda. No other sources are listed in the bibliography.

  • Historians on Political Conflicts and Sexuality

    This 5 page report discusses the viewpoints of several historians that sexuality and sexual practices are tied into the political conflicts of the era. Drawing from the works of Gail Bederman, Martha Hodes, and Anne McClintock, the writer discusses the societal changes brought about in the “typical” American male in the second half of the 19th century. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Bob Marley's Life, Music, and Contributions to Reggae

    This 5 page paper examines Bob Marley's life. Two of his songs are compared and contrasted. Information contained in this paper include facts about his life, information about reggae music, his religion, his political agenda and so forth. The conspiracy theory concerning the idea that he was given the cancer is relayed. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Political Culture and Music of Haiti

    A 6 page research paper/essay that take the unusual form of presenting a hypothetical Haitian family over two generations. The writer pictures the family as reflecting their political and cultural orientation toward Haiti in regards to the choices of music made at their weddings. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • The Case of Rap Music and Adorno's Mass Culture Theories

    This 5 page paper examines Adorno's theory of mass culture, with concepts such as the culture industry, standardization, pseudo individualization and the pacification of the masses with the creation of false needs leading to political apathy. This concept is applied to the development and presence of Rap music in modern society and argues that the theory is still valid, even where the music form is seen as differentiated. The bibliography cites 7 sources.

  • Workplace Prejudice and Transsexuals

    14 pages. This paper focuses on the issues of transsexuals in the workplace. Discrimination, constitutional law, social and political aspects of the employment of transsexuals are all topics that are discussed in this extensive and interesting research paper. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • Consequences of Morality in The Republic by Plato

    5 pages. This discourse on Plato's republic focuses on the main theme of morality and its consequences, both for individual psychology and the political community. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Sexual Identity Politics

    A 3 page paper which discusses how different groups and individuals have involved political claims in relationship to their sexual identity. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • The Influences and Marketing of Nordstrom

    This 5 page paper looks at a case study on the US retailer Nordstrom supplied by the student and answers questions on the impact of political, legal, regulatory, technological, social, competitive and economic influences on the firm and their marketing and considers how the firm may set up and market itself in a new country. The bibliography cites 5 sources.

  • Organizational Change and Leadership

    This 16 page paper provides a hypothetical case study for analysis. When a section head must fire one of six employees, she vies for a safe political option, but not one that helps the organization. The case study is presented and analyzed after a review of the literature on the subject of management, leadership and change in organizations is conducted. Bibliography lists 14 sources.

  • Pericles' Funeral Oration as Reported by Thucydides

    A 3 page essay that proposes a hypothetical speech as it might have been given by a member of the Athenian leadership council in reaction to Pericles' funeral oration. The writer argues that due to the fact that Pericles largely devotes his speech to praising the virtues of the Athenian city, painting their culture as the epitome of freedom and individuality, it would have been political suicide for any Athenian leader to dispute this magnificent example of patriotic rhetoric. No additional sources cited.

  • Understanding Terrorism Based Upon The Terrorist Act of 9/11

    20 pages in length. The reality of suicide attack - and indeed terrorism itself - is not even a remotely new concept within the timeline of man's existence; in fact, the extent to which social, political, economic and religious discord has precipitated at least some sort of violence and/or intimidation throughout history speaks to the notion that humanity is both unsettled in mind and unevolved in spirit when it comes to the failed objective to coexist even now in the twenty-first century. Bibliography lists 21 sources.

  • Nineteenth and Twentieth Century Irish Tensions

    A 5 page paper which examines Ireland’s tumultuous history and considers the political, economic and social struggles including the potato famine, religious unrest, rebellion and independence movements and the role of women. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • U.S. History's Watershed Event, the Civil War

    4 pages in length. In describing the social, economic and political impacts, along with the results of war upon American psyche, one must grant a considerably broad overview of the primary issues associated with such a significant turning point in American history. Slavery, freedom and race relations reflect three of the most important aspects of why the Civil War can be looked upon as a watershed event for America, inasmuch as an entire classification of people finally earned the right to live like human beings. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • 'The Tables Turned' by William Wordsworth and Romanticism

    A 2 page paper that defines Romanticism as expressed in William Wordsworth's 1798 poem The Tables Turned. Also briefly discussed is the influence Romanticism exerted on the political and religious thinking of the early nineteenth century. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Henry Wadsworth Longfellow's 'Paul Revere's Ride,' Its Inaccuracies, and the Real Paul Revere

    A 5 page research paper that examines the true circumstances and contributions of Paul Revere to the American Revolution. While pointing out that the details of Longfellow's famous poem are inaccurate, the writer argues that Revere's life, in general, was indicative of the political and cultural attitude of New Englanders during that era and their overall reaction to the British occupation. Bibliography lists 4 sources

  • "Political, Philosophical, Religious, Cultural, Social, Literary and Artistic Value of 'Poem of The Cid"

    4 pages in length. The philosophical, political, social, religious, cultural, literary and artistic values present in Poem of the Cid reflect the comprehensive nature medieval literature sought to project; that this tale is replete with detailed implications of each value speaks to the manner by which medieval literature served as a definitive – if not embellished – form of social statement. No additional sources cited.

  • Political Film Comparision of the Nonfiction The Fog of War and Fiction Fahrenheit 911

    A 7 page paper which examines the representation of the concepts political and government in these films. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Jean Renoir's Movies

    An 18 page paper which examines the political and artistic differences between the pre-World War II films of the French auteur and his postwar films. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • A Honduras Overview

    A 3 page description of the history, geography, political structure, population and culture of the Honduras. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Assessment of Singapore and Mexico for Business Expansion

    A 9 page paper assessing the political, social and legal systems of Singapore and Mexico. The two countries are as far apart in social and legal aspects as they are in geography. Both are business-friendly and welcome foreign business, but from different perspectives. Of the two, Singapore is much more selective. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Overview of South Korea

    This well written 20 page paper is a comprehensive look at South Korea. The writer examines the country in depth including its’ people, the economic environment, political system, capital markets as well as the geography, natural resources. The bibliography cites 10 sources.

  • Ethics of Global Computer Laws

    This 7 page report discusses international computer laws and their ethical impact. What are the problems that are being presented on an international basis due to the Internet and expanded information technology? Issues relating to privacy, decency, and political speech are of particular concern when they cross both international and cultural boundaries. A greater potential for technology-based international crime also exists. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Jean Luc Godard's Unconventional Cinematic Style

    A 13 page paper which considers the unorthodox film-making style of controversial French director, Jean-Luc Godard, with emphasis on how his political views influenced and were expressed in his movies, how different they were from the typical Hollywood mainstream films, and the change in their critical acceptance then and now. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Landscape's Symbolic Uses in Chinese Movies Red Sorghum, The Blue Kite, and Yellow Earth

    This is a 5 page paper discussing the use of landscape as symbolism in three Chinese films. The Fifth Generation of directors who graduated in China in the 1980s combine vivid depictions of colour and landscapes to symbolize the political climate, oppression and vitality of the Chinese people throughout their films best represented by “Yellow Earth” directed by Chen Kiage, “The Blue Kite” directed by Tian Zhuanshuang, and “Red Sorghum” directed by Zhang Yimou. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Overview of Egypt

    This 5 page paper gives a detailed overview of Egypt in regard to its culture, geography, social environment, daily customs, economic and political envioronment, and import/export. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Colonial History of America Until 1877 and Women

    A 6 page paper which specifically examines how the calls for equality, liberty and freedom conflicted with the reality of women’s lives, considers if they made greater gains in either political or social life, and concludes with an assessment of how women’s roles evolved over this period in American history. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Political and Social History of Greece

    A 3 page paper which examines various aspects of Greek history as it involves social and political rule. The paper examines monarchy, democracy, oligarchy, aristocracy, and tyranny. Source used was faxed from a textbook by the student and has no bibliographic information.

