Research Papers on Economics

Click on any of the term papers to read a brief synopsis of the research paper. The essay synopsis includes the number of pages and sources cited in the paper.

  • Dissertation Proposal on Macro Derivatives and Credit Risk Reduction

    One of the major risks faced by banks is that of credit risk. This 7 page paper proposes a project to examine how macro derivatives may be used to reduce credit risk. The paper consists of an introduction, methodology and a lengthy sample literature review focusing on the ways in which credit risk is currently managed. The bibliography cites 7 sources.

  • Circular Flow of Goods; A Case Study

    This 4 page paper summarizes an article that illustrates c case which demonstrates the circular flow of goods and services, focusing on the creation of income flow thought the development of a prison industry system. The paper looks at the way this leads to a circular flow and considers a contradictory opinion. The bibliography cites 2 sources.

  • Avril Hotel Pricing Strategy Case Study

    This 4 page paper looks at the case of a hotel that is considering increasing prices. The paper is written in two parts. The first part of the paper looks at whether there should be a focus in increasing the room rate or the occupation rate to maximize revnue. The second part of the paper discusses what other factors should be considered such as actions and reactions of the competition, marketing and the sale of complimentary services. The bibliography cites 1 source.

  • Market Cereals Case Study

    This 3 page paper looks at a research paper provided by the student and answers several questions regarding the paper. The market for ready to eat cereals is assessed to determine if it is perfectly competitive, the meaning and value if understanding the cost price margin and how different scenarios may impact on the cost price margin.

  • Nash Equilibrium in the Goal Kicking Game

    This 3 page paper examines a research paper supplied by the student explaining certain elements. The paper starts by looking at the differences between pure strategy Nash equilibria and mixed strategy Nash equilibria. The reason for no pure strategies equilibrium in the penalty kicks game is then considered before the relevance and meaning of the null hypothesizes in the paper is explained and assessed.

  • Using Elasticity to Set a Price

    This 5 page paper is based ion a case study supplied by the student looking at a fictitious case. Will bury has developed a new technology to create digital books and wants to launch them on the market,. He needs to consider the different influences in order to determine the right price. The paper discusses pricing in terms of the concept of elasticity and uses data supplied to assess elasticity and set a price. The bibliography cites 2 sources.

  • The Costs of Prohibition and the Economic Effects of the Legalization of Marijuana

    In fourteen pages (12 pages + 1 pg. abstract and 1 pg. outline) this paper analyzes the economic repercussions of the prohibition of marijuana as opposed to its legalization with costs, effects, elasticity, supply and demand among the topics examined. Eleven sources are listed in the bibliography.

  • FRB's History

    This 10 page paper takes a look at the much discussed FRB headed by Alan Greenspan. Its origin and reason for existence are explored along with opinions on how it has fared. Opinions from both sides are discussed. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Microsoft and Applicability of Antitrust Laws

    A 9 page paper discussing the theory and history of antitrust laws and monopoly designation, and the reasons that theory and reality rarely meet on common ground. The Justice Department has found Microsoft to practice predatory pricing based on the fact that it gives away its products for free; Microsoft's competitors want the government to force Microsoft to compete on price, as they do. The paper looks at Standard Oil, Ford Motor Company in the 1920s and RCA. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Medical Transport and the Impact of Economic Forecasts

    This 5 page paper looks at the economic forecasts for the US for 2010 onwards, including GDP growth, unemployment, inflation and oil prices and uses these forecasts to the impact on the medical transportation industry. The bibliography cites 6 sources.

  • Solow's Growth Model and Economic Growth, Including Comparisons of Countries Along with 'The Golden Rule'

    This is a 9 page paper discussing Solow’s Economic Growth Model including country comparisons, formulas, stylized facts and “the golden rule”. Robert Solow’s economic growth model (1956) takes into account various important economic determinants of growth which include capital, labor, human capital, life expectancy, technology, trade and geography among other components which help to answer certain discrepancies which appear throughout the world economies today such as why some countries are rich and others poor; why some countries grow faster than others; how some countries manage to sustain economic growth; and why growth miracles and disasters can occur. Stylized facts included with Solow’s assumptions and model are those which have found that there are large variations in per capita income across economies; rates of economic growth vary a great deal across economies; growth rates are not constant over time; countries can move between being rich and poor; growth in output and trade are related among others. Solow’s growth model emphasizes all of the aspects of the importance of economic growth within a society. It also includes components of the supply and resources of a nation which can expand opportunity for a country’s production. Above all, savings are critical in that they must be high enough to replace the depreciated capital and also provide for the workers. Lower savings means lower worker productivity and lower living standards. The Solow growth model basically defines the conditions of different nations’ approach to an equilibrium level of capital stock (a steady-state). While developed nations such as the United States have reached this level of steady-state, other developing nations are still experiencing rising levels of high savings and rising capital/labor ratios. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Golden Age of Hollywood and Economic Strategy

    A 9 page overview of the economic strategy launched in film production and promotion during the 1930s and 1940s. This strategy, in part, included the dynamics of film production (dynamics of the producer-unit system) and the alliance between studio systems and exhibitors, alliances established through vertical integration. One of the most important inclusions in this economic rationale, however, was the "bankable" star system. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Economies of Scope and Scale, Learning Curve, and Competitive Advantages

    Companies wishing to establish a position in the global economy would do well to look at the economic practices of economies of scale, economies of scope, and learning curve. These economic concepts put into practice have saved many companies billions, while opening them up to competition on a grand scale, as exemplified below. Cases include Ford, Boeing and T1 networks. Bibliography lists 4 sources. jvLrnC06.rtf

  • Analysis and History of the Dow Jones Industrial Average

    8 pages. Starting with the most famous market crash of 1929, this paper discusses other major market crashes through the year 2000. The Dow Jones Industrial Average is tracked for the last few years in order to determine the cause of these major swings and what it is that is preventing a strong recovery. This is an excellent overview of the Dow Jones and gives the student an effective basis on which to proceed with further research regarding market crises and possible recovery scenarios. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • History, Revolution, and Karl Marx's The Communist Manifesto

    This 5 page report discusses The Communist Manifesto (1848) and Karl Marx’s declaration, in the most simplistic terms, was that all events are determined by economic forces. The Manifesto was much more than a “literary and philosophical work,” -- it was also a revolutionary document, a plan to battle and a call to arms, and a reflection of the history of humanity in the Western world. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Term Structure and Vasicek's Theory

    This 14 page paper examines the theory put forward in Vasicek’s 1977 paper “An Equilibrium Characterization of the Term Structure” published in The Journal of Financial Economics. The paper then considers the way the model has been developed and influenced later models. The bibliography cites 20 sources.