  • History of American Women

    An 8 page research paper that answers 4 questions concerning American women's history drawing from Sara M. Evans' Born For Liberty (1989). The topics covered include political and legal rights during the colonial era; women's participation in the Revolutionary War; the "cult of true womanhood"; and the contribution of the "mill girls" to industrialization. No additional sources cited.

  • Brief History of Vietnam

    6 pages in length. Vietnam has long struggled against the unwanted influence of various nationals; without adequate ability to defend themselves, the Vietnamese have grappled to uphold their very cultural importance, as well as defend their right as an independent people. This long and arduous process served to develop traditions and establish historical benchmarks that have identified Vietnam as a defiant cultural and political entity. No bibliography.

  • Chinese Legalism and Confucianism

    This 6 page paper considers these different schools of thought, looking at what they were, how they differed and how this impacted on the political and social situation in China during the Qin and Han periods. The bibliography cites 3 sources.

  • Change Reflected in Literature

    A 3 page paper which examines how social, historical, political, and religious events from 1900 to 1940 are reflected in literature during the time. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • American Political Leadership and Thomas Paine

    A 3 page paper which examines Thomas Paine and indicates why he would have made a very good political leader in the United States’ history. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • U.S. Political Parties: History and Roles

    A 12 page overview of the political party as it exists, and has existed in the U.S. The author emphasizes the change that has occurred over our history. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • English Literature of the 17th Century

    A five page paper which looks at a variety of seventeenth century English writers and the way in which they use satire, irony and caricature to effect social and political comment. Bibliography lists 9 sources

  • Global Warming, Climate Change and War

    A 12 page research paper, which includes a Table of Contents and an abstract, that presents a literature review and analysis, which examines fifteen current sources in order to discern how scholars and political commentators view the connections between climate change caused by global warming and war. Literature is summarized and then discussed before offering conclusions. Bibliography lists 15 sources.

  • American Literature and the Issue of Class

    This 10 page thesis paper explores the proletarian movement in the thirties. The paper supports the idea that literature highlighting class differences spans the entire twentieth century. The works which are a primary focus is Sinclair's The Jungle and Odets's Waiting for Lefty. The concept of class is viewed in terms of how it is portrayed in American literature as well as its relationship with political ideology. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Political Theme in Zhang's Hero

    A 9 page research paper that presents an overview of Hero (2002), directed by Zhang Yimou, which presents a strikingly beautiful martial arts film that has a political message of promoting individual sacrifice in order to achieve the collective good. However, the writer argues that this theme is undermined and overshadowed by the emphasis on the artistic aspects of the film. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • Filmmakers Bernardo Bertolucci and Joseph L. Mankiewicz

    Directors Joseph L. Mankiewicz & Bernardo Bertolucci: This 16-page essay examines films by directors, Joseph Mankiewicz and Bernardo Bertolucci – “Julius Caesar” and “The Conformist” respectively. Contributions by both directors, their underlying motivation, the historical slant of their film versions, their interpretations, political views, and the like are all considered. Bibliography lists 17 sources. SNDirect.doc

  • Cinema Industry of Great Britain

    This 12 page paper examines the state of the British film industry and the different influences. The paper starts with a PEST analysis looking at the political, economic, social and technological influences in the film industry in the UK. The paper then looks at the determinants of demand, the strategies for a company entering this market and the potential need to use 'efficiency wages'. The bibliography cites 13 sources.

  • Early 20th Century Historical Contributions of the Average Female

    An 8 page paper looking at the way women's contributions to our culture have fundamentally altered American history in the early part of this century. The paper contends that even if women's political contributions are ignored, changing social attitudes - changed by women, from within -- toward such issues as consumerism, contraception, and working outside the home transformed our culture. Bibliography lists five sources.

  • Contemporary History, the Jews, and Zionism

    A 7 page paper on the Zionist movement and its underlying belief that the Jewish people must return to Eretz Yisrael. The writer discusses Zionism's spread throughout modern history as a political movement, as well as its value in academic and non-academic circles today. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • A History of Performance Art

    (10 pp.) Performance art is a confrontational art experience, whether one chooses to say that the art form begins in the sixteenth century with Comedia del Arte political street theater, or the recorded fistfight that broke out in the beginning of the twentieth century. Both forms were Italian, and both began with audience participation in the performance itself. Yet the form continues to make its own history today. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Graffiti's Development History

    This 5 page report discusses the existence of graffiti and the fact that graffiti is an expression of art, whether political, social, or aesthetic, it expresses something that its creator wants to express through the medium of paint and a bare surface that will be viewed by others. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Global History and the Significance of Political Ideology

    This 5 page paper looks at social change, economics, ideology and environment and concludes that political ideology has had the most significant impact on world history. Each subject is discussed and examples are provided. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • The Arabs, Israelis, And Kissinger A Secret History Of American Diplomacy In The Middle East by Edward R.F. Sheehan

    5 pages in length. Henry Kissinger once said that to implement an effective foreign policy, it must be drafted through calculations of power and the national interest. Examining Edward R. F. Sheehan's "The Arabs, Israelis, And Kissinger : A Secret History of American Diplomacy in the Middle East," one can readily surmise that while Kissinger may have lived up to his own political doctrine, the manner by which it was manifested included the elements of secrecy and deal making unbeknownst to the American people until agreements were well underway. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Analyzing Suicide A Study in Sociology by Emile Durkheim

    This is a 10 page paper discussing Emile Durkheim’s text “Suicide: A Study in Sociology”. Emile Durkheim’s text “Suicide: A Study in Sociology” (1897) was considered one of the first studies in the social sciences which used a purely scientific and methodological approach to study a social phenomenon. Suicide, for the large part, previously was considered an individual act focused upon mainly by psychologists. Durkheim however related the individual act of suicide to the cohesiveness or imbalance within society. According to Durkheim, during the age of industrialization throughout the 1800s, the incidence of suicides increased as a result of the demise of the traditional social institutions such as the church and social guilds which could not be replaced by the goals of wealth and the division of labor. Suicides were the result of an imbalance of two major social forces: social integration and moral regulation. Durkheim’s focus on the influence of social forces on the individual was highly controversial during his time as it undermined the concepts of “free will and individual moral agency”. Nevertheless, Durkheim managed to establish sociology and the social sciences as one of the major areas of study within France and his theories and methods are still considered significant in contemporary sociology, more than a century later. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • An Overview of Child Development Issues

    In 15 pages, the author discusses child development. Children are not just small people. They are developmentally different from adults. This is a major concept that all parents must learn. An infant will develop at his/her own rate within a certain time span. They create their own sense of identity. In fact, it is important for a child to have a sense of identity. Children need to be supplied with the tools for learning and proper development. Child growth and development is the result of human biology, anthropology, medicine, sociology, and psychology. It is not only one area of science or social science. The topic is broad and can be overwhelming if one does not keep in mind the simple concept of nurture verses nature. A child must be nurtured. He/she should not be abused or thrown away. A child is a human being after all, and as such has not only the right to develop but also the right to develop in a manner that is acceptable, normal, healthy, and good for the child. Bibliography lists 12 sources.