  • Wealth and its History

    This 7 page paper examines the history of wealth, from capitalism to the Industrial Revolution to Adam Smith and more. This paper provides many examples of how wealth was originally created, and the circumstances which allowed for this opportunity. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Achieving Equity in the Taxation System

    This 12 page paper considers reforms to a taxation system to increase the tax paid by high earners by closing numerous loopholes and tax benefits and using the proceeds to reduce the income tax rate for low earners. The proposal is considered in the context of fairness and equity, looking at the way in which Adam Smith believed a taxation system should operate and considering the concept of horizontal equity and vertical equity. The bibliography cites 14 sources.

  • Differential Treatment of Women Laborers in Canada

    This is a 12 page paper discussing wage and labor differentials for women in Canada. Within Canada today, women in the labor force generally make 70 to 80 cents for every dollar men make. This “wage gap” has actually decreased greatly over the years but still has a long way to go for total equity in the work place despite positive legislation in the 1970s and 1980s. Historically, women within Canada have been “crowded” into certain female-dominated professions such as clerical positions, nursing, teaching, domestic work, social work and sales and services. While clerical work once was comparable with male blue-collar jobs in regards to pay, the increase in unionization in many blue-collar trades left most of the female-dominated positions as those which were lower paid. As women shifted away from clerical positions and proceeded to attain degrees in higher education, the wage gap began to decrease but then women encountered the “glass ceiling” in which women held a disproportionate number of positions in the lowest quartile in large corporations. Today, women still have lower average salaries than men despite the gain in higher education. One of the reasons found within studies by Statistics Canada and others is that women who choose to have and raise children lose experience during their absence; experience men continue to gain which in turn leads to more promotions. Another reason believed for the continue wage gap is discrimination which still exists within employers, co-workers and the general population somewhat who still categorize some professions as “female” (such as teaching) and some as “male” (such as the trades) and in essence this restricts female workers from opportunities within the blue collar and higher executive markets. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Business History and Management

    A 4 page paper discussing this question: “Does the ‘managerial revolution’ in leading industrial nations explain their competitiveness and growth performance?” The structure and function of the integrated managerial enterprise is credited in the view of many with giving rise to large firms and enabling them to achieve success, but others claim that this explanation is not sufficient outside of the rapid growth of big business in the later years of the 20th century. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • The Federal Reserve: Its History and a Prediction on What It Will Do

    This 3 page paper examines the history of the FRB and what it might do in the future. Interest rates are the focus of attention. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Margin Trading and Its Potential Impact on Developing Market Stock Exchanges; Literature Review

    This 26 page paper is written in the form of a literature review looking at areas which would need to be considered in a paper assessing the impact of margin trading on either developing or developed countries. The paper defines margin trading, explains how it takes place including margin accounts and the call margin. The potential impacts that margin trading can have on the markets is then discussed including pyramiding and depyramiding and potential stabilizing impacts. The bibliography cites 20 sources cited.

  • Industrial Relations and the Effects of Globalization on Germany and Japan

    This 12 page paper examines these two countries after looking at literature related to globalization and industrial relations. Separate sections on Japan and Germany examine these two nations specifically. A review of literature regarding globalization and industrial relations is included. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Theory and Nursing Management

    A 4 page paper discussing longevity of systems dependent on information processing. The statement of debate is that the more energy devoted to information processing within a system, the more likely it is that the system will survive. The paper agrees with the statement, but cautions against allowing the law of diminishing returns from becoming applicable. Additional information processing is valuable only to a point, after which the system can be seen as existing to be served rather than as being a tool in patient care. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Johnson and Kaplan's Relevance Lost The Rise and Fall of Management Accounting Reviewed

    This is a 10 page paper reviewing the book “Relevance Lost: The Rise and Fall of Management Accounting” by H. Thomas Johnson and Robert S. Kaplan first published in 1987 and has since been printed over nine times. The book is extremely relevant in its recognition of the importance of the development of the management accounting discipline over its course in history and the realization that the system must be drastically updated in order to be effective in today’s global competitive industries. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Financial Investment Model Limitations and Long Term Capital Management

    A 9 page overview of the applicability of financial models to investment. The author reveals the investment strategy of the “Long Term Capital Management” fund to contend that this strategy was based largely on models such as that accounted for by the Black-Scholes Formula. The failure of this fund serves to exemplify the fact that models are based on normal behavior, when normal behavior is replaced by abnormal behavior even the most advanced financial models fail to perform. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Inpatient Case Management Service Adaptation and Analysis

    This 5-page paper examines micro and macroeconomics and how such concepts can be applied to a hospital's case management system. The paper relied on specific examples from two hospitals to help support the topic. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Book Review of Management Accounting

    This 20-page paper is a book review on the textbook Management Accounting (Fourth Edition) by Anthony Atkinson, Robert Kaplan and S. Mark Young.