  • Political Power, Supernatural Rituals and Anthropology

    This is a 4 page paper discussing supernatural rituals and political power, misunderstanding and civilization, and individualism within American culture. Three central ideas within modern day anthropology are discussed, namely: the political functions of supernatural rituals; the misunderstanding of civilization; and, the core values of American culture in relation to the unequal distribution of wealth and the public education system. Supernatural rituals have a political function which can be twofold: those who are influential within the religious structure in society carry that power beyond the ritual itself; and, politically, those who wish the support of a large population within society can align themselves with a religious group. Misunderstanding and illusions for truth are part of the realizations of a young daughter in Barbara Kingsolver’s novel “The Poisonwood Bible” but these ideas are applied to anyone’s idea of his or her own civilization which becomes wholly dependent and built on one society but is inapplicable to another. Finally, the idea of “individualism” within the United States has become so profound that those who are wealthy within the U.S. (including the government itself) have done little for those who are less fortunate. This is well reflected in the high poverty rates in the country and the public school system which is unable to meet the basic needs of its citizens. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • 2 Education Articles Reviewed

    A 14 page paper that reviews two articles in the field of education, one of which is quantitative and the other is qualitative. The essay begins with an explanation of quantitative research and qualitative research. Because one of the articles is a case study, this method is also explained. The first article is a study from the UK and addresses a problem of the lack of progress as students transfer to high school. It looks specifically at science performance at year 6 – 8. The second article is a case study of a multilevel interdisciplinary team teaching approach used at a large urban high school. Besides reporting the studies, the writer comments on the research styles of each investigator. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Erik Erikson: Biography and Theory

    20 pages in length. Erik Homberger Erikson, born near Frankfort, Germany in 1902, was the son of Danish parents whose collective aspirations amounted to a tremendous impact upon better understanding human behavior. The foundation of Erikson's prolific influence upon mankind's developmental activities began in an unconventional manner by virtue of art and language courses when one might readily expect him to be immersed within the bounty of science studies more indicative of his ultimate contributions. His distaste for conventional education compelled him to glean a more worldly instruction as only life experiences can provide; as such, he eschewed formal schooling and went to Europe. Erikson's intersection with psychology arrived when he began as an art instructor for American children whose parents traveled to obtain Freud's enlightenment in Vienna. From there he attended the Vienna Psychoanalytic Institute, which led the way for his entrance into America and ultimate status as the first child analyst of Boston; a position at Harvard Medical School soon followed with others at Berkeley, Yale and the Menninger Foundation. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Behaviorism And Preschool

    10 pages in length. Preschool is a time of many challenges for both student and teacher, inasmuch as this particular age group is just learning the tenets of social behavior outside the otherwise insulated aspect of family life. Utilizing the concept of behaviorism within the preschool setting provides the teacher - and parent - with the capacity to identify various behaviors and modify them in order to attain a better academic outcome. The extent to which behaviorism asserts that observable conduct represents the only true aspect of the science of psychology is both grand and far-reaching; that autistic preschoolers represent one population where behaviorism is particularly beneficial speaks to how this approach is both widespread and effective. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • A Review of Max Weber's Construction of Social Theory

    Martin Albrow, in his book Max Weber’s Construction of Social Theory, argues that Max Weber provides a long-neglected foundation for sociology, and that the arguments of Weber can be utilized in understanding the sociological premises of a number of other theorists, including Kant and Nietzche. Further, Albrow relates the arguments of Weber to the assertion of the value of sociology as a science, and also defines the link between the premises of social theory and the development of social philosophy, social psychology and the logical correlation between the two. This 4 page paper reflects the essential arguments in Albrow’s work and considers the implications for evaluating sociological, philosophical and psychological underpinnings. No additional sources cited.

  • Patient Outcome and Defining the Contribution of Nursing

    An 11 page exploration of the relationship which exists between nursing contribution and patient outcome. The author of this paper asserts a more and more predominant theme in nursing is the nurse’s one-on-one interaction with the patient and the consideration of such factors as culture and even spiritualism in patient care delivery. While at one time nursing was a discipline which concentrated primarily on the science of human anatomy and physiology, nursing has evolved to a discipline which recognizes not only the hard scientific facts of physiology but also the importance of psychological and sociological factors. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Possible Barriers for MSN Pursuit by Registered Nurses

    17 pages in length. Furthering one's education within the nursing field is advantageous to both the patient and the nurse; however, there are situations where attaining this higher education is fraught with perceived barriers. In the instance of registered nurses considering returning to school for a Masters of Science in Nursing (MSN), the perceived barriers include issues directly related to time, money and confidence. How these RNs attempt to overcome the perceived barriers inherently associated with attaining an MSN is paramount to the need for better-educated nurses throughout the industry. Several issues are raised when research seeks to find and address the perceived barriers of registered nurses considering returning to school for an MSN, not the least of which include the impact upon the severe nursing shortage, distance learning, decreased costs associated with higher education, as well as compressing the overall time required to attain the degree. Bibliography lists 16 sources.

  • Positivism, Behaviorism and Gestalt Psychology

    This 3 page paper provides an overview of two sections of questions on psychology. Part 1. What is logical positivism? How is legitimate science consistent with logical positivism? Explain your answer. What is radical behaviorism? What is cognitive psychology? How are radical behaviorism and cognitive psychology similar? How are they different? Part 2. How has the Gestalt view of mental organization in perception and thinking relate to the cognitive psychology paradigm? What is the difference between short-term and long-term memory? What did Donald Broadbent mean when he referenced attention filters, as related to encoding into short-term memory? Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Major Psychological Theories

    4 pages in length. The manner by which a human being's mind operates, why people behave in certain ways, how their thoughts and perceptions are generated, and what situations trigger changes in mental clarity or capacity is the core focus of psychology. The challenge of whether or not this branch of science is actually scientific at all has been a long-standing debate with those who contend there is too much interpretation applied for psychology to truly be considered empirical. However, some of the field's major theories have formed the foundation of man gaining a greater understanding of his mind, its power and vulnerabilities. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Scientific and Classical Management