  • Post September 11th American Economy

    A 6 page overview of the contemporary state of the U.S. economy. Analyzes the effect of the destruction of the World Trade Center, the partial destruction of the Pentagon, and the consequent perception of a continued terrorism on the economy. Asserts that while the economy was at a low even before the attacks, it has suffered significantly as a direct result of those attacks. Includes data which backs up those assertions. Suggests that appropriate means are being taken to stabilize the economy and that the U.S. government, business, and individuals alike play an important role in that stabilization. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • Sports Gambling Legalization

    A 5 page paper which examines why gambling in sports. especially college sports, should not be legalized. A brief illustration of how gambling is problem enough on college campuses, without making generalized gambling legal. College sports in combination with legalized betting would spell sure disaster in many different areas, thoroughly reducing the field of sports to little more than a battleground for making money. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • TV, Major League Baseball, and Economics

    This 5 page report discusses how television has affected Major League Baseball and the economics of the relationship between television and the game. Television has undeniably changed the character and promotion of sports stars in all games. While many television and sports analysts claim that baseball and television are not a profitable mix, the fact remains that television revenues for baseball broadcasts are extremely significant. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Managerial Economics Questions

    This 4 page paper answers 4 questions concerning economics used by managers in business. These look at how to price tickets for sporting events to maximize revenue or maximize attendance, book pricing to maximize royalty revenues, how to consider reducing a potential liability and the use of different types of auction to sell goods.

  • Soccer and Economics

    This 8-page paper uses economic demand theory to explain marketing and other procedures for promoting a soccer team to fans. Also touched on is the economics of sports in general. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Supply and Demand Business Economics Illustration

    This 3 page paper uses the example of the sales patterns of sports utility vehicles (SUV’s), to illustrate the value of understanding macro factors on the supply and demand relationship. The bibliography cites 1 source.

  • Economics and Nursing

    This 4 page paper looks at issues of economics and nursing. The first part of the paper defines the terms economics, supply and demand, macroeconomics, microeconomics, elasticity and inelasticity. The second part of the paper summarizes three articles concerning supply and demand of nurses. The bibliography cites 5 sources.

  • Economic Growth And Inflation

    A 4 page paper. The writer responds to this question: Should a country's economic growth rate be higher than its inflation rate? The essay discusses ideal growth rates, reports growth rates and inflation rates in the U.S. for 2006 and 2007 and discusses the growth and inflation rates in Vietnam. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Economic Indicators 2006

    A 9 page paper examining three forecasts for each of 5 economic indicators and then relating those findings to the medical industry. The bottom line in nursing is that (1) currently active, practicing nurses have a wealth of opportunity available to them; (2) the profession is attracting greater interest among would-be students who could help ease the shortage in the future; but (3) the ongoing shortage has been in effect for so long that there is a shortage of nursing educators; and (4) those who could help ease the shortage cannot gain the training necessary for licensing. The situation is different for physicians and other health care professionals, but the bottom line for all is that demand for and costs of health care will continue to increase in the future. Bibliography lists 17 sources.

  • Kahneman's Contribution to the Field of Economics

    This 5 page paper examines this man who has contributed much to both psychology and economics. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Illegal Immigration - The Economic Impact

    This is a 5 page paper that provides an overview of illegal immigration. The argument is made that the economy is positively affected by illegal immigration. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Free Market Forces of Capitalism and Socialism

    This 5 page paper uses Communist China as an example of how communist nations utilize the free market. Ideas surrounding the use of the market by nations with socialist or capitalist ideation is discussed. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Pharmaceutical Industry, Prices, Returns, and Generic Drugs Competition

    This 14 page paper examines the way in which prices of branded drugs, and the related profit they create for the pharmaceutical companies, is impacted when patents expire and the branded drugs have to compete with generic products. The paper considers how the law of supply and demand manifests in this market where an increase in supply does result in a reduction of prices and to what extent this occurs. The paper also looks at the US Hatch-Waxman Act which was introduced to decrease the barriers of entry for the generic drugs whilst the patent periods were extended. The bibliography cites 5 sources.

  • Modern Economic Growth - Europe as the Engine Driving Such Growth

    This 5 page paper discusses why modern economic growth can be traced to Europe. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • The Role of Credit Card in Creating Money and Raising Living Standards due to the Impact on National Economies

    This 34 page paper argues that credit cards in the mass market will have a positive benefit on that economy, playing an important role in terms of credit creation which will increase the living standards in the country, directly due to the multiplier effect of the credit creation leading to more money in an economy indirectly as a result of the spending increasing the aggregate demand in an economy. The paper looks at the way credit creation takes place, considers the underlying economic theory, the development and use of credit cards and then examines 2 major credit card companies; VISA and American Express and the regional retail sales value figures in order to assess the level of credit creation that may be taking place. The bibliography cites 15 sources.

  • De Beers Control of the Diamond Market

    This 4 page paper considers the dominance of De Beers compnay on the diamond industry from an economic perspective. The paper shows how the compnay has sought to manage the process of diamonds by managing and manipulating the supply and demand factors. This is discussed with examples of De Beers strategies and practices. The bibliography cites 6 sources.

  • Price Discrimination Strategies

    This 5 page paper looks at price discrimination as a business strategy. The paper outlines what is meant by price discrimination and considers the motivation behind the adoption of price discrimination and then discusses the different ways that price discrimination may be implemented as a strategy. The bibliography cites 3 sources.

  • Price Discrimination

    This 4 page paper looks at price discrimination, explains the concept and outlines a number of ways price discrimination can take place. The second part of the paper presents Apple's iTunes as an example of price discrimination. The bibliography cites 4 sources.

  • International Trade

    A 4 page paper. Several issues are discussed, including an introduction to international trade, the economics of globalization and outsourcing, winners and losers in international trade and the economic impact of international trade on America. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • The Relationship Between the Value of the US Dollar and the Price of Gold

    This 8 page paper investigates the relationship between the value of the US dollar and the price of gold. The underlying hypothesis is that there is a direct inverse relationship between the performance of the US dollar and the price of gold with the US dollar as the independent variable and the price of gold responding directly to the movements in the value of the dollar. Data is collected over a period of two years and analyzed in order to ascertain if there is such a relationship and the extent of that relationship. The bibliography cites 5 sources.