    8 pages in length. Classical management carries with it myriad definitions, in particular the need to maintain an atmosphere that is restrained and simple, conforming to established taste of critical standards or adhering to traditional forms. Scientific management, on the other hand, represents the coupling of science and engineering as they relate to work practices as a means by which to augment management control and productivity. Its emergence took place in the forty-year span between 1880 and 1920, where it was significantly dependent upon machinery in order for work to be appropriately subdivided into highly specialized, routine tasks. From a management point of view, the very foundation of the classical theory was to establish a universal method appropriate for all situations; indeed, it was a search for truth. It was as if the theorists were in search of an end all be all sort of application that would effectively address all questions as to how organizations worked and how managers should managed. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Nursing Practice and Pain Management Research

    A 10 page paper discussing putting research into nursing practice. There is much research done in the name of furthering practice technique and nursing values. Not all research is of the quality it should be, but even that which is still is difficult to incorporate into practice in many instances. Increasing projects in nursing research are using a qualitative approach, one that typically has been looked askance on by the medical community as not being "real" science because it relies on opinions and attitudes of research subjects rather than on physically measurable (i.e., quantitative) quantities and structures. This paper reviews a well done qualitative work, then applies its findings to pain management in nursing practice. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • President George W. Bush's 'No Child Left Behind' Act and Its Implementation

    5 pages in length. Contemporary society has a significant challenge on its hands: to provide students with a strong enough education to meet the ever-growing standards imposed by society. As a means by which to address this tremendous need, President Bush instituted the No Child Left Behind Act, which calls for the implementation of solutions to what he deems as the ten most important concerns within the nation's school system: Achieving Excellence Through High Standards and Accountability; Improving Literacy by Putting Reading First; Improving Teacher Quality; Improving Math and Science Instruction; Moving Limited English Proficient Students to English Fluency; Promoting Parental Options and Innovative Programs; Encouraging Safe Schools for the 21st Century; Enhancing Education Through Technology; Providing Impact Aid; and Encouraging Freedom and Accountability. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Independence Day/Film Review

    A 5 page film review of Independence Day (1996, directed by Roland Emmerich), which is a film made in the tradition of the grade B science fiction thriller, which is an exemplary film genre that never deserved the derogatory term "grade B" when one considers the pathos, drama, and ability of these adventures to draw in the audience and offer them a glimpse of another reality. In the 1950s and early 60s, Americans watched visions of flying saucers flicker across movie screens in darkened theaters and contemplated the vulnerable position of humanity in a tremendously huge and unknown universe. If known scientific facts did not quite jab with the film's action, no one cared because this was not the point. The point was to become emotionally caught up in the defense of the Earth, which is a cathartic and highly enjoyable experience, and this is what Independence Day offers. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Witches, Midwives, and Nurses A History of Women Healers by Ehrenreich and English

    5 pages in length. The topic of this book evokes a sense of patriarchal control and unmitigated ignorance with regard to the 'science' of medicine and how it has evolved during the past few hundred years. Women's contributions, disregarded and shunned until very recently, have historically been overshadowed by oppressive patriarchal perspectives; by chronicling the events that have occurred throughout the centuries in relation to women and the medical community, Ehrenreich and English help to illustrate just how despotic the entire male-based medical profession has been, particularly in light of the unpleasant legacy left by the witch hunts of old. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Concepts and Theories of Geography

    9 pages in length. Understanding the spatial components of planet Earth encompasses myriad fields of knowledge; centuries' worth of study has provided the twenty-first century scientific community with the extensive scope it possesses. One of the most important fields from which this knowledge was gleaned is that of geography, a particular science that addresses everything associated with the earth's surface. Working upon the fundamental basis developed by researchers hundreds of years ago, contemporary geographical analysts have the benefits of knowing the planet's how's and why's as it relates to the developed world. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Robert Louis Stevenson's Autobiographical Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde

    A 5 page essay that makes the point that on the surface, there is little to connect The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde to the events that make up the life of its author Robert Louis Stevenson. Jekyll was English; Stevenson was born in Scotland. Jekyll was a scientist, a doctor; Stevenson a lawyer by education and a writer by profession, and, of course, the fundamental premise of the novel, which is that Jekyll transforms into Hyde, is in the realm of science fiction. However, if one looks below the surface and consider this work for what it says about Stevenson's Victorian mindset, autobiographical aspects begin to emerge. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • German Films Verzweiflung and Angst Essen Seele Auf and Political Themes

    10 pages in length. The writer discusses the themes of racial dissension in "Angst Essen Seele Auf" and sexism in "Verzweiflung." Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Satire and Irony in Political Literature

    This 3 page paper examines Past and Present, The Communist Manifesto and Erewhon. Some quotes are included. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Political Institutions Shaped by the History of Western Europe

    This 6 page paper looks at European history and how it has affected Europe as it is known today. An emphasis is placed on politics. Communism is discussed. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Music Addressing Racial Prejudice and its Political Implications

    This 7 page paper examines the implications of using music to "discuss" racial discrimination, with particular emphasis on the Billie Holiday song "Strange Fruit." Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Political Ideology and Management Style

    This 10 page paper evaluates a case study of a hotel and how it is managed. Various subjects such as equality, scientific management and capitalism are discussed in the context of the analysis. The case study exemplifies a tightly managed situation where there is a division by race, gender and so forth. Further, workers subsists on tips and live under tight control. Many theorists are noted inclusive of Marx, Durkheim and Weber. Bibliography lists 18 sources.

  • History, Development, and Geography's Influence

    This is a 5 page paper discussing geography’s influence on history. Geography has a great impact on history, development, and social, cultural, religious and political affiliations. Historically, regions with geographical advantageous positions, such as those with access to navigable waterways have led other areas in regards to exploration, market economy and development. Geographically, Britain provides an excellent example of the advantages of a land with fertile soil, navigable waterways and a long coastline with natural harbors. This led England to exploration and navigation which in turn led them to other lands which they could develop. Other regions with water access also gained a great deal in trade and exploration. New lands which were developed were also those which were easily accessible, had irritable soil, and navigable waterways. Lands which did not have these geographically preferred features were largely neglected unless they were geophysically blessed with natural resources such as oil or gold. Today geography still plays an essential influence on the historical affiliations of many peoples who despite political, religious or international alliances are still mostly affected with their geographical locale. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Nationalism and Soccer

    This is a 20 page paper discussing soccer as a national identity as portrayed by soccer fans in different countries in addition to national pride and political perspectives. Soccer, referred to as football on an international basis, has become one of the most prominent symbols of nationalism within recent years. Whether soccer teams are representing local clubs, national clubs or are competing on an international stage, fans of the clubs are strictly devoted to their teams and identify with them on a national level. Sack and Seljan (2000) write that “a sport such as soccer provides opportunities for thousands of spectators to collectively affirm their commitments to beliefs, values, and myths than underlie their cultural identity”. In addition to the collective of fans at a soccer match, the presence of national flags, symbols, clothing and colors further unite (or divide in some cases) people who previously were strangers in a common bond of fraternity and national identity. Because of this powerful collective feel, it is not surprising then that often soccer matches and tournaments are used as political forums as well. Politically, soccer matches can be used to unite populations under a single cause or divide nations which may have historical differences. Nevertheless, soccer is overall a positive uniting force in a world in which people may often become isolated in their work or home environments. Soccer is the world’s most popular sport and countries all over the world have used soccer as a way to unite, promote, and celebrate their nationalism. Bibliography lists 13 sources.

  • History and Culture of the Cherokee

    An 8 page overview of the culture and history of this American Indian group. The author emphasizes that today the Cherokee, in many ways, are little different from mainstream While culture in the United States. They have, in fact, assimilated almost completely into that culture. At the time of contact with non-Natives, however, there were often substantial differences between Cherokee and White culture. These differences translated into rocky relationships between the Cherokee and the United States government, relationships which eventually resulted in the forced removal of most of the Cherokee from their homelands, the establishment of a government reservation for the people, and the separation of the nation into two distinctly different political units. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Nursing Shortage In The United States: Causes, Effects And Solutions

    8 pages in length. The health care industry is fraught with struggles that keep people from obtaining the medical attention they need in a system where patients often pay the price for social and political agendas. One area in which this fall down of services is felt especially hard is with regard to nationwide nursing shortages that place patients in a highly vulnerable situation when they are admitted to a facility where one trained nurse must oversee three times the number of people than is safely or ethically acceptable. The variables that have constructed this national problems are such that it is becoming uncertain what type of care one will find from one hospital visit to the next. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Transporting Hazardous Materials by Air

    An 18 page paper discussing increasing regulation of air transport of hazardous materials, using primary lithium batteries and butane lighters as examples. Aviation authorities have moved to decrease risk in all areas, not only those appearing to be directly related to political pressures and the threat of terrorism. As hazardous materials are moved from one place to another and as manufacturing continues the trend of moving offshore, the movement of specific items becomes more frequent and therefore more open to accidents and transport-related problems. The current approach is to accept questionable items until it becomes apparent that these items should be transported by other means. The paper recommends that the government continue in this vein. Bibliography lists 22 sources.

  • Pros and Cons of Turkey's Tourism Industry

    This 20 page paper examines the pros and cons of tourism in Turkey. The Turkish government has been actively pursuing the tourist trade since the 1980's. Economic flux, the need to develop an infrastructure which will include modern roads, hospitals and schools to support the growing population and to help ease its path towards membership of the European Community (EC), are all reasons for developing and encouraging tourism. Whether in search of sand, sea, sun, ancient culture, cruises and water sports, museums, temples, bazaars and, or, souvenir shops the visitor to Turkey will find anything the traveler desires. All this has been balanced by the political unrest and instances of terrorism. Bibliography lists 15 sources.

  • Plato's The Laws Summarized and Analyzed

    This is a 10 page paper summarizing and analyzing Plato’s “The Laws” on a chapter by chapter basis. Philosopher and educator Plato (427-347 B.C.E.) wrote extensively in general philosophy which he believed was the basis for the theory of education and political thought. Plato was greatly influenced by the philosophies of Socrates and in addition was critical about Athenian public life “which he presented as dominated by the rhetorical and poetical uses of language in the formation of policies and attitudes”. “The Laws” (360 B.C.E.) was Plato’s last and most extensive work and it reaffirms many of his arguments from previous works in regards to the practical politics of running a Republic. The central speaker is an “Athenian stranger” who gives “advice on the constitution of a proposed new city”. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Religious Attitudes Represented in Hollywood Films

    19 pages in length. The coming of age in the motion picture industry would have its inventors turning in their graves; their wildest dreams could never conjure up what has come to reflect reality in today's religiously-saturated medium of entertainment. Indeed, times have changed since what began back in the late eighteen hundreds as a basis for documentaries; even – and sometimes in spite of – criticism to the contrary, Hollywood movies have been extremely successful in incorporating the concept of religion on both a conscious and subliminal level as a means by which to generate and maintain attitudes toward religion with far-reaching effects on American social and political life. Bibliography lists 15 sources.

  • Feminism of the Sixties and Nursing

    A 5 page examination of the manner in which nursing changed at the impetus of the feminist movement of the 1960s. Previously relegated to primarily a subservient role in the health care environment and restricted solely to the hospital or doctor’s office, nurses took their lead from the feminist movement to remold their view of themselves as competent professionals. No longer simply puppets of those who had previously held the power and prestige in health care, nurses banded together to make a difference both in the political aspects of healthcare and in nursing theory. Consequently, this time in nursing history was one of the most productive in terms of the degree to which nurses would add to healthcare practice.

  • Aspects of Doctor Zhivago

    5 pages in length. Assessing the extent to which the Russian Revolution impacted Pasha Antipov requires one to establish an inherent association between an idealist "whose rage for order overwhelms his moral values" (Doctor Zhivago) and a war that was directly due to the czarist regime collapse from the insurmountable pressure of World War I and a backward economic situation that proved impossible to overcome in the face of Germany's industrialization. Antipov's visionary approach to the social and political world around him was not meant to sustain the weight of revolution; because of the immense internal suffering he endured, he felt life was no longer worth the effort and committed suicide – a painful and final gesture on his part to illustrate just how much he could not tolerate his own failure. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • D.H. Lawrence/The Piano

    A 3 page research paper/essay that discusses this poem and D.H. Lawrence. It is something of a quandary for modern readers as to how to evaluate the poetry and fiction of D.H. Lawrence. Praised in previous eras, he has been castigated by many critics, particularly feminist theorists, who view his work through the lens of current sensibilities towards political correctness. The following discussion, first of all, reviews briefly how Lawrence has been viewed before evaluating his poem "Piano", which was completed in 1918. This analysis argues that when viewed as a product of Lawrence's time, i.e., this poem conveys the reality of male emotional experience rather than the Victorian preconceptions of his era. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Law of Greece

    8 pages in length. Greek law evolved as a necessary means by which to regulate society's behavior. What had up until then been left up to the whims of each individual to handle on his own was now a product of fair and sensible legal procedure. It can be argued that there was, indeed, a great need for such a show of order in that there existed no modicum of conformity when it came to retribution. As Greek law continued to be established, it also became an integral component of other areas of life, branching out into political and social implications. The writer discusses Greek Law in relation to the Sumerians; Egyptians; Hebraics; Hellenics; the Classical, Roman and Christian periods; as well as Cicero, Augustine, Plato and Aristotle. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Voltaire's Candide and Literature of the Enlightenment

    A 4 page essay that discusses how Voltaire's Candide exemplifies the Enlightenment. Burns (1969) asserts that Voltaire "epitomized the eighteenth century period known as the Enlightenment in a manner similar to the way that "Luther epitomized the Reformation or Leonardo da Vinci did the Italian Renaissance" (Burns, 1969, p. 571). It was Voltaire who popularized the scientific and political theories of John Locke and Isaac Newton, as he promoted the Enlightenment perspective that the natural world can be understood via the use of reason. Voltaire's Candide (1759) is representative of his Enlightenment philosophy and shows the extent to which this philosophy differed radically from what came before it. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Islamic History Questions