  • Economics of Gas Prices

    A 7 page paper discussing the rise and fall of gasoline prices in 2005 and 2006. Gas prices experienced an intense price spike such as that which followed Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005. Even more curiously, world oil prices spiraled upward at about the same time, eventually reaching more than $78 a barrel in July 2006. That price for crude translated to prices of more than $3 a gallon at the pump, but in recent weeks the price of crude has been falling and so have the retail prices at the pump. The purpose here is to investigate why that might be. The paper discusses supply and demand, as well as price elasticity. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Tax on Goods

    This 5 page paper discusses the local, state and federal taxes on goods; in this case, cars. It answers questions as to whether the tax is levied on consumers or producers; how it affects supply and demand; and how changes in tax can affect equilibrium price and quantity. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • The Concept of an Efficient Market

    This 14 page paper looks at the theories concerning the performance of behavior of the stock markets in order to determine whether or not the stock market could be deemed efficient. Fama’s efficient market hypothesis is explained and examined and alternative approaches which consider the market to have a degree of efficiency are considered, compared and assessed before a conclusion is reached. The bibliography cites 19 sources.

  • Inflation in Different Economic Conditions

    This 11 page paper looks at inflation; including what it is and how it occurs. The paper is written in three sections, the first section considers the alignment inflation rates with growth rates, the second section considers the way that a converse relationship may be seen, such as with stagflation. The last section discusses a potential link between real GDP growth and inflation rates. The bibliography cites 7 sources.

  • Factors that Impact on the Level of Economic Prosperity

    This 4 page paper is written in 3 parts. The first part of the paper discusses the factors which may help to influence economic prosperity such as low interest rates economic stability and an educated workforce, the second part of the paper looks at the factors which may be associated with decline, such as unemployment, inflation and poor social conditions. The last part of the paper considers the best approach for a government that wants to stimulate growth. The bibliography cites 5 sources.

  • Economic Forecast 2009

    A 5 page paper assessing current (12/08) economic conditions and making forecasts for 2009. The paper addresses inflation, GDP growth, unemployment, prime rate, housing starts, existing home sales, trade balance and producer price index. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Questions on Monetary Economic Policy Answered

    This 11 page paper answers questions regarding monetary policy. The first part of the paper plots a supply and demand graph and then looks at how it will change for increases or decreases in supply and demand. The second part of the paper examines the way in which monetary policy may be used to manage the economy in the short term.

  • Questions on Fiscal and Monetary Policy Answered

    This 5 page paper answers four questions. Firstly, the paper looks at the three main tools that the Federal Reserve may use to control the money supply in the US. The second question is the shortest, and shows how the reserve balance on T-accounts is calculated. The third question outlines the variables that impact on the demand for money, and the last question looks at expansionary monetary and fiscal policies, what they are and how they operates and then uses the IS-LM model to illustrate the effects. The bibliography cites 3 sources.

  • US Economy 200 - 2003

    This 6 page paper is written in 3 parts. The first part examines the performance of the US economy between the years of 2000 and 2003, looking at annual figures for the GDP, real GDP growth, inflation, unemployment, interest rates and M1 growth. The second part of the paper discusses the patterns seen in the economy during this period and the impact of monetary policy. The last part of the paper looks at aggregate supply and demand during the same period. The bibliography cites 7 sources.

  • The Control and Management of Inflation

    This 7 page paper looks at the concept of inflation, including several definitions which look to the symptoms and causes. The paper then goes on to consider approaches the governments may utilize to control reduce inflation and uses real-life examples to illustrate the use of the tools. The bibliography cites 7 sources.

  • Definition and Manifestation of Inflation

    This 6 page paper looks at the concept and definition of inflation, examining at the causes of inflation and the way that governments seek to control it. The bibliography cites 8 sources.

  • Low Unemployment and the Objectives of Macroeconomics

    This paper focuses on low unemployment, low inflation, rapid and sustainable economic growth and the avoidance of current account balance of payment deficits. Considers these in the context of aggregate demand. Graph is included.

  • Bank of England, Inflation, Unemployment, and the Rational Expectations Theory

    A paper which looks at the tradeoff between unemployment and inflation in the light of the rational expectations theory, with specific reference to the Bank of England's fiscal policies. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Definitions of Inflation and Unemployment

    This 4-page paper focuses on defining unemployment and inflation and comparing how the two impact one another. Bibliography lists one source.

  • The Influence of Unemployment on the US Economy

    This 9 page paper looks at the unemployment rates in the US between 2007 and 2012, considering how this has impacted on the economy and looking at how the employment levels are likely to impact on the economy in the future. Different issues are considered in the assessment, including the presence of sticky wages and the presence of structural as well as cyclic unemployment. The bibliography cites 15 sources.

  • 'Consumption Insurance An Evaluation of Risk Bearing Systems in Low Income Economies' Journal of Economic Perspectives' Article Reviewed

    A 16 page paper reviewing this article (Journal of Economic Perspectives, Summer 1995) examining trends in consumption insurance in selected regions of India, Thailand and the Ivory Coast. The author maintains that the availability of better insurance can result in marked improvement in the condition of farmers in developing countries, and that improved financial systems can be beneficial to farmers in creating passive incomes as well as providing means of protecting the assets they have worked so hard to accumulate. The author’s results and conclusions appear to be valid to the degree that they can be explained in terms of his theory of full insurance, but his discovery of facts uncovered leads to opportunities for further research; inclusion of a qualitative component; and consideration of the situation in developed economies where insurance is becoming less accessible to increasing numbers of households. Bibliography lists 8 sources.

  • The Insurance Industry and Testing for Adverse Selection

    This 9 page paper considers how testing propositions involving information asymmetries is inherently difficult and discusses this in the context of the available evidence for the existence of adverse selection in insurance markets. The bibliography cites 8 sources.

  • Absolute Advantage, Comparative Advantage and Opportunity Cost

    This 3 page paper looks at the concepts of absolute advantage in comparative advantage comparing and contrasting the two. The paper then defines and discusses opportunity cost and considers the way in which this is seen with in international trade theory. The bibliography cites for sources.