    A 6 page question/answer address of the volatility that has characterized the Middle East. The author addresses four specific questions: 1. List and explain three types of Islamic renewal or reform. 2. In what ways did the decline of the Ottoman Empire set the stage for increased American involvement in the Middle East? 3. What broad political strategy did the Eisenhower administration use to meet the challenges of Arab nationalism? 4. To what extent was the deterioration of US-Egyptian relations a result of a personal conflict between Lyndon Johnson and Nasser? Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Feminists Sylvia Plath and Cary Churchill and Their Literary Messages

    An 8 page examination of Plath’s “The Bell Jar” and Churchill’s “Top Girl” and the underlying societal messages. The author of this paper contends that each of these women’s work is largely directed at the injustices of a patriarchal society. The manner in which these women deal with those injustices, however, vary considerably. Each utilizes their personal experiences to form the basis for political critique. While Plath does so from the individualist perspective, however, Churchill approaches said change from a societal standpoint. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Postwar Settlement Consequences in War And Peace in The Middle East A Concise History by Avi Shlaim

    5 pages in length. According to Avi Shlaim's "War and Peace in the Middle East: A Concise History," ignorance of human rights and a tendency toward political oppression were the consequences of the post-war settlement of 1918-1922, clearly reflecting the consequential elements of imperialism for American policy in the Middle East. At the turn of the twentieth century, the United States was on the verge of becoming one of the world's most important imperial powers. The combination of public pressure, foreign policy elite and agricultural/industrial capitalism clearly signaled a massive global change of significant proportions. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • The Mirror by Andrei Tarkovsky

    This 5 page report discusses the 1975 movie Zerkalo or "The Mirror" written and directed by Russian film director and writer, Andrei Tarkovsky (1932-86). Tarkovsky is generally thought of among film critics and historians as Russia's greatest film director next to Sergei Eisenstein. Not surprisingly, his artistry was heavily influenced by the political realities of his time and working in Moscow as were Eisenstein's. Tarkovsky's films can be described as "semi-dissident" because of their deep philosophical approach to relationship between human beings and their environment. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • London's Early History

    A 5 page overview of some of the formative periods of London’s history. In short, the history of London occurred in leaps and bounds but it also included many years of slow, gradual change. Over her history London progressed from a people whose subsistence was meager and relationships with the rest of the world were essentially non-existent, to a people whose city serves as one of the foremost cultural, economic, and political capitals of the world. This rise included influence from a diversity of peoples ranging from the Romans, to the Saxons, to the Vikings, and to the Normans.

  • Mass Media and Entertainment

    This is a 5 page paper discussing mass media for pleasure and entertainment with examples from British history. Mass media in relation to today’s society has a great many formats in which to give the public information, promotion of new merchandise, news, entertainment and various forms of pleasure in the world of television, journalism, films, computer games and the internet to name a few. Traditionally, media was thought to be a source of viable information to the masses yet history shows that media was also used as much for the pleasure and entertainment of the masses as it was to provide information about current, world or political events. In today’s newspapers, although seemingly filled with violent news, they are also filled with “feel good” stories, entertainment sections, film and literary reviews as well as the classic comic, jumble and crossword features. In the Victorian era, the mass media were the providers of scandals and serial novels highly popular in that time. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Master of Liberal Arts' Program Letter of Educational Intent

    A 4 page letter of intent to be used for admission into a Master’s of Liberal Arts program. The student’s area of undergraduate study was economics; s/he now seeks to study Modern Political Theory; Issues in Contemporary Theology; Globalization and Identity; Americans and a Sense of Place; Religion in America; and The Catholic Vision within an economics context. Combining these areas of study on a foundation of economics has the power to provide valuable insight in this age of globalization. Sustainability and corporate social responsibility are not new concepts, but they are only now receiving systematic, concerted attention. All of the topics included here have value in that area of study. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • Lyrical Left Wing Greenwich Village Community

    This is a 9 page paper discussing the sexual politics within the lyric left from the Greenwich Village community. The New York Greenwich Village community in the late 19th and throughout the 20th century became the center for writers, journalists and artists all promoting ideas and lifestyle representing the political and sexual left including feminism, bohemianism, bisexuality, homosexuality and overall freedom of thought and action. Much of the writing which came from Greenwich was considered within the realm of the “lyric left” through the works of Jack Kerouac, Djuna Barnes, Sinclair Lewis, Willa Cather and especially Edna St. Vincent Millay among many others. Millay wrote a great many poems which not only revealed the bohemian and “radical sexual” conduct within the lifestyles of her and her colleagues but also commented on the fullest extent of feminism in which women can feel sexual desire and needs in addition to having control over their own lives and sexual fulfillment. At the same time, her poems also show the conflict which still existed between men and women and her own desire to overcome any restrictions carried over from the previous Victorian expectations. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • John Philip Sousa, Jean Sibelius, and Nationalistic Music

    A 4 page research paper that discusses nationalistic music and specifically Sibelius and Sousa. In expressing his own personal view of life, the artist necessarily also expresses the "hopes and dreams" of a cultural heritage. In the nineteenth century, political conditions encouraged the growth of nationalism and this occurred to such a degree that it became a driving force within the context of the Romantic movement in music history. National tensions, "the pride of conquering nations" set against the "struggle for freedom" of the subjected countries, game rise to emotions that their most perfect expression in music. Two composers that are associated with nationalism are Jean Sibelius, who personifies his homeland of Finland, and John Philip Sousa, whose rousing marches personify American nationalism. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Just My Soul Responding: Rhythm and Blues, Black Consciousness and Race Relations by Brian Ward

    This 6 page report discusses Brian Ward’s 1998 book that looks at forty years of Black music in America and the ways in which its development paralleled that of the political and civil rights movements of the times. Ward makes the point that it was Rhythm and Blues that became the first musical genre to successfully permeate white American culture. As a cultural historian, Ward is able to eloquently present a number of fascinating correlations between white admiration for black music (and culture) and how it related to and still relates to racial inequalities. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Medieval Drama and Its Messages

    A 14 page paper discussing the means that medieval guilds used to promote political and religious ideology using plays as the medium. There was only a single church, and it sought to provide plays to act out important events described in the Bible. Plays grew in scope and size and were obliged to move outdoors where laymen took over the production duties, those laymen generally were members of the various guilds operational in local areas. Guilds were dedicated to business among the merchants and high quality among the craftsmen, and their leaders came to be highly involved in local politics. Bibliography lists 11 sources.

  • Blue Sky Dream by David Beers

    A 5 page analysis of the book Blue Sky Dream by David Beers. In this book, Beers offers his readers an unusual combination of personal memoir and commentary on the psychology behind the Cold War. This unusual perspective is half autobiography, half political commentary. Beers pictures his family as part of the 'Blue Sky Tribe.' This is the term that Beers uses to describe the specific lifestyle of his own family as part of the aerospace industry, and also the optimistic perspective of American culture in the decades following World War II. No additional sources cited.