  • Economics and Football: A Look at the Jacksonville Jaguars

    This 7 page paper focuses on the Jacksonville Jaguars and applies economic principles to the analysis. Ticket pricing is the focus of this inquiry but other things are discussed. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • Microeconomic Concepts - Telecommunications

    This 6 page paper begins with an introduction to the telecommunications industry. The writer explains supply and demand, price, choice, scarcity and equilibrium with some examples from the telecommunications industry. The paper concludes with a brief analysis using Porter's five forces. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Public Finance

    A 4 page paper that discusses specific issues. The paper begins with comments related to what the philosophy of public finance seems to be today (spend, spend, spend), then discusses the differences between governmental accounting and non-governmental accounting and lastly, comments on government budgeting and financial reporting. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Market Value Add and Economic Value Add

    This 5-page paper touches on two economic factors --Economic Value Add and Market Value Add -- and determines how they fit into an accounting format. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • United States Economy 2000 - 2003

    This 7 page paper looks at the United States economy from 2000 – 2003. In this period the economy suffered a recession. The paper looks at the different macro economic industries including GDP, inflations, interest rates and money supply. The paper then looks at how the economy was behaving and uses aggregate demand to assess this. The bibliography cites 5 sources.

  • An Economic Perspective in the Reduction of Child Labor

    This 5 page paper discusses the problem of child labor from an economics perspective and considers how, with the use of economic models, potential methods of reducing child labor may be identified and assessed. The bibliography cites 5 sources.

  • Ireland's Circular Income Flow Examination

    This 7-page paper discusses measurements of national income (such as Ireland), circular income flow, and fallacies of both. Some economic figures about Ireland are also included with this paper.

  • Circular Flow of Goods; A Case Study

    This 4 page paper summarizes an article that illustrates c case which demonstrates the circular flow of goods and services, focusing on the creation of income flow thought the development of a prison industry system. The paper looks at the way this leads to a circular flow and considers a contradictory opinion. The bibliography cites 2 sources.

  • The Global Recession 2009; The Causes and Subsequent Government Policies

    This 11 page paper examines the global recession and credit crunch of 2008/9 and explores some of the potential causes, including a lack of regulation, irresponsible and imprudent lending, borrowers attitudes and exacerbation by other environmental factors. The policies and potential solutions that are being pursued, to assess how they are projected and working and whether or not they are likely to have any impact. The bibliography cites 9 sources.

  • The Ethical Problems Related to the Global Recession

    This 3 page paper focuses on problems in 2009 and what caused them. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • Economic Growth and Innovation

    A 4 page paper assessing a broad statement regarding the origin of economic growth, “research and development is the central cause of economic growth.” Adam Smith has been shown to have been correct in nearly all of his statements, and that regarding the natural growth of economies is no different. They have indeed shown themselves to expand over time, but those that have grown to the greatest degree have been those in which there has been great technological change brought about by research and development. The statement, “research and development is the central cause of economic growth,” is one that must be accepted as being true. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Portfolio Balance Model

    This 8 page paper is written in two parts. The first part of the paper looks at purchase power parity theory and portfolio balance model, explaining what they are and the way they may help to explain exchange-rate movements. The second part of the paper looks at portfolio balance model in more detail considering the relevance of portfolio balance model for foreign exchange dealers. The bibliography cites 6 sources.

  • HOLES IN MODERN PORTFOLIO THEORY

    This 7-page paper explains the basis of the Modern Portfolio Theory, and its weaknesses.Bibliography lists 15 sources.

  • Friedman: “The World Is Flat” (Sort of). Or Maybe It’s Spiky.

    This 12 page paper discusses Thomas Friedman’s popular book “The World Is Flat” and in particular, considers his thinking with regard to faith and its intersection with technology. Bibliography lists 1 source.

  • ECONOMIC MODELS AND RICE

    This 5-page economics paper discusses the impact of government-sanctioned price ceilings on Sri Lankan rice. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • The Economics of the Airline Industry

    This 7 page paper presents an economic profile of the airline industry, discussing how different factors impact on the airline industry. The factors discussed include shifts and price elasticity of supply and demand, positive and negative externalities, wage inequality as well as monetary and fiscal policies. The bibliography cites 5 sources.

  • Government Economic Policy and Economic Growth

    This 7 page paper looks at the argument that governmental economic policies have the main objective of promoting sustained economic growth. The paper considers the way in which this may or may not be correct and how the policies undertaken in terms of structure, monetary and fiscal policy support growth. The paper uses the UK and Europe as illustrative examples. The bibliography cites 8 sources.

  • A Comparison of Supply and Demand Factors between the Healthcare Sector and Other Commercial Sectors

    This 3 page paper compares and contrasts the presence of supply and demand factors and shifters as well as barriers within the healthcare industry with other mainstream industries to identify similarities and differences. The bibliography cites 1 source.

  • Aging Baby Boomers and Social Security

    This 7 page report discusses the budget issue regarding Social Security and the impending retirement of the “Baby Boom” generation. Boomers are estimated to consist of approximately 77 million Americans, representing fully one-third of the population of the United States. In 1996, the first of the “boomers” turned 50. As a result, Congress, the Administration, and the general public have been voicing their concerns about the future of America’s Social Security system. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Supply and Demand for Coca-Cola Products

    This 3 page paper looks at the concept of supply and demand as it applies to the Coca-Cola Company. Answering questions set by the student the paper discusses equilibrium level of supply and demand, what would happen if government out price constraints on the company, what has impacted on the quantity demanded and how the firm has adjusted supply. The bibliography cites 2 sources.

  • Elasticity and Supply and Demand

    This 5 page paper answers questions on elasticity and supply and demand. The first questions demonstrates how to calculate price elasticity of demand and applies it to a scenario provided by the student, using the calculated elasticity to forecast changes in demand at different price levels. The second part of the paper look at the way price is determined by the supply and demand relationship and show how changes in the supply or the demand will impact on price, this is explained clearly and demonstrated with supply and demand graphs. The bibliography cites 6 sources.

  • 3 Student Questions on Supply and Demand

    This 5 page paper looks at 3 questions set by the student. The first looks at how the determine the change in demand when the old and new price and the level of elasticity are known, what is meant by the term ‘social costs’ and how economies of scale are realized. The second part looks at supply and demand and how this can be shown in graphs with the price shown by the point of equilibrium and how a drop in demand will impact on the market in the short and long term. The third question looks at why there has been an increased demand for bikes in London following the terrorist attacks and the impact of indifference curves.