  • Global Joint Ventures and the Management of Risk

    An 11 page paper discussing some of the conditions from which organizations involved in international joint ventures must protect themselves. Business has a more global focus now than at any time in the past. While that global presence contributes to the success of all segments of a specific organization, it also enhances the need for astute risk management. Aside from the normal fluctuations of the business cycle, international joint ventures also can be affected in their success through currency fluctuations, economic health of the host country and local political stability. Business entry into a new national market in the form of an international joint venture is in itself a measure of risk management, in that neither party bears the full weight of the risks associated with the new venture. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Nicaragua State Analysis

    11 pages in length. Nicaragua, which borders the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, has long struggled to obtain its own significant notion of existence, a quest that has been fraught with revolution, political upheaval and economic turmoil. The concepts found in relation to Nicaragua's revolution are based upon the fundamental aspects of economics, politics and history; without these integral elements, such astute determinations with regard to humanity's struggles for democracy and socialism would not have been achieved. By addressing relevant issues from both the past and present, geopolitical historians are able to formulate impressions of Nicaragua's future that prove revolutionary. Analyzing the manner by which the state has overcome such overwhelming challenges leads the student to examine specific components of its composition, not the least of which include demographic considerations, economy, government and military. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • The Problem of High Staff Turnover Rates of Nurses in Primary Healthcare in Saudi Arabia

    Primary healthcare in Saudi Arabia has been developed with a high degree of political commitment. However, the development is hindered by the high staff turnover in the nursing profession. This 22 page paper looks at the primary healthcare service from the perceptive of the nurses, identifies the potential causes of high employee turnover and applies them the community nursing in Saudi Arabia. The paper then assesses the cost of the turnover in terms of economic cost and quality and then makes recommendations to reduce the turnover rate. The bibliography cites 35 sources.

  • Imogene King: Theory Of Goal Attainment

    6 pages in length. An individual's physical and/or emotional recovery is not left to happenstance or the sole responsibility of nurse practitioners; rather, convalescence comes from the proactive efforts of both patient and caregiver, a synergistic interchange that thrives because of equal output. Imogene King fully appreciated the value of patient involvement with regard to healing process and shared this vision through her theory of goal attainment. The extent to which personal goal setting empowers the patient to reach individual milestones of progress is both grand and far-reaching; to remove or withhold this internal power because of political or economic issues only serves to delay the healing process when the patient loses the ability to proactively target specific recovery goals. The impact such a concept as King's has made upon the nursing profession illustrates how the industry as a whole believes patients oftentimes have a greater influence over their journey back to health than anyone else does; additionally, King's perspective was instrumental in facilitating theoretical approaches overall. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Cinematic Structure and Coding of the Film Gone with the Wind

    This is an 11 page paper discussing the use of structure and code in film. Structuralism and semiotics and their use of codes and cues to define the underlying structures in society were first theories applied to the social sciences and then to the world of narrative literature. Marx and Freud further used semiotics to demonstrate how codes can be used effectively to psychologically affect those within society. Using this premise, during the early days of feature films semiotics were used to analyze the underlying structures of films. A good example of cinematic coding is used in the classic film “Gone with the Wind” made in 1939. The film uses coding on two different levels to define the structures within society. Firstly, the film uses references and themes relevant to the era of the Civil War depicted in the film. Secondly, and probably more importantly, the film uses coding to define the structure of society during the 1930s when the film was made. Specific contrasts of bad and good, black and white, pure and scandalous, affluence and poverty are portrayed using visual, narrative and auditory codes. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Culture, Demographics and Socioeconomics of the Black American Family

    This is a 6 page paper discussing the demographic, socio-economic and cultural characteristics of African American families. Studies of demographic, socio-economic and cultural characteristics of African American families and communities have shown that overall, African Americans report lower incomes, lower education, higher unemployment and poverty rates, and higher mortality and suicide rates than most White communities in the United States. All of these factors have improved over the last decade and unemployment was reported at an all time low in the last U.S. Census. Despite these adversities however, a large percentage of African American families have succeeded in their educational and professional careers. It is believed that this “resilience” is enhanced by several cultural support characteristics which exist within the African American families and their communities. Most African Americans have reported that their most difficult challenges are based on racism and oppressive factors rather than factors which relate to their family or socio-economic status. Racism, oppression, and segregation are also believed to be some of the primary differences in the mortality and suicide rates in the African American population from the white population. In social science studies and in relation to agencies which wish to establish social support groups to help African American families, all of the cultural, socio-economic, and demographic differences must be taken into account. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Friedrich Nietzsche and Nihilism

    This is an 11 page paper discussing Nietzsche and the concept of nihilism within his work. German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) is probably best known for his works on nihilism; the belief that all values, truths and morals which have been constructed by man are baseless including those within the Bible. Nietzsche did not originally begin his work in the area in nihilism but throughout his own study and questioning of the theories of truth found in theology, the classics and philosophy which had always been readily accepted for centuries, he concluded that the eventual course of man would be that of nihilism. As man demands more answers through the field of science, many of the traditional theories and religious beliefs will be stripped away. At the same time, humans will begin to realize that they cannot meet the ideals of the invented truth and will not be able to transcend into that “higher world”. Despair follows and man must return to nature and a time of humanity where the invented concepts of “good” versus “evil” are no longer relevant. Beliefs are then based on the singular concepts of each person living each day. However, these ideas are contrary to societal beliefs and the basic structure of society and therefore society as we know it will be destroyed. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • G.B. Nash, C. Crabtree, and R.E. Dunn's History on Trial Culture Wars and the Teaching of the Past

    This is a 6 page paper discussing the book “History on Trial: Culture Wars and the Teaching of the Past” (1997). The publication of “History on Trial: Culture Wars and the Teaching of the Past” which describes the heated controversy surrounding the formation of the National History Standards in the mid-1990s, has in itself several controversial issues which makes it a useful tool in discussion forums in the social sciences. The authors of the text, Gary B. Nash, Charlotte Crabtree and Ross E. Dunn were involved in the selection of the committee working on the standards and have provided a background look at the events which took place during the development of the standards. Different issues discussed were the fact that while several historians approved of the constant updating and reinterpretation of historical events in the past and the inclusion of addition of multicultural issues while others believe that history as it has traditionally been taught should not be altered to any extent. The authors provide criticism of their own critics but their close proximity to the situation also provides additional limitations to the work which is provided to the reader as highly subjective in its context. Overall however, it is in a sense a historical document in its own right which like any other event from history is open for discussion or controversy and widely resembles many of the points outlined by the authors. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • How Exercise Delays Onset Of Dementia In Alzheimer's Patients: Literature Review

    20 pages in length. The natural course of aging takes its toll on both the body and mind; as much significant progress medical technology has made, there are still some aspects of human existence it cannot stop or reverse. Multimodal exercise has long been a highly recommended component of the geriatric health protocol as a method by which to tone muscles, strengthen bones stronger and keep all the bodily systems in good function. Why is it, therefore, that exercise is only just recently being associated with the delay onset of dementia when it has such dramatically positive impact upon the rest of the physiological makeup? Second only to the skin, the human brain is the largest organ in the body that responds to stimuli no differently than others, however, it is also vastly complex when compared to the liver or heart; because medical science still has a very long way to go before the mind's holistic function and capacity is known, new realizations of the mind/body connection will continue to be made, not the least of which includes the growing association between physical activity and staving off dementia. Bibliography lists 19 sources.