  • Demand and Supply Economic Concepts

    This 3 page paper explains the following concepts: equilibrium price, changes resulting from non-determinants of supply and demand, shift versus movement in the supply and demand curves, normal good and inferior good. Examples included. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Economic Bubbles

    Economic or speculative bubbles have been seen over many centuries where investors seek to make a profit and assets become over valued. This 16 page paper looks at some of the bubbles that have impacted on the United States of America, starting wit the Mississippi Bubble looking at a range of bubbles through to the dot com bubble which collapsed in 2000 the paper discuses different types of bubbles and the boom and bust cycle many have created and considers the underlying economic theories that explain the occurrence and patterns associated with bubbles. The bibliography cites 15 sources.

  • Economy and the Real Estate Bubble

    A 7 page paper. Is there a real estate bubble or not? If there is a bubble, will it burst? This essay suggests what is happening is more aptly called the cycles of real estate. These two questions are discussed. The writer also discusses the effect of today's real estate market on the economy in the short-term and the long-term and the economic principles that apply to this market. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • The Rationale for Stock Buybacks

    This 12 page paper examines the topic. Terms are explained. Microsoft is used as an example and historic trends are revealed. A one page abstract is included. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • DECISION TO PURCHASE A HOUSE

    This 5-page paper discusses the economics when it comes to purchasing a house. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • The Employment Situations in California and in America as a Whole

    A 5 page paper discussing movement in unemployment rates and the economic health of the California economy during the summer of 2002. The fallout of the technology sector, particularly in high-tech, Internet-related companies, set investors on their collective ear. Few expected such a correction in market value of these companies, and the losses incurred in returns has been more than only disheartening for organizations and investors alike. The stock market continues its slide, reducing businesses' market capitalization and therefore the amount of capital available to them. Many have laid off workers; many more have placed freezes on hiring. The economic outlook for California as for the rest of the country remains mixed and depressed, yet optimistic. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • The difference between multinational capital budgeting and domestic capital budgeting

    This 3 page paper examines capital budgeting and explores the differences between the two types. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Hyper-rationality in the Capital Markets

    This 3 page paper looks at the way capital markets, and their agents, such as brokers, may be perceived are being hyper-rational, and discusses whether or not this is an accurate interpretation. The bibliography cites 2 sources.

  • Issues of Capital Structure

    This 12 page paper looks at the idea that there is an optimum capital structure. The paper starts by looking at the ideas of Modigliani and Miller and then considers the way that these have been viewed by subsequent theorists and how optimum capital structure may, or may not, be ascertained. The bibliography cites 8 sources.

  • Using CAPM to Value Boeing

    This 3 page paper demonstrates the use of the capital asset pricing model to value a firm. Using Boeing as an example and figures from February 2010 the firm is valued, with all calculations shown. The bibliography cites 4 sources.

  • A Shopping Mall Observational Study

    An Observational Study [ Click here to purchase this paper ] This 3 page tutorial provides an example of how an observational study might be done .This example involves a shopping mall. No Bibliography. Filename: SA040Obs.rtf

  • Agricultural Subsidies and Economic Factors

    This 5-page paper examines the economic theory of supply and demand, and focuses on how this theory has been re-vamped because of agricultural price supports from the U.S. government. The essay also touches on the impact of such price supports on consumers, as well as the impact of the FAIR act (passed in 1996) on produce and farmers. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Soccer Club Performance and the Effects of Economic Factors

    This 10 page paper considers the way in which economic factors will reflect on the commercial performance of soccer clubs. The paper focuses on the variables of price, including substitutes and complimentary services and goods, and disposable income will determine the levels of sales of both tickets and goods. The bibliography cites 8 sources.

  • The Idea of Exchange According to Marx and Smith

    This 7 page paper examines ideas from Adam Smith and Karl Marx related to the value of things. Within the context of this paper it is suggested that the principle of exchange for Smith and Marx's critiques on the exchange value, provide a new way to look at money and work. Several creative examples are provided. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Economics and Nursing

    This 4 page paper looks at issues of economics and nursing. The first part of the paper defines the terms economics, supply and demand, macroeconomics, microeconomics, elasticity and inelasticity. The second part of the paper summarizes three articles concerning supply and demand of nurses. The bibliography cites 5 sources.

  • Arguing about the Minimum Wage

    This 4 page paper discusses three issues with regard to the Minimum Wage: probable consequences of raising it; the differential aspects of the Minimum Wage and whether or not it’s effective in fighting poverty. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • The Minimum Wage in New York

    This 3 page paper argues that the minimum wage in New York should be raised again due to the high cost of living there. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • The Big Mac Index

    A 4 page paper exploring the usefulness of the Big Mac Index, how it is used in global financing and how it can be used in managing risks, using the February 2007 edition. Britain's The Economist introduced the Big Mac Index in 1986 as a comparison of the relative value of world currencies from the perspective of unique British humor. The index proved to be highly useful and popular, however, and The Economist has published an updated version every year since its 1986 debut. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Supply And Demand - Law Of Diminishing Returns

    A 6 page paper. The first part of this essay reports an article from the WSJ about the supply and demand of oil and corn, explaining how the demand impacts the supply and the affiliated cost issues. The second part of the paper discusses the law of diminished returns and provides three specific examples. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Choice, Scarcity, Supply and Demand

    This 3 page paper explains the law of supply and demand, the concept of scarcity and the concept of choice. The essay then explains the interaction and how scarcity and choice affect supply and demand. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • United States Economy and Effects of Monetary and Fiscal Policy

    This 5 page paper provides an overview of the Federal Reserve Bank as well as the role of fiscal policy on the U.S. economy. Examples are provided and terms are defined. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Money Demand Determinants

    This 6 page paper examines money as a stock and not a flow item and considers the reasons that there may be demand for money. The paper looks at the influences on transaction motivation and speculative motivation and how they will impart on demand levels. The bibliography cites 6 sources.

  • Asset Allocation and Stochastic Optimization

    This 36 page paper considers the use of stochastic modelling in the determination of asset allocation. The paper considers multi-stage stochastic programming and stochastic dynamic programming by comparing this to other models that may be used in assessing the contents of investment portfolios. Other models considered include models with their origins in mean variance theory leading to CAPM, efficient market hypothesis and the Warren Buffet method. The bibliography cites 29 sources.