  • Contemporary Studies of Formative Sexual Experiences

    This is a 15 page paper discussing formative sexual experiences. Formative sexual experiences are those which relate to initial sexual intercourse and in most social science investigations are based on heterosexual relations. Chapter 9: Formative Sexual Experiences in “The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States” by Laumann et al in 1994, reports the trends found in a national survey done in the United States. Generally, it was found by the investigators that there has been a steady decline in age over the past forty years in regards to first intercourse and this is consistent with other studies. Other results of the study found that men’s motive for their first sexual experience is largely that of sexual curiosity while women motivations are more emotionally based. Other results found that one in twenty women reported being forced for her first sexual intercourse and a substantial proportion of men and women reported preadolescent sexual conduct with adults. In relation to other studies conducted, Laumann’s results are consistent with those reported in the United States but some factors differ from studies conducted in other areas of the world such as New Zealand, Norway, and Thailand to name a few. While all studies reported that the age of initial sexual experience is declining, the long lasting effects on relationships are not always considered to be negative as reported in a New Zealand study and females and males differ in their sexual motivations in Nordic society. The differences in the studies are often based on the differences on the social norms and structures of each society and because of this Laumann’s report can only be taken in the context of American society in the early 1990s. Bibliography lists 11 sources.

  • Math Assessment, Authentic Assessment Programs, and Inconsistencies

    This is a 10 page paper discussing the interpretative and inconsistent nature of math assessment and possible authentic assessment programs. Several issues relate to the inconsistent and interpretative nature of math assessment within the educational curricula today. Firstly, on a national basis, studies reveal the range in attitudes in regards to importance math assessment has in the overall educational curriculum. While math assessment is often mentioned, its importance does not seem as highly weighted as other aspects of assessment of school performance. Secondly, within the school systems themselves, teachers in mathematics vary a great deal in their teaching practices which can affect assessment; perception of their students’ abilities based on social factors and past performance; perception of the importance of national and consistent assessment; and desired learning outcomes. There are many educational assessment tools which are available. However, assessment tools vary in regards to their expense, time, and curriculum considerations which can affect whether or not the tool can be usefully applied. One of the goals of the U.S. educational system is be “the first in the world in mathematics and science achievement” and some educational programs are trying to fulfill this goal by not only developing consistent national education and assessment programs but programs which are comparative on an international scale, such as that found within the International Baccalaureate Program (IB). Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Keeping Art In Public Schools

    11 pages in length. It has long been realized how the infusion of creativity serves to enhance the overall level of intelligence; as such, students who are in public schools with active arts programs stand to benefit from the synergistic alliance between creativity and intelligence, a coupling that is being threatened by budget cuts and teacher shortages. To attend public school without the advantage of including art is placing students in an environment without culture; clearly, maintaining a schedule of math, science and English does not fulfill the requirements of a well-rounded education. In short, the presence of art programs in public schools "raises SAT scores; improves reading, math, and spatial skills; increases overall academic performance; and builds self-esteem, self-discipline, creativity, community cohesion, and greater tolerance for difference" (Gee 9). As the author points out, the mixed nature of art helps to bridge the divide student populations have with accepting diversity in their lives. With so much being excised from today's public schools, taking away art programs does nothing short of jeopardize the broad-based knowledge that affords greater knowledge, better opportunities and a sense of accomplishment. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Cinema and 'Race Films'

    This is a 5 page paper discussing the film genre “race films”. In the 1920s emerged a new era of cinema known as the “race films” which were made by African Americans, starred African Americans in independent roles and were meant for African American audiences. This movement was meant as a rebuttal for the largely popular film “The Birth of a Nation” (1915) which glorified the Ku Klux Klan. The actors who starred in the race films were soon integrated into Hollywood films in the 1930s to 1950s but received largely supporting and stereotyped roles as mammies as seen in “Gone With the Wind”. The 1970s brought about another era of race films inspired by the civil rights movement and again a decade of films were released which were made, starred and intended for African Americans. The 1980s saw another era of supporting roles and black/white buddy movies for black actors until the most recent movement in black film making began in the late 1980s. Black directors such as Spike Lee showed the political and economic climate of the urban African American situation which resulted in another boom of race films. The genre had changed over the years however and in today’s cinema can be found a mixture of black/white buddy roles, stereotyped racial roles and movies depicting African American urban blight. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Pakistan's Miniature Painting

    This is an 8 page paper discussing the history, influences and contemporary issues in miniature painting in Pakistan and India. The art of miniature painting was first known to exist in Persia where it was imported from into India during the 1500s at the beginning of the Mughal dynasties. In the Mughal schools of artistry, the art of miniature painting was given a more intense and dynamic feel which differentiated it from the formal structures used by the Persians. The technique is very specific in its use of wasli paper, squirrel hair brushes and vivid water based paint applied in multiple layers to earn it a silky finish. When the Mughal dynasty was displaced, so too were many of the artists who then had to earn livings applying their craft to other objects such as walls and furniture. During the late 1800s, when Indian nationalism began to take place, a revival of the traditional arts led to the re-introduction of miniature painting into the educational system where artists could earn specialties in it. Today, the art of miniature painting is one of the more popular and traditional methods of art especially found in the graduates of the National College of Arts in Lahore, Pakistan, the only school in the world offering a specialty in miniature painting. Modern miniature artists apply traditional Mughal methods in their depictions of the contemporary world and the political and lifestyle issues in Pakistan. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Bolman and Deal's Theories as they relate to School Systems

    This is a 10 page paper discussing the primary management practices within the school system in the context of Bolman and Deal’s four organizational frames. Bolman and Deal’s text “Reframing Organizations” (2003) deals with the concepts of frames within the workplace which employs the “usable knowledge” available from a management perspective and also addresses the failures within organizations “due to lack of imagination”. Organizations are broken into the four conceptual “frames” of structural, human resources, political and symbolic which account for the various aspects of planning, staffing, organizing, directing and controlling within any organization. The management functions within school systems can also work within these frames as they include all of the same vital components which must be managed and maintained as within corporations. A study published by Souchet (2001) is used to show the management practices within the school system in regards to the role of a principal within a small urban setting in the Mid-Western United States. The school principal within the school setting is “also known as the middle manager and the site administrator” in organizational terms and is considered as the major managerial influence within the school as he or she must determine “whether the education is effective or ineffective, whether morale is high or low, whether the school climate is positive or negative; whether personnel are satisfied or dissatisfied; whether students achieve or don’t achieve; whether parents and the public are cooperative or uncooperative; and whether there is effective or ineffective management and leadership”. Bibliography lists 2 sources.


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