  • The War in Iraq and Economic Ramifications

    A 4 page paper discussing the economic effects of the Iraqi war. War nearly always provides an economic boost, even if only temporarily. The war in Iraq lifted the American economy to an extent, but the benefits of the gains will not be lasting ones as the federal government seeks funds sufficient for rebuilding the country. The cost of reconstruction equates in the US to less opportunity for economic growth, for billions of dollars are being dedicated to Iraq to assist in its rebuilding from the most recent war. Though the beginning of the war increased American economic fortunes, that general effect is being negated by the staggering costs of reconstruction and conversion to a coalition government in Iraq. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Explaining the Recession of 2001

    This 11 page paper looks at various theories for the recession. There is some focus on consumer confidence and the fact that businesses have been spending less. Global factors are examined as well. Information from the 1990s on is discussed in an effort to determine causation. Bibliography lists 10 sources.

  • Tutorial on Senior Citizens and Poverty

    An 18 page paper. The writer first provides a tutorial on how to find sources when for an assignment. In this case, the assignment was to summarize and analyze six articles addressing poverty among the elderly. Sources and dates were restricted. The writer then presents a brief summary of each article and analyzes it in terms of economic theory, identifying which theory the article would seem to fit. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Robert Solow Growth Model and Economic Growth

    This is a 4 page paper discussing economic growth and the Solow growth model. Robert Solow’s growth model emphasizes all of the aspects of the importance of economic growth within a society. It includes components of the supply and resources of a nation which can expand opportunity for a country’s production. The supply component however is determined by its labor force growth rate and increases in the productivity of the workers. This increase leads to increases in the capital/labor ratio which in turn results in improvements in technology. Above all, savings are critical in that they must be high enough to replace the depreciated capital and also provide for the workers. Lower savings means lower worker productivity and lower living standards. The Solow growth model basically defines the conditions of different nations’ approach to an equilibrium level of capital stock (a steady-state). While developed nations such as the United States have reached this level of steady-state, other developing nations are still experiencing rising levels of high savings and rising capital/labor ratios. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • The Advantages and Disadvantages of Efficiency Wages

    This 4 page paper looks at the economic concept of efficiency wages, and explains what they are and then considers the advantages and disadvantages for a firm that uses efficiency wages as part of its human resource management strategy. The bibliography cites 3 sources

  • Autocorrelations and Abnormal Returns Prior to Stock Splits Considered in the Context of EMH

    This 5 page paper is written in two parts. The first part of the paper considers the implications for the weak-form Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) concerning the findings of certain authors that have recently found evidence of positive autocorrelation in short-term stock returns and negative autocorrelation in longer horizon returns. The second part of the paper looks at the idea positive abnormal returns prior to stock splits, discusses why this may occur and looks at whether or not this is consistent with semi-strong form efficiency. The bibliography cites 5 sources.

  • Theory of Human Capital and Student Loans

    This 5 page paper considers how the introduction of student loans scheme foe university students fits in with human capital theory. The writer considers the value of education as an investment to both the country and the individual. New Zealand is used as an example, but the theories are equally valid for other countries or areas. The bibliography cites 3 sources.

  • Swimming Pool Business Results Enhancement

    A 5 page paper assessing several points of economic consideration regarding the operation and potential expansion of a small, one-location swimming pool service and supply business. Questions address topics including elasticity of demand; law of diminishing return; economies of scale; potential price strategies; and business expansion possibilities. EPS is in an ideal position to enhance its business results without the need for a great amount of additional effort or cost. The paper recommends it increase its number of commercial accounts and increase retail sales. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • The 2008-2009 Economic Crisis vs. The Great Depression

    This 3 page paper compares and contrasts the economic crisis of 2008-2009 with the Great Depression of the 1930s. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • The Time Value of Money and Other Concepts Defined

    This 4 page paper provides definitions and examples for the following items: The Time Value of Money, Interest Rates and Compounding, Present Value of a Future Payment Received, Opportunity Cost, Annuities and the Rule of 72. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • Unemployment in the US

    This 8 page paper looks at the problem of unemployment in the United States. The paper first established the problem looking at the level of unemployment in general and specific terms and then considers the way that fiscal policies could be used to tackle the unemployment problems. The bibliography cites 6 sources. The bibliography cites 6 sources.

  • Perfect Competition and Unemployment

    This 7 page paper is written in two parts. The first part looks at the concept of perfect competition, also referred to a pure competition, defines what it is and the market conditions needed for it to emerge, the way a firm will determine the quantity to supply and what is meant by the term 'normal profit'. The second part of the paper looks at unemployment, how it is defined, the different types of unemployment that exist and some policies that might help to reduce unemployment. The bibliography cites 2 sources.

  • Discrimination in the Labor Market Economically Analyzed

    This 2 page report discusses the significant approaches to the economic analysis of labor market discrimination as formulated by 1992 Nobel Prize winner Gary Becker. Applying economic analysis to socio-political behaviors, such as labor market discrimination, provides valuable insight into the larger issues of human interactions. Bibliography lists 2 sources.

  • Economist Thomas Robert Malthus

    A 7 page paper on the eighteenth-century British economist. Following an argument over what he felt to be the unrealistically rosy progressivism of Godwin and Condorcet, Malthus wrote an essay on the Principle of Population which essentially founded the study of demographics and has continued to exert influence down to the present day. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Economic Effects of Unemployment

    A 10 page paper which presents the economic condition of the world based on unemployment. The paper presents the poor unemployment conditions of England, France, and Spain, with Spain's unemployment as high as 22 percent and states the effects this has on those countries ability to compete in the global marketplace and internal ills. By comparison, the paper presents the productivity of the United States, its low unemployment figures, despite downsizing and cost reductions, and how this affects its economic status on the world front. Bibliography lists 11 sources.

  • Economic Prosperity and Rates of Unemployment

    A 5 page paper looking at what is really happening with the unemployment rates in this country. While Europe hovers in double digits, unemployment is at its lowest here in 24 years. The result has been a pronounced labor shortage in the lower-paying industries and an increase in hourly rates. As employers of mostly-skilled workers begin to cut back, employers of the relatively unskilled find themselves with a new and more qualified labor pool, leaving the bottom end of the spectrum out of jobs once again. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Impact of Free Trade

    A 3 page essay looking impartially at both sides of the free trade issue. The paper defines free trade and presents some of the arguments both for and against it. No additional sources cited.

  • Distribution and Value Economic Theories

    A 9 page research paper on the influence of Adam Smith, Jean-Baptiste Say, David Ricardo, Karl Marx and Alfred Marshall on labor value and distribution of income. The writer discusses Marshall's synthesis of earlier theories and ethical points, and closes with a modern 'ideal society' scenario based on his synthesis, which foreshadows a perfect global economy. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Division of Labor and Adam Smith

    A 6 page paper discussing Smith's account of the origination of worker specialization, or division of labor. It was the worker who devised improvements to make his job easier and more productive. The goal of each small invention was not to contribute to the good of society or to propel the workman into a class of 'genius,' but rather to better individuals' living conditions. Produce more, earn more, purchase more goods to make life more comfortable and enjoyable. It is a common concept today, but new when Adam Smith proposed it in The Wealth of Nations. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Direct Price Controls Imposed by the United States Government

    This 5 page report discusses three specific forms of price controls imposed by the U.S. government. The creation of a system of price controls is designed to influence the market place, not through market forces but through artificially-established regulations. The three examples presented in this paper are: rent controls; natural gas; and, physician reimbursement practices. Bibliography lists 5 sources.

  • Handy's Age of Paradox

    A 10 page research paper that analyzes Handy's book, The Age of Paradox. Handy's predictions on trends in business and management have been unfailingly accurate and, consequently, the corporate world is beginning to pay attention to what Handy has to say about such trends and how they apply to economies and business. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Stock Market Crash of 1929

    A 5 page research paper on the 1929 stock market crash. The writer recounts how the nation was told, up until the crash actually occurred, that everything was all right. The details of the crash are given, along with a brief synopsis of where the country stood when the Depression bottomed out in 1932. Bibliography lists 6 sources.

  • England's 1999 Rise in Interest Rates

    This 7 page paper presents a critical analysis of the rise in interest rates brought on by the Bank of England. An overall macroeconomic analysis is provided along with explanations of monetarism versus Keynesian economic theory. Projections for the future health of the English economy are included. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • A UK Flat Tax Proposal Analysis

    This 5 page paper looks at how a flat tax system might affect the UK. Special attention is paid to the effect such a system would have on social programs. Bibliography lists 3 sources.

  • Tiger Economies and Their Lessons

    This 5 page paper looks at the role of government intervention in the U.S. economy by using the tiger economies as examples. Singapore and Taiwan are highlighted. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

  • Mortgage and Savings' Interest Rates

    This 10 page paper looks at interest rates on mortgages and savings. A short history of the banking industry is included in this paper that contemplates why banks charge so much for loans. High interest rates on credit cards are discussed. Charts including various interest rates are included. Bibliography lists 15 sources.

  • Economy and Inflation

    This 5 page paper considers the definition of inflation its causes and consequences, this includes the examination of its influence on unemployment, imports and exports and government policies. The theories of Philips and Friedman are considered. The paper includes 1 graph. The bibliography cites 4 sources.

  • U.S. Gas Prices

    This 7 page paper looks at the influences on gasoline prices in the United States. The consumer price index between 1962 and 2000 is used to illustrate the effect of supply and demand of oil on the retail price of fuel. Additional influential factors are also considered. The paper includes 1 bar chart and two graphs. The bibliography cites 4 sources.

  • A Frito Lay Industry Analysis

    15 pages in length. The Frito-Lay Company, a division of PepsiCo, Inc., has become the leading supplier of the nation's snack foods. This interesting company has seen vigorous growth throughout it's history, but has not been without its industry slumps, either. This paper presents an in-depth look at the industry background and sales trends for Frito-Lay. Bibliography lists 9 sources.

  • Twenty First Century Labor

    This 6 page paper provides an overview of the issues related to the labor developments in the past 30 years, and relates the issues of past labor movements to the future of labor developments in the emerging global economy. This paper considers current issues and the way in which these will shape the labor movement of the 21st century. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Supply and Demand Economics

    This 10 page paper looks at some examples of price and supply figures and forms graphs to demonstrate to operation of supply and demand. The paper includes 3 graphs and bibliography cites 4 sources.

  • Mass Customization Market Strategies

    A 5 page paper that defines the concept of mass customization and outlines the benefits that can be gained through the utilization of this innovative marketing strategy as well as the framework that guides its design, development, and implementation. Also included is a discussion that focuses on the advantages as well as the disadvantages of "lean production", the managerial process that has also come to be known as "stress management". Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • The Future of Capitalism by Thurow

    This 8 page paper takes issue with this economist's book. Lester Thurow's work is discussed in depth. The thesis of the paper is that America will be great in the twenty-first century even if things remain the same, a view contrary to Thurow's. No additional sources cited.

  • Business Motivations for Outsourcing

    (9 pp)Through outsourcing clients reduce costs, eliminate backlogs, significantly improve data input quality, production and document availability. This allows the enterprise to focus on its core business and grow exponentially without hiring additional personnel, leasing additional office space and confront the rapid obsolescence of costly hardware and software. Bibliography lists 4 sources.

  • Thomas Malthus and His Theories on Population

    This 7 page paper looks at the theories of Thomas Malthus on population growth and control. His controversial views were not universally accepted as they appeared to condone the abandonment of welfare provisions due to the relationship between food production and population growth. Alternative views have been put forward in the years since Malthus first published his theories, as such the theories of Esther Boserup which can be seen as a strong contrast to Malthus are also considered. The bibliography cites 5 sources.

  • Budget Surpluses and Their Economic Impact

    This 8 page paper provides an overview of how budget surpluses affect economies. With a decided focus on Australia, various issues are discussed including how interest rates and currencies are affected. Bibliography lists 7 sources.

 

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